Is There An Antagonistic Pleiotropic Effect Of A Lrrk2 Mutation On Leprosy And Parkinsons Disease
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Neurodegeneration is a shared feature of some infectious diseases, such as leprosy, and noninfectious conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease . The type-1 reaction , a nerve damaging process seen in leprosy and caused by chronic Mycobacterium leprae infection , is a natural model for the study of the relationship between infection and neuronal loss. Fava et al. have analyzed the genetic predisposition of T1R in 237 T1R-affected and 237 T1R-free leprosy patients from Vietnam. They find that Parkin mutations are shared risk factors for T1R and PD, whereas LRRK2 mutation p.R1628P is protective for T1R but a risk for PD . Importantly, they find no association for leprosy per se and claim a T1R-specific effect of Parkin and LRRK2.
Lee Moon And Cho: Malignant Syndrome In Parkinson Disease Similar To Severe Infection Malignant Syndrome in Parkinson Disease Similar to Severe Infection
Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine 2017; 32: 359-362.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Chonnam University Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea
What Are The Risk Factors Which Increase The Likelihood Of Developing Diabetes
- Being overweight or obese.
- Having a parent, brother, or sister with diabetes.
- Being African American, American Indian, Asian American, Pacific Islander, or Hispanic American/Latino heritage.
- Having a prior history of gestational diabetes or birth of at least one baby weighing more than 9 pounds.
- Having high blood pressure measuring 140/90 or higher.
- Having abnormal cholesterol with HDL cholesterol is 35 or lower, or triglyceride level is 250 or higher.
- Being physically inactive—exercising fewer than three times a week.
How Does Body Weight Affect The Likelihood Of Developing Diabetes
Being overweight or obese is a leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Being overweight can keep your body from making and using insulin properly, and can also cause high blood pressure. The Diabetes Prevention Program , a major federally funded study of 3,234 people at high risk for diabetes, showed that moderate diet and exercise of about 30 minutes or more, 5 or more days per week, or of 150 or more minutes per week, resulting in a 5% to 7% weight loss can delay and possibly prevent type 2 diabetes.
Scientists Discover Link Between Bacteria And Supposedly Non
A group of scientists have found that a single molecule from a bacterial cell wall component can lead to the unusual behaviour of 100 million clotting molecules in blood, which may be a major contributor to many diseases including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and diabetes. The discovery could help to explain many features of these kinds of diseases, and may lead to new methods of prevention or treatment.
A team from The University of Manchester, together with South African colleagues from The University of Pretoria, tested blood and plasma for its ability to clot when the normal clotting agent thrombin was added. Normal, healthy blood clots have a nice spaghetti-like appearance. However, the results showed that tiny amounts of cell wall molecules such as lipopolysaccharide , which are shed by dormant bacteria, caused a highly anomalous clot to form dense deposits with very different fibres.
These can contribute to the chronic inflammation that is part of many supposedly non-infectious diseases. These include Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, ‘auto-immune’ conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular problems such as stroke, and metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes.
The discovery could have considerable impact on the treatment of these conditions, since stopping the unusual clotting could stop its consequences. Existing treatments do not this, as the new mechanism had not previously been known.
The paper is published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface.
Difference Between Infectious And Noninfectious Diseases
August 13, 2017, 2:29 pm
Diseases can be defined as the alterations, to a lesser or greater degree, of the proper functioning of the organism or of some of its parts. This can be caused by different pathogens both internal and external. Similarly, it is a process that travels through living beings when their normal health condition is affected by different reasons or factors either intrinsic or extrinsic.
Diseases can be classified according to the degree to which they occur, according to the possibilities of survival or according to their origin, being in the latter group the infectious and non-infectious diseases.
This article presents the differences that exist between these two types of diseases in order to provide our readers with more information about them and the causative agents, among other details.
An infection or infectious disease is a condition caused by different microbial pathogens that can be viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites or germs. These diseases require treatment with biological controlling agents of the specific pathogens, otherwise, that pathogen continues to reproduce affecting the body to a greater extent and in many cases can cause death.
Infectious diseases are characterized by high contagious capacity, due to the high propagation capacity of the causative agent, the ability of these agents to settle and multiply in the host organism and the pathogenicity, that is, the capacity to produce diseases.
Actual And Predicted Incidence In The Uk Of All Cancers
While incidence rates are stable for different ages groups, the number of new cases of cancer is predicted to rise significantly between 2011 and 2030, mainly due to the ageing population. Deaths from cancer in the UK have fallen by 20 per cent over the past 30 years and by 9 per cent over the past decade. If England was to achieve cancer survival rates at the European average, an additional 5,000 lives would be saved per year and at the European best, an additional 10,000 lives. The current strategy is to save an additional 5,000 lives each year by 2014/15 .
What About Real People As Opposed To Notable People
I read with great interest the article on Parkinson’s Disease. While I appreciate the list of organisations at the end there are no links to places where those who suffer from this debilitating and frustrating disease – like me – or those who care for them, can go to get support from real people. While I acknowledge the guidelines for talk, which prohibit personal promotion,I wonder if a link to a blog site such as mine which”>http://blog.colinengland.com)which I am currently putting together for this purpose, might not provide comfort and support to many?ColinEngland 12:54, 8 December 2007
Colin, whilst I agree and applaud the efforts of all those who work on behalf of patient education , that is not the purpose of Wikipedia. If readers do want to access those sites they can do so relatively easily via Google. Best wishes, —PaulWicks 18:54, 20 December 2007
Is Parkinson’s Disease Infectious Or Non Infectious
I need help and im un sure if Parkinson’s disease is infectious or non infectious if you can help please tell me.Fitzyex 04:28, 5 April 2008
- Non-infectious. – Kittybrewster ? 14:12, 17 April 2008
- at least, we’re pretty sure it’s non-infectious and will feel silly if it turns out we’re wrong – see the story of cervical cancer progressing from “absolutely non-infectious” to “caused by wart viruses” Ooops. —Dan 16:21, 10 November 2008
Dementia: A Later Development In Approximately 20
Can you please change this to an accurate number? how can it be “between 20% and 40%”? it’s either 20%, or 28%, or it depends on geographical location, or on the weather outside, or what? this statement is not informative, please correct. —Gyll 12:01, 1 April 2008
- What does the source say? JFW | 14:31, 29 April 2008
Treating Parkinson’s With Classical Homeopathy
There is no mention in the article about treatment of Parkinson’s using Classical Homeopathy. Many Classical Homeopaths around the world are regularly treating Parkinson’s patients with extraordinary results: either stopping the degeneration process or in some cases achieving improvement up to complete cure. Of course homeopathy, like all other forms of medicine doesn’t always work and finding a qualified homeopath can be a struggle but given the successes already seen, it should be known as one of the options available to patients. Note that the current political environment regarding homeopathy is very heated so it’s common for people from either the pro or anti homeopathy camps to quote studies that indicate clear proof one way or the other. Regardless of this, all can agree that homeopathy patients are receiving treatment with no side effects from drugs for diseases like Parkinson’s that are otherwise incurable.RichardRo 16:43, 22 April 2007
- It doesn’t get rid of Parkinson’s Disease. —Moses 2007 19:38, 22 April 2007
09:36, 25 May 2007
- “Deaths with PD” would not of course be notable . Yes PD does reduce physical health of patients and also can have associated mental deterioration and so life expectance is reduced in some patents. So for severe PD for which the patint’s general health severely deteriorates and leads overall to their death, then yes “Deaths from Parkinson’s disease” seems reasonable. David RubenTalk 13:36, 25 May 2007
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease , Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are all characterised histologically by the presence of deposits of misfolded proteins, tau and amyloid-?, ?-synuclein, huntingtin or superoxide dismutase, respectively. Currently, these illnesses do not have any disease modifying treatment options. A novel therapeutic strategy that is being pursued is immunomodulation, which is using the body’s immune system to target the self-proteins that are deposited. Most of these promising approaches are still in preclinical development while some have progressed to Phase III clinical trials. As new insights are gained, it is hoped that these immunotherapies will be effective tools at slowing the progression of these debilitating diseases.
- Previous article in issue
Autonomic Disorder And Seborrheic Dermatitis
A citation regarding autonomic derangement and seborrheic dermatitis would be helpful– I was not familiar with autonomic disorders causing oily skin. Typicially an autonomic disorder would cause problems such as vasodilation,or piloerection. I have seen many patients with parkinson’s, and seborrhea seems to be the least of their problems. Furthermore,what of patients with other types of autonomic disorders such as diabetic neuropathy or Shy-Drager syndrome?Bwthemoose 02:24, 17 June 2007
- Perhaps a separate category could be created for seborrhea and weight loss, as they probably don’t strictly fall under “autonomic disorder.” Andrew73 15:37, 17 June 2007
Japanese Encephalitis Virus West Nile Virus
Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus are two important examples of zoonotic viral encephalitides. The clinical spectrum of these flaviviruses ranges from self-limiting flu-like illness to severe fatal meningoencephalitis, often with parkinsonian features . Japanese encephalitis presents a wide spectrum of movement disorders including hypokinesia, tremor, rigidity, and dystonia. A transient form of parkinsonian syndrome, characterized by varying severity of rigidity, hypokinesia, masking of the face, lower frequency of tremor and prominent hypophonia, was observed in the acute stage of the illness after 1–4 weeks after the disease onset. Hypophonia was striking in most patients and was an important sequelae after the substantial regression of other manifestations in the subsequent months . Reports of Parkinsonism as a long-term sequela of JEV was also presented in patients 3–5 years after acute JE infection with associated lesions in the substantia nigra observed on MRI .
Innate Immunity In Pd: Microglia Activation
Microglial cells are the principal actors of innate immunity in the CNS responsible for the protection and restoration of neurons . They can be activated by various external or internal insults such as neuronal dysfunction, trauma or certain toxin. Also, a wide range of molecules including viral or bacterial proteins, ?-syn, cytokines and antibodies are able to induce the activation of microglia . Consequently, microglial cells produce different molecular mediators with chemotactic and immunomodulatory functions. One of them is tumor necrosis factor which in PD plays important roles contributing to the regulation of synaptic plasticity . PD brains are characterized by the presence of HLA-DR+ microglial cells and raised levels of CD68, an activation marker for microglia and macrophages, having a direct relation with ?-syn aggregations and the duration of disease . Moreover, an increased expression of MHC-II molecules in microglial cells has been observed in chronic neuroinflammation but not in the CNS of healthy subjects . Individuals with single nucleotide polymorphism at MCH-II locus are prone to develop PD, which indirectly proves the importance of adaptive immunity in these patients .
Neurological Symptoms Associated With Covid
To date, there have been a number of case reports and demonstrating the presence of neurological symptoms in COVID-19 and three major case series with neurological reports have been published. Mao et al. performed a retrospective case study on 214 hospitalized patients in China and demonstrated that 78 patients presented with varying neurological symptoms including headache, dizziness, hyposmia, and skeletal muscle symptoms . Helms et al. evaluated 58 hospitalized patients in France, 8 had neurological symptoms upon admission into the intensive care unit , and a further 39 demonstrated neurological symptoms when sedation and neuromuscular blockers were withheld . Romero-Sanchez analyzed the medical history of patients on the Spanish ALBACOVID registry . Of the 841 patients in this study, 483 developed neurological symptoms and of the 197 people who died, neurological complications were determined to be the cause of death in 8 . The neurological symptoms reported to date, range from severe, such as encephalitis in hospitalized patients to mild . It is important to note that there are no control groups associated with these reports, and it will be of great value to understand the prevalence of these neurological symptoms in non-COVID-19 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by other infectious and non-infectious causes.
Case reports of encephalitis in COVID-19
Hyposmia in COVID-19
Hyposmia in COVID-19
Parkinsonism As A Third Wave Of The Covid
Article type: Research Article
Affiliations: Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville, Australia | Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia | Melbourne Dementia Research Centre, Parkville, Australia | Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, parkinsonism, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2
Journal: Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1343-1353, 2020
“For too long medical science has tended to relegate the 1918 influenza/encephalitis lethargica/parkinsonism puzzle to an intellectual ash heap – apparently on the assumptions that these pandemics are past and of little and dwindling importance to current and future health. But failure to identify the 1918 influenza virus as the cause of encephalitis lethargica and parkinsonism has crippled progress towards the understanding of influenza pathology and epidemiology needed to fuel and guide prevention of these elusive yet exceedingly important diseases.”
Reimert Ravenholt, 1982 .
Challenges In Infectious Disease Research
Despite significant advances in infectious disease research and treatment, the control and eradication of these diseases faces major challenges.
A WHO report released in 2007 warns that infectious diseases are spreading more rapidly than ever before and that new infectious diseases are being discovered at a higher rate than at any time in history. In just the past five years, the WHO has identified over 1000 epidemics of infectious diseases including avian flu, swine flu, polio, and cholera.
With greatly increased human mobility, infectious diseases have the potential to swiftly become global epidemics and pandemics.
Some of the reasons for the difficulty in combating infectious diseases are:
- New infectious diseases continue to emerge
- Old infectious diseases increase in incidence or geographical distribution
- Old infectious diseases previously under control begin to re-emerge
- Potential for intentional introduction of infectious agents by bioterrorists
- Increasing resistance of pathogens to current antimicrobial drugs
- Breakdowns in public health systems and communication between nations
Gdnf Gene Therapy For Parkinsons Disease
GDNF gene therapy consists of a delivery vector and a specific genetic payload. The vector is made up of the outer shell of the non-infectious adeno-associated virus serotype 2 , which provides the carrying capacity and attachment properties to specific brain cell types and transfer of its genetic payload. The genetic payload carried by AAV2 includes a specific DNA sequence coding for the GDNF protein. Within target brain nerve cells, the GDNF gene induces production and local release of GDNF protein. The genetic payload also includes regulatory sequences that provide long-term stability of the transferred GDNF gene and continuous production of GDNF protein by the recipient nerve cell.
Direct brain delivery of the AAV2-GDNF therapeutic agent is performed with intraoperative MRI guidance using customized neurosurgical methods and technologies. Real-time brain MRI during surgery provides visualization of the distribution of AAV2-GDNF and allows delivery of the therapeutic agent to be tailored to each individual’s precise anatomical requirements.
Interested in clinical trials?
For more information on clinical trials for any of the diseases we have in our pipeline, all you have to do is Ask.
Additional Treatment: Medical Marijuana
Medical marijuana has been an effective treatment for some symptoms of Parkinson’s, and should be added under the section of treatments. Americans for Safe Access has compiled first hand accounts here: http://www.safeaccessnow.org/article.php?id=4562. One Czech study reported that half of participants reported relief from use of medical marijuana . A recent study of the body’s own endocannabinoid system indicates that it plays a role in attenuating the symptoms of Parkinson’s . Those interested in learning more about the use of medical marijuana for Parkinson’s should visit Americans for Safe Access . It can be effective for muscle stiffness, pain, and can also have a positive emotional effect. Some studies suggest that by protecting against oxidative damage to neurons, cannabinoids in marijuana also help slow the progression of Parkinson’s.
I hope this information can be inserted in an appropriate format into this article. My father has Parkinson’s, and I know through his experience that medical marijuana offers him a dramatic improvement in his quality of life. It is not a cure for his condition, but it does help him to live a more fulfilling life. —Preceding comment added by Mrmccraig 05:51, 11 February 2008
Is The First Picture Really Appropriate
No doubt the illustration from the nineteenth century is of some historical interest, but as one who has just had a dear friend of many years diagnosed with Parkinson’s, this picture of a bent shuffling figure is frankly rather distressing. Does this really need to be the way the article launches its discussion of this very sensitive topic? 184.108.40.206 22:42, 10 October 2008
- I absolutely agree. The first drawing is essentially a caricature of a sufferer of Parkinson’s disease, from a time when the condition was poorly understood. Parkinson’s sufferers are not shabby hobos: this article needs to be compassionate and highlight the dignity of the patients, not hundred-year-old stereotypes. —220.127.116.11 05:43, 26 December 2008
- cant we remove teh picture to some place lower than down on the article? Th way it is now is very, garish and moving it to a section specificlaly discussing the historical nature of the disease would be much better for all concerned. Smith Jones 19:32, 29 December 2008
Noncommunicable Diseases And Disorders
Diseases are classified as either communicable or noncommunicable. Communicable diseases are spread to other people and they are caused by viral, bacterial, parasitic, or fungal infection. Noncommunicable diseases, also known as non-infectious diseases, are not transferred and are typically caused by heredity, deficiencies in nutrition or factors involving the environment. Some noncommunicable diseases include
- Respiratory disorders
Adaptive Immunity: Activation Of Cell
The adaptive immune system shows specific responses against foreign antigens activating different T or B lymphocytes . The surveillance of homeostasis in the CNS is guaranteed by naïve and memory T cells . T cell infiltration has been discovered in post-mortem brain sections of PD patients . The analysis of T cell subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of affected patients showed altered immune responses and a decrease in the overall number of lymphocytes, but not in their frequency . What is more, PD presents a particular immunological profile unseen in other neurological diseases , where increased numbers of memory T cells and a reduced quantity of naïve T cells have been registered . As well, low CD4+:CD8+ ratio and a shift to more IFN-?? vs. IL-4-producing T cells have suggested the presence of cytotoxic T cell responses in PD patients .
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
- COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is a progressive disease that makes it hard to breathe. “Progressive” means the disease gets worse over time.
- COPD can cause coughing that produces large amounts of mucus , wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and other symptoms.
- Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD. Most people who have COPD smoke or used to smoke. Long-term exposure to other lung irritants, such as air pollution, chemical fumes, or dust, also may contribute to COPD.
- COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is a major cause of disability and the third leading cause of death in the United States. More than 12 million people are currently diagnosed with COPD. An additional 12 million likely have the disease and don’t even know it.
Agents That Cause Infectious Diseases
Infectious diseases can be caused by several different classes of pathogenic organisms . These are viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. Almost all of these organisms are microscopic in size and are often referred to as microbes or microorganisms.
Although microbes can be agents of infection, most microbes do not cause disease in humans. In fact, humans are inhabited by a collection of microbes, known as the microbiome, that plays important and beneficial roles in our bodies.
The majority of agents that cause disease in humans are viruses or bacteria, although the parasite that causes malaria is a notable example of a protozoan.
Examples of diseases caused by viruses are COVID-19, influenza, HIV/AIDS, Ebola, diarrheal diseases, hepatitis, and West Nile. Diseases caused by bacteria include anthrax, tuberculosis, salmonella, and respiratory and diarrheal diseases.
Complications And Risks From Diabetes
When diabetes is poorly managed, it can have serious complications, including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, nerve damage and amputations, leading to disability and premature mortality .
Treatment aims to prevent or slow down the progress of complications. Diabetes also increases the damage done by some of the major risk factors for coronary heart disease – smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Average life expectancy is therefore reduced, by 20 years in people with type 1 and by 10 years in those with type 2 diabetes . The mortality rate for diabetes in England has fallen recently, but more than one in ten deaths among 20-79-year-olds can be attributed to diabetes .
Characteristics Of Infectious Disease
- Distinguish between signs and symptoms of disease
- Explain the difference between a communicable disease and a noncommunicable disease
- Compare different types of infectious diseases, including iatrogenic, nosocomial, and zoonotic diseases
- Identify and describe the stages of an acute infectious disease in terms of number of pathogens present and severity of signs and symptoms
A disease is any condition in which the normal structure or functions of the body are damaged or impaired. Physical injuries or disabilities are not classified as disease, but there can be several causes for disease, including infection by a pathogen, genetics , noninfectious environmental causes, or inappropriate immune responses. Our focus in this chapter will be on infectious diseases, although when diagnosing infectious diseases, it is always important to consider possible noninfectious causes.
Parkinson’s Rates Among Parsi People
Recently, a line about the high rate of Parkinson’s disease among the Parsi people in India was added to the Epidemiology section of this article. A look at the references and a quick google suggests that this might be notable, but I lack the scientific/medical background to know if it really is, and how it might be better incorporated into the article .-Polotet 04:47, 19 August 2008
Environmental Factors And Exposures
Exposure to pesticides and a history of head injury have each been linked with PD, but the risks are modest. Never having smoked cigarettes, and never drinking caffeinated beverages, are also associated with small increases in risk of developing PD.
Low concentrations of urate in the blood is associated with an increased risk of PD.
Transmission Of Infectious Diseases
There are a number of different routes by which a person can become infected with an infectious agent. For some agents, humans must come in direct contact with a source of infection, such as contaminated food, water, fecal material, body fluids or animal products. With other agents, infection can be transmitted through the air.
The route of transmission of infectious agents is clearly an important factor in how quickly an infectious agent can spread through a population. An agent that can spread through the air has greater potential for infecting a larger number of individuals than an agent that is spread through direct contact.
Another important factor in transmission is the survival time of the infectious agent in the environment. An agent that survives only a few seconds between hosts will not be able to infect as many people as an agent that can survive in the environment for hours, days, or even longer. These factors are important considerations when evaluating the risks of potential bioterrorism agents.
Infectious diseases have plagued humans throughout history, and in fact have even shaped history on some occasions. The plagues of biblical times, the Black Death of the Middle Ages, and the “Spanish flu” pandemic of 1918 are but a few examples. The 1918 flu pandemic killed more than a half million people in the United States and up to 50 million people worldwide and is thought to have played a contributing role in ending World War I.
It Has Been Suggested Recently That
Type 2 diabetes could be one of the causes of Parkinson’s disease due to their high correlation from some scientific perspectives. Please add the following info to the topic
What Is An Non Infectious Disease 4.5/5diseasenoninfectious diseasediseasesnoninfectious diseasesdiseases
Read, more on it here. Considering this, what is the definition of a non infectious disease?
Diseases that are not contagious are called non–infectious or non-communicable diseases because they can’t be spread from one person to another. Instead, these diseases are caused by other factors, such as genetics, environment, and lifestyle behaviors.
Subsequently, question is, what is the difference between an infectious and a non infectious disease? The most common cause of infectious diseases are pathogens called viruses and bacteria, but they can also be caused by fungi or protozoa. Pathogens can be spread in different ways. Noninfectious diseases are not transmitted from one person to another and are not caused by pathogens.
Furthermore, what are 3 examples of non infectious diseases?
Examples of non–communicable diseases include diabetes, Alzheimer’s, cancer, osteoporosis, chronic lung disease, stroke, and heart disease.
What are 5 non infectious diseases?
The four main types of noncommunicable diseases include cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes.Chronic respiratory disease
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- occupational lung diseases, such as black lung.
- pulmonary hypertension.
Parkinson’s Disease And Dopamine
Parkinson’s disease develops slowly over time in most people—some people live with the disease for years before being diagnosed. Over time, a person’s brain cells stop producing a neurotransmitter called dopamine. Dopamine is a chemical that helps you to have smooth, coordinated muscle movements.
When a majority of dopamine-producing cells are damaged, symptoms of Parkinson’s disease occur. When your brain begins to work with less dopamine, you become less able to control your movements, body, and emotions. These symptoms affect people differently, and at different times. In some people, it takes years to get to an advanced stage while in others the disease progresses much more quickly.
Insidious Anon Introduced Errors
In the “treatment” section, I noticed that someone put in “at present there is a cure for PD”. I changed the phrase with the correct info. Made me consider that it was more than just an error, since the letter ‘a’ is nowhere near the letterS ‘n,o’. I cite the resource:which reads, “There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease”.- Brattysoul —Preceding comment added by Brattysoul 01:18, 1 October 2008
- Good catch – it looks like a series of anon editors have been making minor mischief over the past 24 hours or so . I’ve reverted the other pair of mal-edits, too. — MarcoTolo 01:38, 1 October 2008
Is there a process to have those perpetrating these so called “revisions” banned from editing Wiki articles ever again? Brattysoul 08:40, 24 October 2008
- No, we have tried for years to no avail, for one individual in particular but he and, I suppose, a few other vandals feel it’s his mission in life to sway us to his belief, and failing that, to vandalize. Sock-puppets galore are the main tool. The first two entries MarcoTolo cites are in all likelihood that person, who holds a patent on a discredited – PD treatment. I expect he’ll comment on my last remark. —Dan 16:55, 10 November 2008
- Been trying forever – that’s our old pal General Tojo, in all likelihood. —Dan 21:09, 30 March 2009