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Can Adderall Cause Parkinson’s

Using Amphetamines May Increase Risk Of Parkinson’s Disease Study Suggests

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American Academy of Neurology
New research shows people who have used amphetamines such as benzedrine and dexedrine appear to be at an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.

New research shows people who have used amphetamines such as benzedrine and dexedrine appear to be at an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease, according to a study released February 22 that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology’s 63rd Annual Meeting in Honolulu April 9 to April 16, 2011.

Benzedrine and Dexedrine are amphetamines often prescribed to increase wakefulness and focus for people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, a disorder that can cause excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep. They are also used to treat traumatic brain injuries.

The study involved 66,348 people in northern California who had participated in the Multiphasic Health Checkup Cohort Exam between 1964 and 1973 and were evaluated again in 1995. The average age of the participants at the start of the study was 36 years old. Of the participants, 1,154 people had been diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease by the end of the study.

Exposure to amphetamines was determined by two questions: one on the use of drugs for weight loss and a second question on whether people often used Benzedrine or Dexedrine. Amphetamines were among the drugs commonly used for weight loss when this information was collected.

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Adhd Drugs Associated With A Dramatic Increased Risk For Parkinsons

Estimates indicate that approximately 11% of school-aged children in United States have attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder . Further, approximately 2/3 of these children are currently being medicated for this diagnosis. The most common medications are essentially stimulants like amphetamines or methylphenidates, including drugs like Adderall and Ritalin.

The areas of the brain that are potentially damaged or disrupted by these medications include the basal ganglia, brain structures that are involved in coordinated movement. The other area that is potentially involved is the cerebellum, which also plays a role in movement.

In a recent study published in Neuropsychopharmacology, researchers from the University of Utah attempted to determine if children with ADHD had an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease or other issues related to damage to the areas of the brain described above. Further, they wanted to determine if in fact being treated for ADHD might increase risk for Parkinson’s down the line.

The research involved the review of more than 11 million individuals and ultimately arrived at a cohort of around 32,000 individuals who had a history of being diagnosed with ADHD. These subjects were at least 20 years of age in 2011 and of them, approximate 5,000 had been treated with stimulant medications, again for ADHD. These subjects were compared to approximately 160,000 individuals in whom there was no history of ADHD.

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Discuss The Latest Research In The Parkinsons Disease News Forums

Parkinson’s disease is also characterized by a lack of dopamine, a consequence of the progressive degeneration and death of nerve cells that produce this neurotransmitter — the so-called dopaminergic neurons.

Treatment for ADHD includes the use of therapeutic stimulants that increase the amount of dopamine in the brain, such as amphetamine, methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate.

The long-term impact of ADHD, its treatment and the risk of developing brain diseases such as Parkinson’s is largely unknown.

Researchers at the University of Utah performed a retrospective analysis of the Utah Population Database , which contains the medical records of more than 11 million people who have lived in the state.

They analyzed data from people born between 1950 and 1992, who were at least 20 years old by the end of 2011 and had no prior diagnosis of Parkinson’s or Parkinson’s-like diseases.

In total, their analysis included 31,769 patients who were diagnosed with ADHD, 4,960 of whom were prescribed stimulant medications — 2,716 received amphetamine salts , 1,941 were treated with methylphenidate and 303 receiving both therapies.

As controls, they included 158,790 non-ADHD individuals, matched for gender and age with the ADHD group.

Researchers found that ADHD patients had more than twice the risk of developing Parkinson’s and Parkinson’s-like diseases.

Adhd Diagnosis Could Increase Risk For Parkinsons Study Suggests

People diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , usually detected at an early age in hyperactive children, may have an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s and Parkinson’s-like diseases, a new study suggests.

“Parkinson’s disease is commonly thought of as a neurodegenerative disease associated with aging,” Glen Hanson, PhD, professor at the University of Utah Health and the study’s lead author, said in a press release. “This may be the first time where a childhood disease and its treatment may be linked to a geriatric expression of neurodegenerative disorder.”

The study, “Increased Risk of Diseases of the Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum in Patients with a History of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” was published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology.

ADHD is estimated to affect approximately 11% of children ages 4-7 in the United States, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .

ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity and attention impairments that may interfere with the child’s  development, is linked with a deregulated release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, a key signaling molecule that regulates brain cell activity and function.

Adhd Medication Linked With Higher Risk For Parkinsons Disease

Is Adderall Causing Me To Grind My Teeth at Night ...

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Patients with ADHD who were treated with amphetamine- or methylphenidate-based medications may be at higher risk for basal ganglia and cerebellum disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, secondary parkinsonism or essential tremor later in life, according to findings recently published in Neuropsychopharmacology.

“Little is known about the effects of long-term, therapeutic use of psychostimulants such as that associated with treatment of ADHD,” researchers wrote.

They looked at data from 31,769 patients diagnosed with ADHD, of whom 4,960 had been prescribed mixed amphetamine salts , methylphenidate , or both . These patients were then matched with 158,790 patients without ADHD.

Researchers found all patients with ADHD had a 2.4-fold increased risk for Parkinson’s disease, secondary parkinsonism or essential tremor vs. the patients without ADHD after controlling for age, sex, psychotic conditions and tobacco use. In addition, the 4,960 patients with ADHD who had been prescribed amphetamine- or methylphenidate-based psychostimulants had an 8.6-fold increased risk for Parkinson’s disease, secondary parkinsonism or essential tremor.

“Our calculations likely underestimate the total impact of ADHD on the risk for developing diseases, especially in younger populations,” they added. 



How Are Parkinsons Disease And Substance Use Disorders Linked

As the Michael J. Fox Foundation notes, the exact cause of Parkinson’s disease is unknown, but there is a consensus that genetics and the environment each play a key role. In terms of genetics, some research supports that Parkinson’s disease can develop due to one genetic mutation of the gene LRRK2. When this is the case, more than one individual in a family with this genetic mutation will develop Parkinson’s disease. Regarding environmental causes, research suggests that the use of certain drugs can set off chemical events in the brain that lead to the onset of Parkinson’s disease or at least the development of symptoms typically associated with this disorder.

This article focuses on some of the illicit drugs that, according to research, may be responsible for the development of Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms. The drugs that will be considered herein are heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and amphetamine. While each of these drugs has a different chemical structure, when their component chemical parts are broken down, they affect similar areas of the brain, such as the substantia nigra region.

Cocaine and Parkinson’s Disease

Methamphetamine And Amphetamine Abuse And Parkinsons Disease

The National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that methamphetamine and amphetamine abuse can increase the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.

A main insight from this research is that abuse of these types of drugs damages dopamine neurons in the brain. As Parkinson’s disease is a dopamine-related disorder, it makes sense that individuals who abuse drugs, and thereby damage their dopamine neurons, may develop symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Since, as discussed earlier, dopamine plays a key role in muscle coordination and functionality, dopamine damage results in motor impairment, a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease.

One research study found a near 300 percent increase in the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease in people who have abused methamphetamine or amphetamine. This risk is alarming when one considers that despite public knowledge of the devastating effects of methamphetamine abuse, in 2014, an estimated 438,000 Americans in the 26+ age group were currently using this illicit drug. Note that the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and health, from which this statistic is taken, did not expressly collect data on amphetamine use, so the estimated number of amphetamine abusers for that survey year is not available. When amphetamine abuse does occur, it is often in the form of prescription medications such as Adderall and Ritalin.

The good news is that recovery from substance abuse is always possible.

Using Amphetamines May Increase Risk Of Parkinsons Disease

The American Academy of Neurology, an association of more than 22,500 neurologists and neuroscience professionals, is dedicated to promoting the highest quality patient-centered neurologic care. A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system such as Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, brain injury, epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease.For more information about the American Academy of Neurology and its upcoming Annual Meeting, visit

New Research Finds Link Between Adhd And Parkinson Disease

Kelly Davio

Researchers from the University of Utah explain that patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were more than twice as likely to develop early-onset Parkinson disease or a related basal ganglia and cerebellum disease than peers who do not have ADHD. Among patients with more severe disease who are prescribed stimulant medications to control their ADHD, the risk was 6- to 8-fold higher.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder affects approximately 11% of children in the United States, and some previous research has suggested that that exposure to stimulants commonly used to treat the disorder can result in persistent basal ganglia dopaminergic deficits. Now, new research shows that patients with ADHD have an increased risk of developing Parkinson disease and related basal ganglia and cerebellum diseases, and patients treated with stimulants have an even greater risk.

In a paper today in Neuropsychopharmacology, researchers from the University of Utah explain that patients with ADHD were more than twice as likely to develop early-onset PD or a BGC disease than peers who do not have ADHD. Among patients with more severe disease who are prescribed stimulant medications to control their ADHD, the risk was 6- to 8-fold higher.

Read more about PD.

In the ADHD cohort, the rate of incident BGC diseases was 0.52%, compared with 0.19% in the non-ADHD cohort, and the age of disease onset was slightly younger among patients with ADHD than in those without ADHD .

Stimulant Adhd Medications And Your Circulatory System

All stimulants can impact your circulatory system in a few ways. They can make your heartbeat faster, increase your blood pressure, and constrict your blood vessels. You should avoid drinking alcohol when you take stimulant ADHD medications, as this can increase your likelihood of developing heart problems.

In a small number of extreme cases, people who take stimulant ADHD medications may experience a stroke or heart attack. Seek medical help immediately if you start to feel chest pain. People with pre-existing heart conditions can experience sudden death after taking stimulant ADHD medications.

Stimulant Adhd Medications And Your Respiratory System

Respiratory side effects from stimulant ADHD medications can be related to your respiratory and circulatory system. In some cases, patients might have trouble breathing or notice their fingers and toes turning blue because their bodies are not circulating enough oxygen. Call your doctor or go to the nearest emergency room immediately for treatment.

Stimulant Adhd Medications And Your Digestive System

Stimulant ADHD medications increase how much glucose gets released into your system, which can cause all sorts of digestive issues. You might lose your appetite, resulting in unexpected and unwanted weight loss. This can be especially harmful to children who are still growing. Adults usually only experience weight loss temporarily, and they regain their appetite soon after their body adjusts to the medication.

Some digestive issues people who take stimulant ADHD medications might experience include the following:

  • Nausea


Evidence Links Cocaine Abuse And Parkinson’s Disease

The Hidden Link Between Meth & Parkinson’s Disease

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital
Adults who abuse cocaine might increase their risk of developing Parkinson’s disease , and pregnant women who abuse cocaine could increase the risk of their children developing PD later in life, according to results of laboratory studies performed by investigators at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital.

Adults who abuse cocaine might increase their risk of developing Parkinson’s disease , and pregnant women who abuse cocaine could increase the risk of their children developing PD later in life, according to results of laboratory studies performed by investigators at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital.

The study’s findings are important because there are currently more than 2 million cocaine abusers in the US today, the researchers said. Many individuals who abused the drug during the height of the cocaine abuse epidemic of the 1970s and 1980s are now entering their older years, when symptoms of PD are likely to emerge.

A report on this work appears in the online, prepublication edition of Neuroscience.

The St. Jude team showed in laboratory models of both the adult and fetal brains that exposure to cocaine alters the nerve bodies in the region of the brain called the substantia nigra. This damage made the neurons more susceptible to MPTP, a toxin known to cause symptoms of PD.

The other author of the current article is C. J. Faherty, Ph.D. This work was supported in part by ALSAC.

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Can You Avoid Or Reverse Adderall Neurotoxicity

The active chemicals in Adderall, mixed amphetamine salts, are stimulant drugs similar in mechanisms of action to methamphetamine. Meth has been shown to be significantly neurotoxic, causing damage to brain cells, when used in large amounts for a long period of time. Abuse of Adderall can increase the risk of brain damage and neurotoxicity, which can lead to psychological and physical complications that are not completely reversible. Many of the neurotoxic effects can be reversed with complete abstinence from Adderall.

What is Adderall?

Adderall is a prescription stimulant drug that contains both amphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Amphetamines are often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. It’s also in a wider category of drugs called central nervous system stimulants. Stimulants work by increasing activity in your brain and nervous system to facilitate wakefulness, alertness, and focus. Amphetamines like Adderall work with a specific chemical in the brain called dopamine, which is one of your brian’s feel-good chemicals. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that works to create feelings of pleasure and reward. It’s thought that people with ADHD have low levels of dopamine in the brain, which causes them to be easily distracted in search of sources of reward. 

How Adhd Medication Impacts Your Nervous System

People with ADHD can get bored extra fast when working on something that isn’t interesting. Therefore, many students with ADHD struggle to do homework or pay attention in class. However, that doesn’t mean that people with ADHD are doomed to struggle. Often, people with ADHD have highly successful careers working in fast-paced, high-intensity environments.

Even when someone with ADHD has found a passion for something, they can still struggle with certain aspects of their lives. The primary reason for taking drugs such as Adderall, Vyvanse, and Ritalin is to balance the body’s central nervous system. Positive effects of these drugs include feeling more alert during the day, having more impulse control, and being able to concentrate on important tasks.

Adderall Statistics & Use In The United States

Close to 50 million prescription stimulant drugs like Adderall were dispensed in 2011 to treat symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD.

This represents an almost 40 percent rise in these prescriptions since 2007, the Drug Enforcement Agency states. ADHD is one of the most common childhood neurobiological disorders. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that as of July 2015, almost 10 percent, or close to 6 million, American children between the ages of 4 and 17 had been diagnosed with ADHD at some point in their lifetimes.

The risk of developing a stimulant addiction with prescription drugs, such as Adderall, is becoming more prevalent in the U.S. At American Addiction Centers we understands the dangers of prescription drug abuse and we are here to help. For more information about addiction and treatment options, call us at to speak confidentially with an admissions navigator for help getting access to our successful substance abuse programs.

AAC is in-network with many insurance providers. Addiction treatment can be free depending on your policy.

Learn More and Verify Your Insurance with AAC

A study at the University of Kentucky found that 30 percent of its students had abused an ADHD stimulant drug like Adderall at some point as a possible “study enhancer,” CNN reports.

Stimulant drugs like Adderall are addictive and using them recreationally may increase the chances of developing a psychological and physical dependence on them.

How Does Adderall Affect People With Psychosis

Adderall, an amphetamine, is often thought of as a safe or harmless drug but it has been linked with mental health conditions like psychosis and schizophrenia. When people who do not have ADHD take Adderall to do better in school, concentrate or to lose weight, they put themselves at a higher risk for developing abusive behaviors and dangerous side effects. People with ADHD have lower levels of dopamine in their brain, and these low levels mean their brain could seek stimulation. Adderall releases dopamine and other neurotransmitters, stimulating the central nervous system. When someone without ADHD takes Adderall, natural dopamine levels can increase to exceed an average level and cause feelings of euphoria and anxiety.

A study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders found that “…amphetamine-related psychiatric disorders are conditions resulting from intoxication or long-term use of amphetamines or amphetamine derivatives. Such disorders can also be experienced during the withdrawal period from amphetamines.”

Amphetamines can cause or be associated with the recurrence of psychiatric disorders. People who become dependent on amphetamines sometimes decrease their usage after experiencing side effects like paranoia and hallucinations. Some people may experience symptoms during withdrawal as well as during sustained use.

Risks Of Using Adderall To Cope With Psychosis

People living with psychosis and other mental health conditions may use substances like Adderall to cope with or manage their symptoms. According to a study by the Epidemiological Catchment Area, 47 percent of people with schizophrenia and 60 percent of people with bipolar disorder were also living with a substance use disorder. In the general population, 16 percent of people were living with a substance use disorder. Living with psychosis by itself can be challenging for people to maintain a daily routine. When someone has an Adderall use disorder, it can cause serious problems. These problems may include suicide, an increased risk of violence, a higher chance of being involved in criminal activity and poor reception to treatment programs. Unfortunately, people with psychosis or people who have a genetic predisposition of psychosis are at a higher risk of developing substance use disorders.

In addition to the behavioral problems that someone with psychosis and a substance use disorder experience, the person is often in poor physical health. People with psychosis are at a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. Taking Adderall can cause heart problems to develop. Mortality rates are higher in people with psychosis because of their poor overall health and the increased risk of suicide.

Taking Adderall to treat symptoms of psychosis can often make their symptoms worse.

Adhd Tied To Raised Risk Of Early Parkinson’s

HealthDay Reporter

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 12, 2018 — People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may be more than twice as likely to develop an early onset form of Parkinson’s, new research warns.

What’s more, among “those ADHD patients who had a record of being treated with amphetamine-like drugs — especially Ritalin — the risk dramatically increased, to between eight- to nine-fold,” said senior study author Glen Hanson.

But his team did not prove that ADHD or its medications actually caused Parkinson’s risk to rise, and one ADHD expert noted that the absolute risk of developing Parkinson’s remains very small.

For the study, researchers analyzed nearly 200,000 Utah residents. All had been born between 1950 and 1992, with Parkinson’s onset tracked up until the age of 60.

Prior to any Parkinson’s diagnosis, roughly 32,000 had been diagnosed with ADHD.

Hanson, a professor of pharmacology and toxicology at the University of Utah, said that ADHD patients were found to be “2.4 times more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease-like disorders prior to the age of 50 to 60 years,” compared with those with no history of ADHD. That finding held up even after accounting for a number of influential factors, including smoking, drug and alcohol abuse, and other psychiatric disorders.

“Although we cannot accurately say how much time elapsed between ADHD and Parkinson’s-like disorder diagnosis, it was probably between 20 to 50 years,” he said.


Should I Get Treatment For Adderral Addiction

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Amphetamine Use May Increase Parkinsons Risk

where can i get adderall

July 15th, 2011 by Mike

In April 2011, the American Academy of Neurology had a big annual meeting in Hawaii to discuss the state of their field and recent findings. Among those discussion items was a 38-year study on amphetamine users; one of the first to offer observations about the long-term impact of amphetamine use.

Overcoming The Consequences Of Adderall Use

Many of these conditions can be reversed by stopping Adderall usage, though some of them result in permanent damage or even death. An Adderall addiction treatment center can provide you with the guidance and medical attention to properly address your underlying issues and provide you with the treatment you need in a safe environment to fully recover and best address your diagnoses in a healthy way. It is very important, however, to note that regular prescribed usage of Adderall for the treatment of ADHD or narcolepsy is usually safe and does not usually result in significant medical or psychiatric consequences; in fact, research shows that the risk of consequences like developing a substance use disorder from untreated ADHD is higher than the risks of regular prescribed Adderall usage.

If you believe that you or a loved one are abusing—or are addicted to—Adderall, please contact one of our caring advisors today for more information about how we can help.

How Extended Adderall Use Affects The Brain

Stimulants increase concentration and energy levels while decreasing the need for sleep and suppressing the appetite. Adderall increases the activity of several neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and especially dopamine. Over time, the changes in dopamine activity can impact our brain’s reward center, and alter our ability to experience pleasure without the chemical support of continued amphetamine use.. The more often Adderall is taken, the more ingrained these changes become. A tolerance to the drug may form, and more Adderall may be needed at each dose in order to feel the same desired effects.

As Adderall leaves the bloodstream, withdrawal symptoms and drug cravings may occur, indicating a physical and emotional dependence on the drug. The way in which Adderall is abused, along with the amount and duration of abuse can affect the dependence level to the drug. Crushing the pills and then injecting or snorting them, for example, sends the drug into the brain more rapidly than ingesting them whole and having them enter the bloodstream via the digestive tract. As a result, injecting or snorting the crushed pills increases the chances for a life-threatening overdose and the potential for addiction. Addiction is a disease that affects each person individually, and environmental and biological factors may also play a role in its onset.

Adhd Doubles Risk Of Early Onset Parkinsons

Investigators at the University of Utah Health have released some interesting, if not disturbing new findings: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder patients have a greater risk of developing Parkinson’s and Parkinson-like diseases than individuals with no ADHD history. The results from the new study were released in Neuropsychopharmacology through an article titled “Increased risk of diseases of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in patients with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.”

This new data is significant as 11% of children nationwide have been diagnosed with ADHD. Moreover, the long-term health effects of having ADHD and of common ADHD medications remains understudied.

“Parkinson’s disease is commonly thought of as a neurodegenerative disease associated with aging,” explains senior study investigator Glen Hanson, D.D.S., Ph.D., professor of pharmacology and toxicology in the School of Dentistry at U of U Health. “This may be the first time where a childhood disease and its treatment may be linked to a geriatric expression of a neurodegenerative disorder.”

However, the authors did caution that patients with a more severe type of ADHD may inherently be at an increased risk of motor neuron diseases like Parkinson’s, and the results may or may not be a direct result of the stimulant medication. Future studies are needed to reach a more definitive conclusion.

Various Kinds Of Stimulant Adhd Medications

Stimulant medications, like Adderall, Vyvanse, and Ritalin are the most commonly used treatments for ADHD. They can decrease your ability to get distracted and help you focus by increasing certain brain chemicals. Many people notice improvements within one to two hours of taking a stimulant for ADHD.

Stimulant ADHD medications use one of two first-line molecules—methylphenidate and dextro-amphetamine. Both types of stimulants can be habit-forming when taken incorrectly, so they should always be taken under the guidance of a licensed doctor. They have similar side effects.

Heres The Excerpt From Physicians Weekly

Amphetamine Use May Increase Parkinson’s Risk

The Particulars: Amphetamines were once recommended for treating patients with Parkinson’s disease. Recent studies, however, have suggested that this class of drugs may be linked to a higher risk of developing Parkinson’s.

Data Breakdown: Researchers conducted an analysis in 66,438 individuals who did not have Parkinson’s disease at baseline and collected information on exposure to amphetamines. Through a mean follow-up of 38.8 years, 1,154 patients received a Parkinson’s diagnosis. The average age at baseline was 36, and the average age at diagnosis was 70. Individuals who reported often taking amphetamine sulfate or dextroamphetamine sulfate had a 56% greater risk of having a Parkinson’s diagnosis decades later. The magnitude of the relationship was similar for both men and women. Participants who reported taking weight-loss medication at baseline did not have an elevated risk for Parkinson’s disease through follow-up .

Take Home Pearls: The use of amphetamines appears to be associated with an elevated risk for developing Parkinson’s disease later in life. Considering the wide population exposure to both legal and illegal amphetamines, more studies are needed to address this association.

  • I’ve expected this for years since they plug into the basal ganglia. Also explains why cigarette smokers don’t get Parkinson’s . Dextroamphetamine forces the dopamine out of the cell.

  • Signs And Symptoms Of Adderall Psychosis

    The onset of Adderall psychosis typically doesn’t last as long as primary psychosis. The symptoms present themselves in a slightly different way. If psychotic symptoms emerge following the use of Adderall, the more prevalent symptoms are typically agitation and confusion. Some other symptoms of Adderall psychosis include:

    • Lack of concentration
    • Inability to relax
    • Argumentative

    Fortunately, if someone develops Adderall paranoia, the disorder will typically resolve itself within a few days after the person stops taking the drug.

    Alternative Adhd Medications To Consider

    Adderall is the most common prescription used to treat ADHD, but it is not the only one. There are two primary types of medications used for ADHD—stimulant and non-stimulant. These have the same purpose of helping you focus and feel calm. Tell your doctor about all your current medications and existing conditions so they can determine which one will likely work best for you.

    Medical Consequences Of Adderall Abuse

    Dry mouth home remedies: Things you need to know

    • Parkinson’s disease: Parkinson’s disease is a neurological condition that stems from a loss of dopamine and results in decreased motor function. Though most research on the link between amphetamine usage and the development of Parkinson’s disease has been comprised of smaller studies, the overwhelming majority of those studies reach similar conclusions: longer-term, higher dosage users of Adderall and tend to acquire it an earlier age than others who develop Parkinson’s.
    • Cardiac-related problems: Normally, the CNS can quickly and precisely adjust the heart’s pumping activity to account for increasing or decreasing demands on the body. However, when the CNS is flooded with dopamine and norepinephrine from stimulant use, this control becomes much more erratic. That often results in arrhythmias, the medical term for heart rhythm disturbances. It also results in blood vessel spasms and dilation of the heart’s filling and pumping chambers, interrupting blood flow. When this happens, the heart may have its own blood supply reduced, leading to its inability to respond to increased body demands. This is known as ischemia, and it can result in damage to any organ or system that receives insufficient blood supply. For example, reduced supply to the brain can result in stroke, and reduced supply to the kidneys can result in renal failure.

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