HomeRisksHow Is Parkinson's Disease Associated With Headaches

How Is Parkinson’s Disease Associated With Headaches

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Migraines With Aura Associated With More Than Double The Risk Of Later Developing The Neurological Disorder

WEBINAR: Get expert advice on managing Parkinson’s pain ...

Migraines can make daily tasks a challenge. But people who get intense migraines may also face a heightened risk of Parkinson’s disease later in life.

Although the causes of migraines remain a mystery, new research found that people who had migraines with visual disturbances had a much higher risk of Parkinson’s than patients without headaches.

“Talk to a neurologist if you have migraine symptoms.”

For their research, Ann Scher, PhD, of Uniformed Services University in Bethesda, MD, and colleagues studied 5,620 patients who were between 33 and 65 years old. They followed them for 25 years to see whether headaches and migraines had an effect on Parkinson’s risk.

Parkinson’s is a neurological disease that progressively affects movement. Migraines, another neurological disorder, are intense headaches and yawning, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound and, in some cases, what’s called an aura.

An aura is a visual disturbance described as flashing lights, zigzag lines and even a loss of vision.

Dr. Scher and team found that patients who had migraines with aura were more than twice as likely as people who didn’t have headaches to later have Parkinson’s.

Migraine is a very common disease and hence will co-occur with other common diseases such as Parkinson’s,” said Chaouki K. Khoury, MD, MS, Associate Professor of Neurology and Child Neurology at Texas A&M Health Sciences Center.

“So for now, we cannot make any clinical inferences from this,” he said.

Longitudinal Taiwanese Cohort Study Finds Link Between Migraines And Parkinson’s Disease

People who have migraines may be more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease, according to a Taiwanese study.

In a longitudinal follow-up cohort study, having two migraine diagnoses in 1 year was associated with a greater risk of developing Parkinson’s disease over about 3 years , Shin-Liang Pan, MD, PhD, of the National Taiwan University Hospital, and colleagues reported online in the journal Cephalalgia.

The researchers included Taiwanese subjects between the ages of 40 and 90 who were diagnosed with migraines in at least two ambulatory care visits in 2001 but had not been diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease or secondary Parkinsonism the year before. They were then score-matched to patients without migraine diagnoses in 2001 based on sex, age, comorbidity, and socioeconomic data using a two-stage propensity score. Once patients were matched, there were 41,019 people in each group.

Action Points

  • Note that this Taiwanese study leveraging administrative data found a significant association between migraine headache diagnoses and subsequent diagnoses of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Be aware that individuals with migraine are more likely to be under the care of a neurolgist, and thus may be more likely to be diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease at an early stage.

Since the median follow-up time was only 32 months, the authors couldn’t determine the long-term effects of migraines on the risk of Parkinson’s disease, they wrote in the study.

Disclosures

Primary Source

Cephalalgia

Migraine In Middle Age Linked To Increased Risk Of Parkinson’s Movement Disorders Later

Date:
American Academy of Neurology
Summary:
People who experience migraine in middle age may be more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease, or other movement disorders later in life, research shows. Those who have migraine with aura may be at double the risk of developing Parkinson’s, according to the study.

A new study suggests that people who experience migraine in middle age may be more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease, or other movement disorders later in life. Those who have migraine with aura may be at double the risk of developing Parkinson’s, according to the study published in the September 17, 2014, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

“Migraine is the most common brain disorder in both men and women,” said study author Ann I. Scher, PhD, with Uniformed Services University in Bethesda, MD, and a member of the American Academy of Neurology. “It has been linked in other studies to cerebrovascular and heart disease. This new possible association is one more reason research is needed to understand, prevent and treat the condition.”

“A dysfunction in the brain messenger dopamine is common to both Parkinson’s and RLS, and has been hypothesized as a possible cause of migraine for many years. Symptoms of migraine such as excessive yawning, nausea and vomiting are thought to be related to dopamine receptor stimulation,” said Scher. “More research should focus on exploring this possible link through genetic studies.

Migraine In Middle Age Linked To Increased Risk Of Parkinsons Movement Disorders Later

The American Academy of Neurology is the world’s largest association of neurologists and neuroscience professionals, with 36,000 members. The AAN is dedicated to promoting the highest quality patient-centered neurologic care. A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system such as Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, concussion, Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy.

What’s Hot In Pd Is Midlife Migraine Related To Late Life Parkinsons Disease

Stages of Parkinson

There has been speculation that migraine headache syndromes may have an important relationship to Parkinson’s disease. Though most associations uncovered by research studies have been speculative, two interesting papers appeared in the literature in the past few months, and investigators around the world have now rekindled the question, could headaches be related to Parkinson’s disease? In this month’s What’s Hot column I will review the two recent studies on this topic, and provide some potentially important information for patients who may suffer from both migraine headache and from Parkinson’s disease.

Nunes and colleagues conducted a study which intended to examine the lifetime prevalence and whether headache occurred during the previous year in Parkinson’s disease patients. The authors personally interviewed 98 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 98 control patients. Interestingly, in Parkinson’s disease patients there was a lower prevalence of headache in the previous year, and a lower prevalence of headache occurring during their lifetime. Parkinson’s patients with recent headaches more likely had migraine than another headache subtype called muscle tension headache. This study however suffered from several methodological flaws in the way the information was collected, and it left the field with more questions than answers. It did suggest the possibility that some patients with headache may achieve relief from dopaminergic therapy.

Selected References

 

Common Causes Of Dizziness And Vertigo In Parkinsons And How To Treat Them:

In people with early Parkinson’s disease , the dizziness has in many cases linked to a lower Montreal Cognitive Assessment score raising the possibility that dizziness may be a non-movement symptom associated with cognitive decline .

Dizziness or vertigo can be tied to many causes and is not unique to Parkinson’s. Symptoms can be caused by medications, low blood pressure, anxiety, cold, flu, dehydration, heart conditions and more. Tell your doctor immediately if you regularly experience dizziness or vertigo.

Page reviewed by Dr. Michael S. Okun, Parkinson’s Foundation Medical Director, Professor and Chair, Department of Neurology, Executive Director of the Fixel Institute for Neurological Diseases; a Parkinson’s Foundation Center of Excellence.

The Dizziness Connected To Parkinsons Linked To Cerebral Blood Flow

Dizziness is a common symptom of many conditions. Perhaps your doctor was able to identify the underlying cause of your dizziness. If so, you’re actually in the minority. In most cases of dizziness, the cause is a mystery. As a result, a patient may remain to wonder if the symptom will return.

In other cases, the underlying cause of dizziness is identified, but there is no cure for the condition. One condition where this is the case is Parkinson’s disease.

An Overlooked Condition That Reduces Blood Flow To The Brain

An often-overlooked condition that can lead to a reduced amount of blood flow to the brain is a misalignment of the C1 vertebra . When the cervical spine is misaligned, the vertebral arteries that facilitate blood flow to the brain may be hindered from doing their job properly. As a result, various conditions can occur including things like dizziness and even migraines. Even blood pressure problems have been linked to upper cervical misalignments.

How can this misalignment be corrected, and what effect may this have on dizziness?

How Upper Cervical Chiropractic Benefits Dizziness Patients

Parkinson

Upper cervical chiropractic is a niche within the chiropractic field that focuses solely on the top two bones of the neck. Rather than popping or twisting the spine, upper cervical chiropractors use low force corrections that help the neck realign naturally. This is a safe way to get the atlas and axis back into place. Their realignment can help vertebral arteries do their job properly again, improving blood flow to the brain and relieving conditions caused by the previous reduction in blood flow.

to schedule a consultation today.

To learn more about what upper cervical chiropractic may be able to do for you. Contact a practitioner in your area and schedule a no-obligation consultation.

Classification Of Associations Based On Previous Literature

We used PubMed to perform a MEDLINE database search using the keyword “Parkinson” and keywords to describe each significant phenotype. We supplemented these PubMed searches with simple web searches. We identified meta-analyses, review articles, cohort studies, and case–control studies that tested for an association between the prevalence of PD and the prevalence of the phenotype in question. We extracted information regarding these associations from publications that met our search criteria. For each association, one of the authors manually assessed the results from all relevant publications and assigned the association to one of four categories denoting the extent to which the association has previously been studied: known, likely, unclear, and novel. Another author reviewed these assignments and discrepancies in assignments between the authors were discussed until consensus was reached.

Determining Unrelated Individuals Of European Ancestry

We focused on European ancestry individuals because 88.9% of all people with PD in the 23andMe database had >97% European ancestry and because PD incidence and prevalence may differ by ethnicity.36,37 All study participants were genotyped by 23andMe and ancestry composition was performed as previously reported.38 A maximal set of unrelated individuals was chosen for the analysis using a segmental identity-by-descent estimation algorithm.39 Individuals were defined as related if they shared 700?cM identity-by-descent, including regions where the two individuals share either one or both genomic segments identical-by-descent. This level of relatedness corresponds approximately to the minimal expected sharing between first cousins in an outbred population.

For A While I Thought Tackling Triggers Was The Key

On the brighter side, I found a lot of conversation around what triggers migraines.

Triggers are emotional, physical, environmental or dietary events that set your migraine in motion.

There are literally dozens of different potential triggers. Most people’s migraines are affected by just a handful of them.

The trick is to work out the few that affect you most – and then do your best to avoid them.

The avoidance of triggers was my favorite approach.

It’s free of cost to do because it mostly requires you to stop doing certain things.

More than that, it held out the hope of a cure for my migraines. If I could just pinpoint the one or two things that caused my migraines I could simply make sure I never did them again. And everything would be fine after that.

If only.

Addressing triggers does make some sense. For about half of us there are things that we can identify as prompting the migraine to start.

The thing is: how do we know what they are?

So Many Migraine Remedies But So Little Success

Resting Tremor Most Common in Early Parkinson Disease ...

There are millions of migraine sufferers and, before I finally cured mine, I searched everywhere for some sort of relief.

But although there’s tons of information out there I gradually realized it all pretty much falls into just two categories:

  • Take meds, get treatment – medical stuff, in other words
  • Avoid the triggers that turn on the migraine attack in the first place
  • There’s a hierarchy of treatments – each one a step on from the previous one.

    There’s lots to try, plenty to fail at and, of course, an array of potential remedies to spend your money on.

    I tried plenty. I spent plenty of dollars too.

    And no matter what I tried there was always something else I could have a go at just around the corner.

    The Missing Link: What Cured My Migraine Forever

    Notice I say ‘cured’.

    Not ‘reduced’ or ‘helped’ or ‘made it a little better’.

    Maybe what I learned will only reduce your migraines. I’d have been happy with that. But it ended my migraines. I haven’t had one for 14 months and counting.

    For me this revelation has been one of the best things that ever happened to me.

    Here’s what happened:

    As I mentioned earlier, I had been using a guide written by Christian Goodman to identify my migraine triggers.

    And it had certainly helped. I narrowed down several psychological and one possible dietary factor that seemed to set off my migraines.

    Better still, my recovery was quicker. I previously had migraines up to two days at times. What I learned from Christian’s guide made sure I never got a two-day migraine again.

    That guide is no longer available. But you can still get it directly from Christian.

    I’ll tell you how shortly. It won’t cost you anything either.

    Functional Exercise For Chronic/persistent Pain

    There are some simple exercises that you can try around the house to help:

    • If you experience pain in your legs, keep them strong by practising standing up and sitting down in a chair. 
    • If your shoulders are aching, start by loosening them with some shoulder rolling actions, then by lifting an object that is slightly weighty from a shelf, and then replacing it. This increases the range of movement in your back, shoulders and arms, and then your strength.

    Migraines In Middle Age Parkinson’s Risk Later

    Study sees a connection, but actual risk is small; more study needed, researchers say

    HealthDay Reporter

    WEDNESDAY, Sept. 17, 2014 — Migraines in midlife may be associated with increased odds of developing Parkinson’s disease or other movement disorders in later years, new research suggests.

    The study, which did not prove a cause-and-effect link between the two brain-based conditions, also suggested that the migraine-Parkinson’s association was stronger in women with migraines preceded by aura. An aura is a warning sign of a pending attack that includes flashes of light and skin tingling.

    “We should emphasize that while the risk is increased for Parkinson’s disease and these symptoms, they’re still uncommon among those with migraine,” said study author Ann Scher, a professor of epidemiology at Uniformed Services University in Bethesda, Md. “I don’t think people should necessarily worry that if they have migraines, Parkinson’s disease is .”

    The research is published in the Sept. 17 online edition of the journal Neurology.

    Throbbing, chronic headaches that impact about 28 million Americans aged 12 and up, migraines affect three times as many women as men, according to the American Headache Society.

    “Previous studies noted that migraine, particularly migraine with aura, was linked to cardiovascular disease and stroke, so there’s increasing interest in whether these linkages might manifest in other neurological symptoms later in life,” Scher said.

    How Migraines Increase The Risk Of Parkinsons

    The different types of pain that are associated with ...

    A link between migraine to PD is not a novel idea. Movement disorders, like PD, appear to be overrepresented in people that experience migraines, suggesting a causal link between the two conditions.2

    In 2014, Scher et al found that subjects in the AGES-Reykjavik study with midlife migraine, specifically migraine with aura , were far more likely to report parkinsonian symptoms and be diagnosed with PD.3

    Furthermore, migraineurs appear to have a high frequency of many other basal ganglia disorders, like essential tremor, Tourette’s syndrome, Sydenham’s chorea, and restless legs syndrome. However, researchers agree that more controlled research is needed to better understand these possible associations.2

    According to the current study authors, one plausible mechanistic link could be dopaminergic dysfunction, something common to movement disorders like parkinsonism. Of note, dopaminergic dysfunction has been a proposed causal factor in migraine pathogenesis for some time,4 as excessive yawning, nausea, and vomiting are common prodromal and accompanying symptoms of migraine. This could be related to stimulation of DA receptors. Even pharmacologic studies using DA agonists have suggested a role for DA hypersensitivity in migraine patients.5

    New Treatment Approved For Parkinsons Disease

    Xadago was approved for the use of treatment in Parkinson’s disease as an add-on therapy with Sinemet by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in early 2017 and became commercially available in July 2017.

     The drug’s mechanism of action is a monoamine oxidase -B inhibitor that works by blocking the breakdown of levodopa in the brain, thus increasing its availability. The drug was designed to be used in patients already taking carbidopa-levodopa and who are experiencing “off” times. “Off” times are described as periods when Parkinson symptoms are worse including increased tremors, slowness of movement or stiffness.

    The studies found that patients who used this medication in combination with carbidopa-levodopa experienced increased “on” time without bothersome dyskinesia. The drug is a once daily formula and starts at 50 mg for the first 2 weeks and is increased to 100 mg thereafter.

    Contact the specialists at Central Neurology, P.L. for a consultation. They focus on a variety of neurological conditions, including treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

    Link Between Migraine And Parkinsons Found John Claude Krusz, PhD, MDThomas G. Ciccone

    Patients who suffer from 2 or more migraines per year may be at an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease later in life, according to the findings of a new study from Taiwan.1

    The study looked at a sizeable cohort of 41,019 subjects , who had had at least two migraines during 2001. The researchers then studied 41,019 randomly selected subjects without migraine. Patients were matched to the migraine cohort based on age, sex, pre-existing comorbidities, and socioeconomic status.

    The researchers, from the National Taiwan University Hospital, noted that none of the subjects in the study had been diagnosed with PD or secondary Parkinsonism in the year prior to the study. However, at the 32-month follow-up, 148 patients with migraine were diagnosed with PD, compared to just 101 patients without migraine of 1.64; P=0.0004). The PD-free survival rate for the migraine group also was found to be significantly lower than that for the non-migraine group .1

    Psychiatric And Neurobehavioral Disorders

    These disorders are related to the connection between the brain and behavior. Neurobehavioral disorders are impairments associated with brain diseases like multiple sclerosis, stroke, and dementia or brain injury. Psychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal functions of the part of the brain responsible for social cognition. Historically, the study and treatment of these disorders were separate, but today doctors embrace a connection between the two in order to better treat and diagnose a wide range of conditions affecting the brain.

    But Then Along Came Something Astonishing

    Symptoms of Parkinson

    One day, Christian contacted me and asked me if I would be part of a small trial group for some exercises he’d developed.

    These exercises weren’t your usual keep-fit kind of movements. They were designed to tackle migraines at their root cause.

    Christian told me that the intention wasn’t to relieve migraines but to eliminate them.

    To get rid of them once and for all.

    There were no drugs involved nor did I need to go to a gym, a therapist or buy special equipment. None of that.

    He asked me, Would I like to take part in the trial?

    Of course I would!

    Before he sent me my initial instructions he told me what the thinking was behind these new exercises.

    I was absolutely astonished by what I heard.

    First, Christian explained how migraines worked.

    Treatment Options For Parkinson’s Disease

      Migraines are one of the most common complaints that adults seek medical treatment for. Nearly 12 percent of the population has migraines, according to the Migraine Research Foundation. Each year there are more than 1.2 million emergency room visits for migraines and related head pain.

      Unlike the headache that you might get after a stressful day or from looking at your computer screen for too long, migraines can seriously impact your daily life – and for more than a few hours every once in a while. Over 90 percent of people who have migraines find that they’re unable to work or carry on with their day normally when they have the severe headaches.

      If you have migraines, you don’t have to suffer in silence. The first step in getting help is understanding the problem. Learning about migraines, what causes them and what you can do about them is just the beginning. When you know what you’re up against, and you know what the treatments are, you can start finding relief.

      Signs and Symptoms

      Not all headaches are migraines. Migraines are severe and often focused on one side of the head, can include sensitivity to light or sound, and may come with a bought of nausea . Auras, which are seeing light flashes, shimmering lights, or blind spots, can also accompany migraines.

      Tests and Evaluations

      Only a licensed medical provider can diagnose and treat migraines. Even though you can spot some of the symptoms yourself, leave it to the pros to make the true diagnosis.

      Triggers and Treatment

      Make An Appointment To See A Neurologist

      If you have a diagnosed neurological disorder or one of the above symptoms, it’s time to make an appointment to see a neurologist. The dedicated team of professionals at Regional Neurological Associates has advanced training in diagnosing and treating neurological disorders so you can feel confident you are getting expert care. To make an appointment, call 515-4347.

      Posted on November 15, 2019 Back Pain, Conditions, Dementia, Headaches, Multiple Sclerosis, Neck pain, Parkinson’s Disease, Stroke

       

      Due to the complexity of the brain and central nervous system, neurological disorders can seem like a mystery. There are numerous types of diseases and disorders related to neurological health, and a variety of factors that can lead to each condition. If you’re curious about conditions that can affect the brain and central nervous system, here are nine neurological disorders you need to know about.

      Fear You’re Suffering From More Than Old

      Forgetfulness can strike just about anyone at any age, and is often attributable to a common and relatively harmless cause. From changes in sleeping habits to certain types of vitamin and mineral deficiencies, periodic and minor memory lapses can be perfectly normal.

      However, if you’ve noticed your forgetful moments ramping up in frequency, or if you’ve had other physical indicators that something’s not quite right, like a few back-to-back fender benders after decades of perfect driving, a foggy or concussed feeling when you wake up in the morning or a change in appetite or energy level, you may be dealing with a more serious ailment that could require medical intervention.

      While “dementia” can be a scary word, it doesn’t need to be a death sentence for your memory. Many types of dementia are easily treatable with medication and lifestyle changes, and sometimes, any memory loss you’ve already experienced may even be reversible.

      Read on to learn more about some of the most common forms of dementia, as well as what you can do to seek treatment and slow the progression of this frustrating but often manageable condition.

      Lewy Body Dementia

      If you’ve been reading medical journals and wondering why there are so many references to the initials you know as “little black dress,” you’ve likely been learning more about Lewy Body Dementia.

      Some signs of LBD can include:

      Dizziness Caused By Parkinsons Disease

      Symptoms Of Parkinson’s Disease

      Parkinson’s disease is a neurological condition that affects a person’s ability to move. Research has linked the dizziness associated with Parkinson’s to cerebral hypoperfusion. In layman’s terms, this means not enough blood is getting to the brain. What can cause a reduction in blood flow to the brain?

      Comparison With Published Associations

      We investigated whether there were any known associations that our analysis failed to detect. We compared our results with those from a systematic review and meta-analysis of putative PD risk factors6 . The comparison study found 19 significant phenotypes, 10 of which had an analogous phenotype in our PD phenome study. Our study successfully replicated all 10 associations . For example, we replicated known negative associations with hypertension and alcohol consumption . We found that PD was associated with living nearer to a farm , but this narrowly missed our study-wide significance threshold of 6.01?×?10?5. The comparison study also highlighted 11 phenotypes that were not significantly associated with PD—possibly due to insufficient power—and 7 of them had an analogous phenotype in our PD phenome study. The direction of effect was similar in both studies for all phenotypes except for aspirin use .

      Specialists Have Known This All Along

      None of this is new.

      What Christian has done is simple but very, very effective.

      He’s linked the medical facts and addressed the cause of the low-oxygen.

      Again, low blood oxygen has a number of causes – most of which are fairly well understood.

      In a nutshell, we don’t breathe in properly. We don’t breathe out properly. And the air we do get into our lungs doesn’t adequately get to our organs and brain.

      Again this is all medically verified.

      Here’s what happens:

      We don’t breathe in properly

      I must admit, I initially found it difficult to believe I wasn’t breathing properly.

      It’s such a natural thing to do – how can I be doing it wrong?

      Turns out that millions of people simply don’t breathe in deeply enough to inhale sufficient oxygen to meet their bodies’ needs.

      There are two reasons for this:

      First, too many of us sit down way too much – at home, at the office, in cars.

      Sitting for extended periods is now widely regarded as almost deadly to our health.

      Amongst many other downsides it causes our posture and breathing infrastructure to weaken and sag due to lack of proper use.

      Which physically ruins our ability to take in large, healthy lungfuls of air.

      Second, modern life brings its own stresses and strains. Long hours, tight schedules, family responsibilities, job demands, not enough sleep, money concerns – all the usual stuff.  

      We mostly don’t notice this happening to us – but this is exactly what is happening.

      We don’t breathe out properly either

      Correcting For Demographic Variables

      To test whether significant associations may have been driven by demographic differences between PD cases and controls, we re-ran regressions including education, income index, body mass index and tobacco use as covariates. Income index was defined as the median household income in the past 12 months in an individual’s self-reported zip code using data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s most recent American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. For the minority of individuals who had not answered the survey questions used to define a given demographic variable, we imputed data using dummy variable imputation. Across all regressions, the median percentages of imputed data were 18% for education, 6% for tobacco, 4% for BMI, and 22% for income index. Phenotypes that no longer passed our significance threshold were removed from subsequent analyses.

      Cognitive And Psychiatric Symptoms

      Tutorial Psychia 56

      • depression and anxiety
      • mild cognitive impairment – slight memory problems and problems with activities that require planning and organisation
      • dementia – a group of symptoms, including more severe memory problems, personality changes, seeing things that are not there and believing things that are not true

      Discovering The Bit In The Middle

      The detail that matters is easy to understand – and it’s this: a migraine is the end result of a very short chain of events.

      It’s a sequence basically and at its simplest here’s how the sequence works:

      trigger > thing that gives you the migraine > migraine

      The trigger affects something in your body. And it’s that something that causes migraine pain.

      The trigger is the agent, not the cause.

      It’s that something that is the real culprit.

      It’s the bit in the middle that holds the key to your migraine pain. And its cure.

      Because saying the trigger causes migraines is like your team winning a game and me claiming they won because the referee blew the starting whistle.

      Yes, the starting whistle got things going but something else – in this case the team– won the game. The team was the cause of the win.

      Migraine triggers are like referee’s starting whistles. They get the thing going – they trigger it. But the migraine itself is caused by the ‘something’ that the trigger sets in motion.

      The medical profession either addresses the trigger – to prevent or reduce the migraine – or the migraine itself – usually drugs to reduce its effects.

      They ignore the middle bit of the sequence – the ‘something’ because… well, they don’t know properly what it is.

      But here’s what Christian told me:

      He explained that oxygen therapy had been tried out for people suffering very severe headaches – migraines included – and that the therapy had some notable successes.

      No.

      There’s no mystery to any of this.

      Nothing Complicated Here Either

      The exercises in The Migraine and Headache Program are gentle and mostly stationary. There’s no jumping around or any kind of vigorous activity at all.

      Better still, as the exercises take effect and your migraines subside you can perform fewer of them. Today I do just enough exercises to keep the problem at bay.

      In fact, Christian calls them ‘exercises’ but I call them ‘movements’.

      To my mind, exercises are things you work hard at that make you sweat.

      Whereas these movements are not hard work and they don’t make you sweat. In truth, most of these movements involve very little movement at all.

      It’s mostly lots of easy standing or laying in one position or another. My kind of exercise to be honest!

      But there’s power in these movements. Because they’re loosening muscles that have become tight and constricted… so tight that they’re stopping oxygen-rich blood getting to the brain.

      Much of the program’s effectiveness comes from the fact that it focuses on small areas of the body that you wouldn’t normally give much thought about.

      I was a little surprised initially at the exercises. I’d done yoga for more than a year so was used to difficult, strenuous stretches. If anything would have eased tense muscles I would have thought yoga would have done it.

      Turns out that’s not so.

      Several of Christian’s exercises were mostly ‘lying around’ exercises. They required almost no effort. More than once I nearly dozed off doing them.

      But that’s pretty much all there is to it.


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