Sunday, February 25, 2024
Sunday, February 25, 2024
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Parkinson’s Side Effects Elderly

How Do I Take Care Of Myself

What are the different stages of Parkinson’s disease?

If you have Parkinsons disease, the best thing you can do is follow the guidance of your healthcare provider on how to take care of yourself.

  • Take your medication as prescribed. Taking your medications can make a huge difference in the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. You should take your medications as prescribed and talk to your provider if you notice side effects or start to feel like your medications aren’t as effective.
  • See your provider as recommended. Your healthcare provider will set up a schedule for you to see them. These visits are especially important to help with managing your conditions and finding the right medications and dosages.
  • Dont ignore or avoid symptoms. Parkinsons disease can cause a wide range of symptoms, many of which are treatable by treating the condition or the symptoms themselves. Treatment can make a major difference in keeping symptoms from having worse effects.

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What Are The Primary Motor Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease

There are four primary motor symptoms of Parkinsons disease:

  • postural instability

Observing two or more of these symptoms is the main way that physicians diagnose Parkinsons.

It is important to know that not all of these symptoms must be present for a diagnosis of Parkinsons disease to be considered. In fact, younger people may only notice one or two of these motor symptoms, especially in the early stages of the disease. Not everyone with Parkinsons disease has a tremor, nor is a tremor proof of Parkinsons. If you suspect Parkinsons, see a neurologist or movement disorders specialist.

Introducing an easier way to track your symptoms and manage care.

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Impulse Control Disorders Up Close And Personal

Michael J. Fox and people from his foundation answer questions about Parkinsons in a Google Hangout

Interestingly, Daniel Weintraub, MD, associate professor of psychiatry and Neurology at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, says that ICDs are most likely to manifest in men as gambling and hyper sexuality, whereas in women it expresses as shopping and overeating.

Needless to say, these compulsive behaviors can have serious repercussions.

Ive seen marriages break up and lives ruined as a result of dopamine agonists, says Howard Weiss, director of the Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorder Programs at the LifeBridge Health Brain & Spine Institute in Baltimore. Ive had at least three patients who have lost their homes because of bankruptcy after taking the drugs. It sounds like a joke, but its not.

Whats more, ICDs are shockingly common. Weintraub cites a study that demonstrated about 14% of people with PD experience 1of 4 of the typical ICD behaviors. He says his own guess is more like 17% to 20%, perhaps even 25%.

The reason that ICD might be even more prevalent than statistics show lies in the fact that they can easily slip under a doctors radar. Many patients arent forthcoming about the symptoms, and doctors may not take the time to ask the right questions.

Most doctors have no idea how to diagnose ICDs, says Weiss, and most patients are in the dark.

Sleep Attacks


DAWS Risks

What Are The Symptoms Of Parkinson Disease


Parkinson disease symptoms usually start out mild, and then progressively get much worse. The first signs are often so subtle that many people don’t seek medical attention at first. These are common symptoms of Parkinson disease:

  • Tremors that affect the face and jaw, legs, arms, and hands
  • Slow, stiff walking

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Parkinsons And Difficulty Eating

In the later stages of the disease, the muscles in your throat and mouth may work less efficiently. This can make chewing and swallowing difficult. It can also increase the likelihood of drooling or choking while eating.

Fear of choking and other eating problems may affect your nutrition. However, working with an occupational therapist or speech-language therapist may help you regain some control of your facial muscles.

How To Stay Safe

Preventing the spread of COVID-19 continues to be important. The following recommendations should still be in place, even if vaccinated against the virus:

  • Frequent handwashing with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds, or using hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol
  • Keeping a social distance of at least 6 feet from those who do not live in your household
  • Wearing a mask that covers the mouth and nose when around others
  • Covering coughs or sneezes in an elbow or tissue
  • Getting a vaccine when it is available, as long as approved by your healthcare provider

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Medications Used For Treating Psychosis

Antipsychotic agents are designed to balance abnormal chemical levels in the brain. Up until the 1990s, the use of antipsychotics in PD was controversial because the drugs used until that time work by reducing excess dopamine. This alleviated psychosis but caused dramatic worsening of PD motor symptoms.

Fortunately, medications that are better tolerated by people with PD are now available. Today, there are three antipsychotic medications considered relatively safe for people with PD: quetiapine , clozapine and the newest agent, pimavanserin . They cause limited worsening of PD while treating hallucinations and delusions.

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Availability Of Data And Materials

Medications Used in Dementia: What Caregivers Should Know | Sarah Mourra MD | UCLAMDChat

Data are available from the Korea National Health Insurance Sharing service Institutional Data Access/Ethics Committee for researchers who meet the criteria for the access to confidential data. Researchers can apply for the National Health Insurance data sharing service upon approval by the Institutional Review Board of their institution. After a review by the Korea National Health Insurance Sharing Service Institutional Data Access/Ethics Committee, the authors are required to pay a data access fee and confirm that other researchers will be able to access the data in the same manner as the authors.

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How Is Parkinson Disease Treated

Parkinson disease can’t be cured. But there are different therapies that can help control symptoms. Many of the medicines used to treat Parkinson disease help to offset the loss of the chemical dopamine in the brain. Most of these medicines help manage symptoms quite successfully.

A procedure called deep brain stimulation may also be used to treat Parkinson disease. It sends electrical impulses into the brain to help control tremors and twitching movements. Some people may need surgery to manage Parkinson disease symptoms. Surgery may involve destroying small areas of brain tissue responsible for the symptoms. However, these surgeries are rarely done since deep brain stimulation is now available.

How Common Is Parkinsons Disease Psychosis

Between 20-40% of people with Parkinsons report the experience of hallucinations or delusions. When followed as the disease progresses over the years, this number increases. The increase does not mean that the hallucinations are persistent across the majority of patients. However, it is important to note that these statistics sometimes include delirium, in which the symptoms are temporary due to medication that needs to be adjusted or infection that needs to be treated, and isolated minor symptoms or minor hallucinations, including illusions, where instead of seeing things that are not there , people misinterpret things that are really there. These are the most common types of psychosis in people with PD, with different studies placing the occurrence between 25-70% of people with Parkinsons. Typically, if the person with PD only has these minor hallucinations, their doctor will not prescribe an antipsychotic medication, though more significant psychosis that requires medication may develop over time. In one study, 10% of those with minor hallucinations had their symptoms resolved within a few years, while 52% saw their symptoms remain the same and 38% saw their psychosis symptoms get worse.

We recommend that people with Parkinsons not use a single percentage to represent the prevalence of hallucinations and PDP. Parkinsons is a complex disease and as it progresses the percentages and risk of symptoms will change.

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Outcome And Confounder Variables

The primary objective was to evaluate the incident dementia cases among PD patients who with new claims for any health insurance with dementia diagnosis , which is defined as any health insurance claim with a diagnosis of dementia after at least 1year of being diagnosed with PD. The incidence of dementia among individuals with PD was calculated during the follow-up period as follows: from the date of the first health insurance claim with PD, as the index date, and until the earliest date regarding the date of the first health insurance claim with dementia, date of death, or end of the study observation period the observation period would be a maximum of 13years. We also estimated the duration from the diagnosis of PD to the diagnosis of dementia. The prescription of any dementia medication , pattern of the anti-dementia drug , and exposure to anticholinergic agents were examined in PD+D patients. We also identified the first prescription date for the anti-dementia medication and calculated the duration between the first health insurance claims of PD diagnosis and the first prescription date of anti-dementia medication. Sociodemographic data, such as age at the first health insurance claim with PD diagnosis, gender, residential area, socioeconomic status, and the use of anticholinergic medications were evaluated.

This Antidepressant May Be No Better Than Cheaper Alternatives But Demand Could Soon Soar


Nuplazid, if given the FDA go-ahead, would undoubtedly cost far more than existing antipsychotics, which are mostly used to treat schizophrenia and are available as generics. In the pivotal trial behind Acadias marketing application, Nuplazid showed only modest improvements over placebo, and was tested in a way that makes it difficult to compare against other treatments.

Physicians involved in the trial stand by the drug, nonetheless.

Dr. Jeffrey Cummings, a neurologist at the Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health in Las Vegas, said he was struck by some of the patients dramatic responses.

Of course, families will also respond to placebos, and thats why we dont approve drugs based on anecdotal reports, said Cummings, who has taken consulting fees from Acadia. But when families are saying this really made a difference for his life and our lives together, for me it was a pretty impressive study.

Parkinsons psychosis usually occurs in the latter stages of the disease, and generally involves nonthreatening visual hallucinations. Cynthia Hatfield, a 72-year-old former banker living in Westerly, R.I., several times a week sees a calico cat resembling one shed actually owned many years ago, and which her children named Mushroom. For years, her hallucinations included a menagerie of small animals.

Chipmunks and little squirrels and cats, and a little mouse would come out every once in a while, she said. I actually enjoy seeing them.

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How Is Parkinsons Disease Dementia Diagnosed

No single test can diagnose Parkinsons disease dementia. Instead, doctors rely on a series or combination of tests and indicators.

Your neurologist will likely diagnose you with Parkinsons and then track your progression. They may monitor you for signs of dementia. As you get older, your risk for Parkinsons dementia increases.

Your doctor is more likely to conduct regular testing to monitor your cognitive functions, memory recall, and mental health.

Prevalence Of Nonadherence And Its Association With Clinical Factors

Medication adherence in PD, defined as taking > 80% of the prescribed dose, ranged widely from 33 to 97.7% in previous studies . The prevalence mainly depends on the method used to assess adherence and the study design. Measures of adherence can be classified as direct and indirect. Direct methods are accurate, but have several drawbacks . Their low cost, simplicity, and real-time feedback make indirect methods interesting tools to identify individual patient concerns. Estimates of non-adherence prevalence in PD range from 15 to 20% by self-report, to 67% and higher in studies using pharmacy refill data and pill counts . Given that self-reports overestimate adherence compared against electronic monitoring, in clinical practice, when self-reports are less than 80%, adherence is extremely likely to be suboptimum . However, only self-reports allow a statement about the personal reasons of nonadherence. The prevalence of clinical significant nonadherence observed in our cohort was comparable to that of other studies using self-report in PD patients . However, it should be noted that many studies only made a general distinction between adherent/nonadherent. In order to better reflect the broad spectrum of adherence, we have made a classification into three different degrees of adherence . This shows that nonadherent behavior is very common in elderly people with PD, but it does not always have to be associated with clinical significance.

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What Is The Cause

Researchers are working hard to understand why some people develop PD. Some studies suggest that the risk of PD may be increased by environmental factors, specifically exposure to certain chemicals. They also believe there may be a genetic risk factors for PD. Distinct environmental and genetic risks factors may play different roles in different people with PD.1

PD affects the brain. There is an area of the brain called the substantia nigra. It holds brain cells that create a messenger chemical called dopamine. This dopamine is used to send messages to the basal ganglia, an area of the brain that helps fine-tune movement.1

The basal ganglia sends messages to other areas of the brain that control movement by sending signals to the rest of the body, telling it how and when to move. The basal ganglia is important in helping regulate the movement control centers of the brain.1

In PD, the neurons in the substantia nigra are damaged or die. They are not able to produce as much dopamine as they should. Without dopamine, the substantia nigra cannot send messages to the basal ganglia. In turn, the basal ganglia cannot send messages to the movement centers of the brain. This is why people living with PD move slowly and experience tremors.1

Causes Of Parkinsons Disease

Pharmacology – Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinsons disease is caused by a lack of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that plays a critical role in the nervous system. Dopamine, which essentially serves as a messenger in the brain to produce the controlled, smooth movements most of us enjoy, is lacking in the brain of those suffering from Parkinsons disease the greater the loss of dopamine, the more uncontrolled the symptoms. Further, it is also believed that Parkinsons may also cause other cells in the brain to deteriorate, as well.

Although it is clear that a lack of dopamine causes the symptoms of Parkinsons disease, why these dopamine cells deteriorate is unclear. What is clear is that a number of irregular cellular processes are to blame, although stress has also been attributed to cell damage in Parkinsons disease patients. In other words, it appears as if dopamine loss occurs because of both genetic and environmental factors.

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Identifying Psychosis Diagnosis And Antipsychotics

The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of new cases of antipsychotic use to treat psychosis in the first year after PD diagnosis. To be considered an antipsychotic user, first, a patient was required to have a new Read Code of psychosis diagnosis that appeared in the data after the diagnosis of PD diagnosis. Additionally, the Read Code for antipsychotics must have appeared after the diagnosis of psychosis and within the first year after PD diagnosis. Appendix 2 lists drugs considered antipsychotics and their drug classes .

What Is Parkinson Disease

Parkinson disease is a movement disorder. It can cause the muscles to tighten and become rigid This makes it hard to walk and do other daily activities. People with Parkinsons disease also have tremors and may develop cognitive problems, including memory loss and dementia.

Parkinson disease is most common in people who are older than 50. The average age at which it occurs is 60. But some younger people may also get Parkinson disease. When it affects someone younger than age 50, it’s called early-onset Parkinson disease. You may be more likely to get early-onset Parkinson disease if someone in your family has it. The older you are, the greater your risk of developing Parkinson disease. It’s also much more common in men than in women.

Parkinson disease is a chronic and progressive disease. It doesn’t go away and continues to get worse over time.

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Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons has four main symptoms:

  • Tremor in hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head
  • Muscle stiffness, where muscle remains contracted for a long time
  • Slowness of movement
  • Impaired balance and coordination, sometimes leading to falls

Other symptoms may include:

The symptoms of Parkinsons and the rate of progression differ among individuals. Early symptoms of this disease are subtle and occur gradually. For example, people may feel mild tremors or have difficulty getting out of a chair. They may notice that they speak too softly, or that their handwriting is slow and looks cramped or small. Friends or family members may be the first to notice changes in someone with early Parkinsons. They may see that the persons face lacks expression and animation, or that the person does not move an arm or leg normally.

People with Parkinson’s disease often develop a parkinsonian gait that includes a tendency to lean forward take small, quick steps and reduce swinging their arms. They also may have trouble initiating or continuing movement.

Symptoms often begin on one side of the body or even in one limb on one side of the body. As the disease progresses, it eventually affects both sides. However, the symptoms may still be more severe on one side than on the other.


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