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Does Parkinson’s Cause Vision Problems



Eyekrafters Medical Optics Eye Clinic And Parkinsons And Vision Problems In South Plainfield New Jersey

Parkinson’s disease symptoms: The warning sign in your ...

Many eye diseases can be quickly and easily diagnosed during a comprehensive eye exam. If you were diagnosed with an eye disease, such as Cataracts, Glaucoma, Macular degeneration, Diabetic retinopathy, or Dry eye, you may be overwhelmed by the diagnosis and confused about what happens next. Will you need medications or surgery – now or in the future? Our South Plainfield eye doctor has prepared the following answers to your questions about eye disease.

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The study enrolled 20 patients who had been newly diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, and 20 age-matched healthy subjects, to assess changes in the visual system associated with the disease. The participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans, which researchers used to look at changes in the white and gray matters, as well as ophthalmologic examinations.

They found that patients presented significant changes in the brain structures associated with the visual system, such as changes in the optic radiations, decreased white matter volume and reduced volume of the optic chiasm .

As a consequence, patients experienced visual alterations, such as an inability to perceive colors, decreased visual acuity, and a reduction in blinking, which often led to dry eyes.

According to Arrigo, these changes may appear more than a decade before the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease, which makes them potential biomarkers to diagnose and follow this disease.

“The study in depth of visual symptoms may provide sensitive markers of Parkinson’s disease,” Arrigo said. “Visual processing metrics may prove helpful in differentiating Parkinsonism disorders, following disease progression, and monitoring patient response to drug treatment.”

Ocular And Visual Disorders In Parkinsons Disease: Common But Frequently Overlooked

This literature search covering 50 years reviews the range of ocular and visual disorders in patients with PD and classifies these according to anatomical structures of the visual pathway.  It discusses six common disorders in more detail, reviews the effects of PD-related pharmacological and surgical treatments on visual function, and offers practical recommendations for clinical management.

Patients With Parkinson Disease At Increased Risk Of Vision Eye Issues Study Shows Matthew Gavidia

Patients with Parkinson disease were found to be more likely to experience vision and eye issues, such as blurry vision, dry eyes, trouble with depth perception, and problems adjusting to rapid changes in light, compared with people without the disorder, according to study findings.

Patients with Parkinson disease were found to be more likely to experience vision and eye issues, such as blurry vision, dry eyes, trouble with depth perception, and problems adjusting to rapid changes in light, compared with people without the disorder, according to study findings published in Neurology.

In patients with PD , irregular eyesight can prove a chief issue, as ophthalmologic disorders combined with postural and gait instability from the disorder may increase the risk of falls and fall-related injuries, noted the study authors.

Risk of vision impairment is potentially common for PwP because PD is linked with retinal dopamine depletion and decreased dopaminergic innervation of the visual cortex, which can lead to visual problems such as diminished oculomotor control, contrast sensitivity, color vision, and visuospatial construction. PwP are also at increased risk for seborrheic blepharitis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca .

In PwP with ophthalmologic symptoms, 68% reported that it interfered with daily activities, compared with 35% of controls .

Reference

Difficulty Moving The Eyes Or Difficulty In Focusing On Moving Objects

Parkinson

Difficulties moving the eyes up and down are more common in a condition called Progressive Supranuclear Palsy , a form of parkinsonism. If you experience this problem, your specialist or Parkinson’s nurse if you have one, will be able to give advice.

Caution! If detecting or seeing movement is difficult, particularly estimating the speed of a moving object such as a car, great care should be taken when out and about, both when driving and walking.

Vision Problems More Common In Patients With Parkinson Disease

This article, “Vision Problems May Be Common in Parkinson Disease,” was originally published on NeurologyLive.

Results of a new study have uncovered a link between the development of Parkinson disease and an increase in ophthalmologic symptoms that impact a patient’s day-to-day activities.

The study, which included 848 patients with Parkinson and 250 healthy controls, showed that 82% of those with disease had ?1 ophthalmologic symptom in comparison with 48% of the control group . Study author Carlijn D.J.M. Borm, MD, of Radboud University Medical Centre in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and colleagues noted that screening questionnaires like the Visual Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire —which the study utilized—may aid in recognizing these vision problems, thus improving timely treatment.

“It is especially important for people with Parkinson’s to have the best vision possible because it can help compensate for movement problems caused by the disease, and help reduce the risk of falls,” Borm said in a statement. “Our study found not only that people with Parkinson’s disease had eye problems that go beyond the aging process, we also found those problems may interfere with their daily lives. Yet a majority of eye problems are treatable, so it’s important that people with Parkinson’s be screened and treated if possible.”

Visual Dysfunction: An Underrecognized Symptom Of Parkinson’s

Sue Hughes

October 25, 2019

Visual symptoms are a potentially underrecognized and undertreated cause of reduced quality of life in Parkinson disease patients, a new study suggests.

“The idea that visual symptoms may be associated with Parkinson’s disease is not new, but this is the first time it has been reported on a population level,” lead author Ali Hamedani, MD, told Medscape Medical News.

“In a survey of more than 150,000 individuals, we found that people with a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease were more than twice as likely to report impairment in eyesight than those without a Parkinson’s diagnosis, and there were similar increases in long distance or near vision,” he noted.

“I think our data confirm what people have already suspected ? that Parkinson’s disease is associated with visual impairment ? but this is the largest study ever done to look at this association,” he added.

The study was October 19 in the European Journal of Neurology.

Problems with vision in Parkinson’s disease patients are increasingly being recognized by the patients themselves, their caregivers, and by physicians on a local level, but the problem hasn’t been studied comprehensively or documented in large-scale studies before, Hamedani explained.

“We wanted to look in a large cohort of people how visual dysfunction related to Parkinson’s disease,” he said.

Adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the association between Parkinson disease and self-reported vision.

Optic Nerve Oculomotor Nerve Trochlear Nerve Abducens Nerve

Cranial Nerve 2 –  “a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.” 

Cranial Nerve 3 – “supplies muscles that enable most movements of the eye and that raise the eyelid and enables the ability to focus on near objects as in reading.”

Cranial Nerve 4 – ” a motor nerve that supplies the superior oblique muscle” which controls turning of the eye in the socket, in particular the actions of looking down or towards the nose.

Cranial Nerve 6 – “a motor nerve that supplies the lateral rectus muscle of the eye” which controls turning of the eyes outwards, away from the nose.

Eye and vision problems abound in Parkinson’s Disease, from dry eyes, involuntary closing of the eye lids, to fixed and unfocused eyes. Visual problems that have been strongly correlated with PD include issues with: visual acuity; contrast sensitivity; color vision; motion perception; visual disturbances and hallucinations. Physical and structural changes to the eye and retina have also been found in people with Parkinson’s, as determined by a number of modern eye examination methods. Therapies which involve injecting small amounts of dopamine into the eyeball have proven successful in PD, and strategies based on this are being developed.

Colour Vision Contrast Sensitivity And Low Light Conditions

Parkinson

A lack of dopamine-producing cells in the retina can cause problems with colour vision and contrast sensitivity. This means that it may be hard to distinguish between shades of the same colour, particularly blues and blue/greens. Some people also have difficulty defining images on a background of similar shades or colours and reading fine print, particularly in low light levels.

Levodopa and other Parkinson’s medications may help with these problems. Your doctor will be able to advise you on this.

Vision: More Than Meets The Eye Tricks To Aid Pd Patients

Retired neurologist and young onset Parkinson’s patient, Dr. Maria De León reminds us that vision is integral to our quality of life and safety, especially with respect to driving.  She lists 11 common eye problems with PD, and a few uncommon ones.  They may be helped by adjusting medications, with special lenses, or artificial tears.  See your doctor to find out.

Ocular Motor And Sensory Function In Parkinson Disease

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of dopaminergic medication and deep brain stimulation on ocular function in Parkinson Disease and to measure vision-elated quality of life in subjects with PD.  The conclusion is that convergence ability is significantly poorer in PD subjects in both “on” and “off” states compared with controls, but significantly improves with systemic dopaminergic treatment.  Ocular motor function in PD subjects fluctuates in response to treatment, which complicates ophthalmic management.  PD subjects have a significant reduction in vision-related quality of life, especially near activities, that it not associated with visual acuity.

Eye Problems Common In People With Parkinson’s Disease

People with Parkinson’s disease often have eye problems, which can interfere with their daily activities and increase their risk for falls, researchers say.

“It is especially important for people with Parkinson’s to have the best vision possible because it can help compensate for movement problems caused by the disease, and help reduce the risk of falls,” according to the author of a new study, Dr. Carlijn Borm of Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

The study included 848 people with Parkinson’s who had symptoms for an average seven years, and 250 people without the disease. The average age in both groups was 70.

Participants were asked about vision and eye problems such as blurry vision, dry eyes, trouble with depth perception and problems adjusting to rapid changes in light.

Study: People skip Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s meds as prices rise

In all, 82 percent of people with Parkinson’s reported one or more eye problems compared to 48 percent of others, and people with Parkinson’s reported daily symptoms much more often, according to the report published online March 11 in the journal Neurology.

In addition, 68 percent of people with Parkinson’s said that eye and vision problems interfered with daily activities, such as driving a car, working on a computer, walking or personal care, compared to 35 percent of people without the disease.

Young-onset Parkinson’s may start in the womb

More information

Atypical Parkinsonism Or ‘parkinson’s Plus Syndromes’

Off and On: The Alaska Parkinson

“Parkinson’s Plus Syndromes” are less common than Parkinson’s disease.

Some atypical parkinsonism syndromes include:

Multiple system atrophy  This is a category of several disorders in which one or more body systems deteriorate.

Your doctor may classify you as having MSA-P, in which parkinsonian symptoms are dominant; or MSA-C, in which dysfunction of the cerebellum is dominant.

The names of some of these syndromes include olivopontocerebellar atrophy , Shy-Drager syndrome , and striatonigral degeneration .

Progressive supranuclear palsy  Symptoms of this condition usually begin after age 50 and proceed more rapidly than Parkinson’s disease.

In people with PSP, problems with eye movement can lead to blurry vision. Falls tend to occur early in the course of the disease, and dementia may occur later in the disease.

Corticobasal degeneration  This condition may cause jerking and loss of control in a limb, often without weakness in that limb.

If you have this disorder, you may be given Botox  to help your limb relax.

Lewy body dementia  LBD is the second leading cause of dementia in the elderly, after Alzheimer’s disease.

In this condition, the same Lewy bodies occur in the brain as in Parkinson’s disease, but in multiple areas of the brain.

If you have LBD, you may experience speech problems, hallucinations, and gradual cognitive decline.

Potential Effects Of Parkinsons Disease On Eyesight

Growing older often means a greater risk of experiencing certain vision problems, such as cataracts and age-related retina damage . Typically, these changes have nothing to do with Parkinson’s disease and can affect any older adult. However, there are some vision issues specifically related to this condition. Five of the more common ones are discussed below.

Leaky Blood Brain Barrier And Parkinson’s Disease

we discussed how leakage issues with epithelial cell membranes, a special form of protective and moisturizing tissue, are prevalent in PD. The malfunctions of these epithelial layers are due, for example, to chronic dehydration, nutritional deficits, infection. Places where epithelial layers occur include in the skin, the gut lining, the blood brain barrier, the mouth and sinuses – all of which are implicated in the major and common symptoms of PD.

Such epithelial layers also occur in the eye. For example the retina-blood barrier, which has functions including, but not limited to, light absorption, nutrient transport from blood to eye, secretion and immune response. These retinal cells, like those in the Substantia Nigra, are meloncytes – they are black. The Conjunctiva also contain epithelial cells, lining the inside of the eyelids and covering the white of the eye. Conjunctiva help lubricate the eye with mucous and tears, with immune surveillance, and protection of the eye against microbes. Given that problems with epithelial layers are common in PD, it is highly probable that malfunctions of the eye’s epithelial cells are also widespread in PwP. Indeed, dry eyes, bloodshot eyes and eye strain problems are very common, for example. 

The Gut Digestive System And Parkinson’s Disease

but also in the retina too.

Indeed, according to the scientific review article mentioned above, the role of neurotransmitters in the eye has been known since at least the 1960s, when dopamine producing cells – dopaminergic neurons – were found in the retinas of animals, and later in humans. Since then, several types of dopaminergic neurons have been discovered in the retina and it is now known their functions are strongly affected by light levels. They have a pivotal role in the processing of visual information through the retina. Different types of photo-receptors in the eye can either be switched on or off due to the concentration of dopamine in the retina.

It has also been found that there is a significant diurnal variation in levels of dopamine in the eye, with higher levels in the day and lower levels at night, and hence time of day and even the weather/seasons impact on the complex feedback between the functions of the photo-receptors and dopamine concentration in the visual system – and ultimately on PD symptoms.

“This circadian rhythm is in counterphase with the retinal concentrations of melatonin, and indeed, dopamine and melatonin have mutually inhibitory effects on each other’s production—acting as a ‘biological clock’ for the retina. Because of this light-sensitive variation in dopamine concentration, it has been postulated that dopamine plays a role in the transition from a dark- to light-adapted state”

Parkinsonism Due To Other Neurological Disorders

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease You Absolutely Need to ...

The following neurological disorders are known to cause parkinsonian symptoms:

Vascular parkinsonism Also known as arteriosclerotic parkinsonism, this condition is caused by multiple small strokes.

The onset of symptoms can be sudden or gradual, and often includes mobility problems in your legs. Symptoms may level off for a period of time.

Vascular parkinsonism has the slowest rate of progression of all atypical parkinsonisms. It doesn’t usually cause tremors, either.

Post-traumatic parkinsonism Also known as post-traumatic encephalopathy or “punch-drunk syndrome,” this condition may be caused by a severe head injury or by frequent head trauma, such as from boxing or football.

Post-traumatic parkinsonism can lead to a type of dementia called chronic traumatic encephalopathy . In March 2016, the National Football League admitted that there might be a link between CTE and head trauma.

Essential tremor This is a tremor that tends to run in families and become worse over time. It’s usually seen most severely in the hands, especially when the hands are moving.

Normal pressure hydrocephalus  This condition is caused by an abnormal increase in fluid in the cavities of the brain.

NPH can sometimes be treated by draining the extra fluid into your abdomen using a shunt.

Environmentally Caused Parkinsonism

The following disorders are caused by outside factors like drugs and infection:

The following substances can cause drug-induced parkinsonism:

New Insights Into Vision Problems In Parkinson’s

Damian McNamara

March 12, 2020

Visual problems are significantly more common in patients with Parkinson disease and adversely affect quality of life by interfering with normal daily activities, new research suggests.

In a study with more than 1000 participants, more than 82% of the patients with PD had at least one ophthalmologic symptom, in comparison with 48% of matched control persons who did not have the disease. Symptoms included double vision, blurriness, and watery eyes.

In addition, 52% of respondents with PD reported that their eye symptoms restricted reading; 33% reported that their symptoms had a negative effect on driving; and 28% experienced more difficulty watching television or working on a computer.

“Our findings emphasize a great need for a much better awareness of the debilitating ocular disorders that are commonly present in patients with Parkinson’s disease. This greater awareness is needed for physicians, patients, and caregivers,” lead author Carlijn D. J. M. Borm, a neurology resident at the Center for Expertise for Parkinson and Movement Disorders, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands, told Medscape Medical News.

The results “add new knowledge about the prevalence of a wide range of ocular symptoms and, importantly, on the effect of these symptoms on daily life functioning,” she noted.

The findings were March 11 in Neurology.

Structural Eye Changes & Color Perception Issues

Parkinson’s disease sometimes contributes to structural changes within the eye. It appears these changes are mostly limited to the retina, a thin layer of tissue in the back of the eye that converts light coming into the eye into nerve signals the brain uses to process visual information.If dopamine receptors in the retina are affected, one of the changes that could occur is a decrease in the ability to distinguish between different shades of color. Eye changes involving color perception sometimes contribute to vision-related disturbances that might include visual hallucinations.

Ophthalmologic Features Of Parkinsons Disease

This paper is a systematic evaluation of the ocular complaints and ocular finding of 30 PD patients with early untreated PD, and 31 control subjects without neurologic or known ocular diseases.  The ocular abnormalities found more commonly encountered by PD patients frequently respond to treatment.  Abstract and access to the full article.

Parkinson’s Disease And The Effect On The Eye

Symptoms of Parkinson

  • 1. Eye Problems WithParkinson’sJody Abrams, MDNeuro-Ophthalmology/OculoplasticsSarasota Retina Institute
  • What is a Neuro-Ophthalmologist?A neuro-ophthalmologist is either a neurologist orophthalmologist who has spent a year or more afternormal residency to learn more about the eye and braininteractions?This includes eye muscle problems, optic nerveproblems, blurred vision that is not explained by normalcauses, and in, or between the eye and brain
  • Parkinson’s Disease and The Eye?There are many eye problems that can be seen inParkinson’s patients?These can vary from issues like dry eyes, to spasm ofthe eyelids to visual distortions?While most are not sight threatening like maculardegeneration they can be just as debilitating if notaddressed
  • Parkinson’s Disease and The Eye• Blepharospasms are when themuscles around the eyes contract• These muscles are responsible forclosing the eye so when theycontract the eyes squeeze shut• The eyes look like they areblinking with a lot of force
  • Parkinson’s Disease and The Eye?As you can imagine this can be very irritating?The patients have hard time reading or watching TV andeven doing a basic eye exam can be difficult ?The good news is that this condition has a nice andproven treatment? BOTOX
  • Parkinson’s Disease and The Eye?Botox or botulinum toxinA has been around sincethe late 1970s?It was brought to medicaluse by anophthalmologist, Dr. AlanScott, to use on patientswith spasms of theface/eyelids and for eyesthat cross
  • Vision Problems Common In Parkinsons Disease We were unable to process your request. Please try again later. If you continue to have this issue please contact customerservice@slackinc.com.

    People with Parkinson’s disease have a higher prevalence of ophthalmologic symptoms than those without the disease, according to research published in Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

    “It is especially important for people with Parkinson’s to have the best vision possible because it can help compensate for movement problems caused by the disease, and help reduce the risk of falls,”Carlijn D.J.M. Borm, MD, of the Radboud University Medical Centre in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, said in a press release. “Our study found not only that people with Parkinson’s disease had eye problems that go beyond the aging process, we also found those problems may interfere with their daily lives.”

    Borm and colleagues conducted an observational, cross-sectional study across multiple centers in the Netherlands and Austria as part of a larger study on visual impairments in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

    The researchers evaluated the prevalence and clinical effects of ophthalmologic symptoms in adults using participant responses to the Visual Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease Screening Questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions on demographic information and visual hallucinations, and assessed the four domains of ophthalmologic disorders — ocular surface, intraocular, oculomotor and optic nerve.

    Early Parkinson’s May Prompt Vision Problems

    Changes in sight could signal disease a decade before motor symptoms surface, study suggests

    HealthDay Reporter

    TUESDAY, July 11, 2017 — Changes in vision may be an early sign of Parkinson’s disease, researchers report.

    The neurodegenerative condition is caused by the loss of neurons in several brain structures, resulting in tremors, rigidity or stiffness, along with impaired balance and coordination, the Italian researchers explained.

    But, “although Parkinson’s disease is primarily considered a motor disorder, several studies have shown non-motor symptoms are common across all stages of the disease,” said lead researcher Dr. Alessandro Arrigo. He is a resident in ophthalmology at the University Vita-Salute San Raffaele of Milan.

    “However, these symptoms are often undiagnosed because patients are unaware of the link to the disease and, as a result, they may be undertreated,” Arrigo added.

    Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease patients include visual changes, such as an inability to perceive colors, a change in visual acuity, and reduced blinking, which can lead todry eye, the study authors noted.

    These symptoms “may precede the appearance of motor signs by more than a decade,” Arrigo said.

    This study included 20 newly diagnosed Parkinson’s patients who had not yet received treatment, and a “control” group of 20 people without the disease. Brain scans revealed that the Parkinson’s patients had significant abnormalities within the visual system brain structures.

    Results Of A Visual Impairment Questionnaire

    Coping With Vision Problems From Parkinson’s

    How Vision Is Affected by Parkinson

    There is currently no cure for the disease itself, but there are options to treat the symptoms of PD. A combination of medications, physical and/or occupational therapy, support groups, and of course, top-quality vision care can give a PD patient relief for some of their symptoms and tools to help cope with the condition.

    Research and clinical trials are continuing as doctors and others in the medical community work towards the goal of finding a cure for PD.

    No two patients are alike, and each can experience PD differently from the other, so finding what works for you or your loved one is key. During this Parkinson’s Awareness Month, share your #KeyToPD and give your loved ones hope for a healthy and high quality of life.

    Reduced Blinking & Eye Movement Disturbances

    Other eye movement disturbances have been described in parkinsonism. These include an impaired ability to pursue a moving target with the eyes, difficulty initiating gaze shifts or taking the eyes off a face. Also, the ability to maintain eccentric gaze is impaired, and the blink frequency tends to be reduced. Of these abnormalities, only the latter tends to show significant symptoms, as reduced blinking can cause a feeling of dry eyes. This may be further enhanced by reduction in tear secretion, which is not uncommon in parkinsonism. Management of dry eyes usually involves the use of artificial tears. It is rare that additional measures are needed to combat symptoms of dry eyes in patients with parkinsonism.

    Patients with parkinsonism are also susceptible to visual hallucinations. These can be related to the underlying neurological illness or medications used for treatment. PD patients who have visual hallucinations respond well to antipsychotic medications such as quetiapine. Hallucinations should always be reported to the physician.

    The Nervous System And Parkinson’s Disease

    the hands and fingers, and their use or lack thereof, have key roles either in the rate of degeneration or in progressive symptom reduction. Indeed, if you’ve ever seen one of those grotesque renderings of how the human body is actually represented by the proportion of brain power devoted to each body part , the hands come out as absolutely massive – hands and neurology are very strongly linked!

    Therefore hand exercises and finger stimulation are critically important for preventing the ravishes of neuronal atrophy in PD, and also to strengthen “para-sympathetic tone”, enhancing the ability to maintain a relaxed state, so important for people affected by the disease. Indeed, the story of Chris Lacey is intriguing, with reports he is now free from PD symptoms after intensive carving of chess pieces as a hobby.

    The importance of hands and fingers is hence profound for those of us who have been diagnosed with chronic disease.

    The Cranial Nerves And Parkinson’s Disease

    for more about this in the context of PD.

    However, I believe there is something unique about the Social Engagement system in humans, even amongst mammals: our hands. We humans also use hands for expressing our emotions in very significant ways too. Indeed, we can communicate very profoundly like this: we have even developed sign languages, so we can and do literally talk with our hands. 

    We can also hush each other with hands without making sound ourselves – meaning we can communicate that serious danger is present requiring everyone in the social group to keep quiet to avoid attracting attention, in such a way that we don’t attract attention ourselves.

    Orienting is also an important part of the Cranial Nerve function for threat/safety evaluation, including the ability to turn eyes or ears to the source of potential threat. But with our hands we can also, naturally, orient each other to potential threats which we individually may have detected, within social groups – pointing a finger in direction of danger, for example, or signalling to the group to stop in its tracks. 

    We can also make very distinct sounds and a wide range of “calls to action” directly with our hands: clapping, clicking fingers, whistling through the fingers, not to mention beating drums, etc.

    I have just communicated all this to you through my hands too, because I typed these words with my fingers!

    Ask The Md: Vision And Parkinsons Disease

    What Is Parkinson

    This webpage explains the visual problems that are due to Parkinson’s disease, the medications used to treat it, or to unrelated conditions of the eye or eyelid.  If you have visual problems, don’t assume it is due to either aging or Parkinson’s.  Address it with your doctor to maintain your ability to read, drive, and walk steadily to reduce your risk of falling.

    My Parkinson’s Story: Visual Disturbances

    This 6-minute video alternates between an interview with a man and and doctors. The man shares his vision changes due to Parkinson’s disease. The doctors explain that the muscles of the eyes develop a tremor in those with Parkinson’s disease, causing blurry vision. Parkinson’s medication reduces eye tremors by 75-90%, but eye exercises and reading are also beneficial.

    Social Engagement And Parkinson’s Disease

    See the groundbreaking work of Dr Stephen Porges to understand more about this aspect of our Nervous System and its role in wellness and disease, based on the fact that mammals have a more evolved part of the Nervous System specifically designed for purposes of Social Engagement and Social Co-operation.

    Social Engagement involves mainly the Cranial Nerves and their use in social functions such as making sounds and vocal calls for communication, and in facial expressiveness for transmitting emotional states to each other. Dysregulation of this Social Engagement part of our NS seems now to be a principal underlying cause in many chronic conditions, especially in PD, where loss of voice and loss of facial expression are major symptoms. See

    Involuntary Eye Closure & Eyelid Drooping

    It’s not uncommon for seniors with Parkinson’s disease to experience involuntary eye closure . Eyelids may also droop due to muscle weakness or nerve damage caused by the disease. Both of these issues can narrow the field of vision and contribute to difficulty with navigation and coordination. Vision problems of this nature also increase the risk of falling for seniors with PD. Under certain circumstances, Botox injections may be recommended to address issues with eyelid drooping.

    If your loved one is living with vision problems and needs assistance with daily tasks, help is available. Seniors can face a variety of challenges as they age, many of which can be mitigated with the help of professional in-home caregivers who provide high-quality elderly home care.Trust Home Care Assistance to help your elderly loved one age in place safely and comfortably.


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