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What Toxins Can Cause Parkinson’s Disease

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Advancing Age Is The Leading Risk Factor For Pd But Genetics Brain Injury And Exposure To Toxins May Play A Role Too


Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects approximately one million people in the U.S., and, to date, there is no cure for it. While effective treatments do exist to help you manage a wide array of PD symptoms, they cannot slow the progression of disease. And it’s not yet known whether, or how, the disease can be prevented. To solve that mystery, scientists first will have to unravel another riddle: what causes PD and which risks can up your odds for this condition to develop later on. Sharing leading-edge research and expert knowledge, we’ll tell you all we know.

A Historic Perspective On Parkinsons Disease And Its Relation With Toxic And Protective Environmental Substances

The English physician James Parkinson in his work “An essay on the Shaking Palsy” described PD for the first time in 1817. This correlates well with the beginning of the industrial and chemical revolution in Europe during the late 18th century and the 19th century. To our knowledge, only the Ayuverda and the first Chinese manuscript on medicine, Nei Ping, written 2500 years ago, describe some of the symptoms observed in PD and potential treatments . Apart from this reference to PD-related symptoms, no other physician in any of the occidental countries had previously described the complex amalgam of symptoms typical of this disorder. This suggests that either these different symptoms had always been misdiagnosed as separate entities throughout history, not recognized as part of a syndrome, or the prevalence of PD until the beginning of the 19th century had been extremely low. While possible, the first hypothesis seems quite improbable to us. Many PD symptoms are quite striking and would have been described and published before Parkinson’s assay. Therefore, we believe that a dramatic increase of PD cases occurred in parallel to the industrial revolution. In this case, the question is, why?

Remarkably, in some populations there has been a decreasing prevalence of certain types of neurodegenerative diseases that coincide with the disappearance of an environmental factor unique to these populations .

What Is The Difference Between Drug Induced Parkinsons Disease And Typically Occurring Parkinsons Disease

It has been seen that drug-induced Parkinsonism usually occur on both sides of your body while usual Parkinson’s starts from one side of the body. Apart from this, the medication-induced signs generally are seen to go away after the medicine is finished. However, it may take few months to stop, but is does stop eventually. On the contrary, the typically occurring Parkinson’s disease cannot be reversed. Another thing to be kept in mind is that medication-induced Parkinson’s disease is not progressive, unlike the typical Parkinson’s disease.

A Discussion Of How Environmental Factors Such As Pesticides May Affect Your Risk Of Parkinsons Disease

During my recent interview on Wisconsin Public Radio, many of the callers asked questions related to environmental risks of Parkinson’s disease , specifically, exposures related to farming. Those calls prompted me to delve further into this complicated and murky topic.

Before we start discussing specific factors in the environment that may increase risk of PD, let’s understand some basic ground rules that will help put this topic in perspective

With that background, let us begin.

Who Is Most At Risk Of Developing Parkinsons Disease After Coming Into Contact With Paraquat


None of us are immune from the health effects of toxic chemicals. What makes some of us more susceptible to developing one disease or another is not yet known, but likely it is a combination of our environment interacting with our genes.

People with a genetic predisposition for Parkinson’s disease may be more affected by low level exposures to Paraquat, and therefore more likely to develop the disease, although many people have developed Parkinson’s disease without a known genetic susceptibility.

Those at the greatest risk are people who most frequently use or are exposed to Paraquat, such as farmworkers and those who live in or near areas where large amounts of Paraquat are sprayed.

Is There A Common Toxic Mechanism In All These Models That Leads To Neurodegeneration

One of the common effects exerted by most of these noxious compounds tested above is the inhibition of mitochondrial NADH CoQ reductase, also known as Complex I, and the production of free radicals, thereby also increasing cellular oxidative stress. The first association between a mitochondrial alteration and PD was made in 1989. Two different groups showed a defect in Complex I activity from SN neurons in PD patients . Later studies have shown that there is an approximately 35% defect in the mitochondrial complex I activity . This deficiency is also present in platelets from PD patients . As mentioned above, a study published in 2011 underlines the importance of Complex I inhibition and oxidative stress in PD pathophysiology in patients. In an epidemiological study, Tanner and colleagues observed in 110 PD cases and 358 controls that PD was strongly associated with the use of a group of pesticides that inhibit mitochondrial complex I, including rotenone, and with the use of a group of pesticides that cause oxidative stress, including paraquat .

Figure 2Full size image

Therefore, it is likely that external factors trigger the appearance of the disease in these individuals. In fact, there are striking similarities in the effect of both mutations and environmental toxins that could explain this increased sensitivity and give hints on the pathophysiological process in PD.

How Does Paraquat Use Impact Surrounding Communities And Even The Rest Of The Country

In 2017 alone, an estimated 11 million pounds of paraquat were used in the United States, on nearly 15 million acres. This makes it highly likely that many citizens in agricultural communities are unknowingly exposed to Paraquat over time, either through the air, soil, or water.

Additionally, apples, grapes, wheat, almonds, pears, and strawberries are sprayed with paraquat. Consuming these products, and other produce grown with pesticides, can expose humans to Paraquat by ingestion.

How Do We Know That Paraquat Can Increase The Risk Of Developing Parkinsons Disease

Extensive scientific research over the last twenty years has demonstrated a link between Parkinson’s disease and people who were exposed to Paraquat. In fact, Paraquat use has long been restricted to certified applicators due to concerns based on this research.

In the last ten years, research on Parkinson’s disease has intensified, with two particularly convincing studies involving humans: one by the National Institutes of Health , and one Italian meta-analysis. Both studies provide persuasive evidence for an increased risk of Parkinson’s Disease in farmers and in people who live near where Paraquat is used.

Freya Kamel, a scientist within an epidemiology branch of the NIH, has said that research on the link between paraquat and Parkinson’s disease is “about as persuasive as these things can get.”

Drinking Well Water Is Linked With A Higher Likelihood Of Developing Parkinson’s

A growing body of research suggests that there is a correlation between drinking well water and developing Parkinson’s Disease later in life. One particular study, conducted by a team at UCLA and published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, found that those who consume well water are statistically more likely to develop PD. After reviewing the medical records and personal histories of 700 people living in California’s farm belt between 1974 and 1999, they determined that those who ultimately developed PD had consumed private well water on average 4.3 years longer than those who did not.

Rates Of Parkinsons Disease Are Exploding A Common Chemical May Be To Blame

Adrienne Matei

Researchers believe a factor is a chemical used in drycleaning and household products such as shoe polishes and carpet cleaners in the US

Last modified on Thu 8 Apr 2021 14.06 BST

Asked about the future of Parkinson’s disease in the US, Dr Ray Dorsey says, “We’re on the tip of a very, very large iceberg.”

Dorsey, a neurologist at the University of Rochester Medical Center and author of Ending Parkinson’s Disease, believes a Parkinson’s epidemic is on the horizon. Parkinson’s is already the fastest-growing neurological disorder in the world; in the US, the number of people with Parkinson’s has increased 35% the last 10 years, says Dorsey, and “We think over the next 25 years it will double again.”

Most cases of Parkinson’s disease are considered idiopathic – they lack a clear cause. Yet researchers increasingly believe that one factor is environmental exposure to trichloroethylene , a chemical compound used in industrial degreasing, dry-cleaning and household products such as some shoe polishes and carpet cleaners.

To date, the clearest evidence around the risk of TCE to human health is derived from workers who are exposed to the chemical in the work-place. A 2008 peer-reviewed study in the Annals of Neurology, for example, found that TCE is “a risk factor for parkinsonism.” And a 2011 study echoed those results, finding “a six-fold increase in the risk of developing Parkinson’s in individuals exposed in the workplace to trichloroethylene .”

Anesthetic Drugs May Interact With Medications Used For Parkinsons Disease

Lorri A. Lee, MD; Tricia A. Meyer, PharmD, MS, FASHP

An estimated one million people in the United States have been diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease making it one of the most common neurological disorders in patients. This number is estimated to double in the next 30 years as PD is associated with increasing age. PD patients have a deficiency of dopamine in their brain and many of their medications are used to increase this neurotransmitter. They are frequently very sensitive to missing even one dose of their Parkinson medications and may exhibit increased rigidity, loss of balance, agitation, and confusion if their dosing schedule is delayed. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome or parkinsonism-hyperpyrexia syndrome can develop if their medications are held too long or as a result of serious infection.1 Many drugs used in the perioperative period, such as metoclopramide, butyrophenones , and phenothiazines have anti-dopaminergic activity that can worsen the symptoms of PD.

PD patients may be prescribed selective MAOI-B medications such as selegiline and rasagiline that inhibit metabolism of dopamine. Though caution is still advised, several studies have demonstrated that the risk of serotonin syndrome with these selective MAOI-B drugs is extremely low, even in combination with serotonergic antidepressants.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare for this article.

Patients With Parkinsons Disease Are At Risk For Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

November 21, 2016

Parkinson Causes: Do Genetics Or Environmental Toxins Lead To Parkinson

While Parkinson causes are diverse…

Both genetic and environmental causes of Parkinsons Disease are well recognized in the medical literature. 

1) Environmental toxins lead to Parkinsons:

Studies, both of large groups of people and experimental studies show that both pesticides and metal toxicity are Parkinson causes. 

  • These toxins cause “a-Syn aggregation” which leads to neuro-degenerative diseases including Parkinsons.

2) Genomic defects are among Parkinson Disease causes: 

  • Yes, family history, or genetics can be a player, but few people get Parkinsons directly from genetic mutation.  A number of factors usually combine to trigger the disease. 

Which Parkinson Disease Causes Might Affect You?

When Parkinson causes converge — either genomic, or environmental factors or both, these lead to abnormalities in the mitochondria of the cells and there is more “oxidative stress.”  

  • Toxicity causes inflammation and oxidative stress and eventually the balance of health tips toward disease.

While not a Parkinson cure, we can protect better against toxins, and lower inflammation and oxidative stress. 

What Are The Other Forms Of Medicines That Can Cause Parkinsons Disease

Can Mold Cause Parkinson’s Disease?

Some of the other common medicines which can cause Parkinson’s disease may include some forms of anti-depressants, anti-nausea drugs, drugs used for the treatment of vertigo, drugs used for epilepsy and anti-arrhythmics. It should be remembered that not all drugs in these classes may cause signs of Parkinsonism. The doctor generally makes the patient aware of the side-effects before prescribing a certain form of drugs. Nevertheless, it is important from the patient’s part to ask about the side-effects of the prescribed medicines.

Is This The Only Herbicide To Be Linked To Adverse Human Health Effects

No. Rotenone has also been linked to Parkinson’s disease, but it was phased out as a pesticide in the U.S. because of safety concerns. It is still used for government-directed fish kills.

Other pesticides have been linked to many diseases and conditions, including infertility, breast cancer, learning difficulties, and leukemia.

Toxic Substances That Have Been Linked To Parkinsons Disease

There are numerous environmental toxins that researchers have tied to the neurological disorders known as parkinson disease. Here are some that have been linked:

  • Agent Orange– This was a chemical defoliant used in Vietnam that is already tied to cancer. While there is no definitive link with Parkinson’s, the VA at least believes that there is a possibility that the two are tied.
  • Solvents– Some studies have shown a link between Trichloroethylene, a substance contained in many solvents, and Parkinson’s.
  • PCBs– polychlorinated biphenyls were extensively used in the 1970s. They have been often found in the brains of people who have suffered from Parkinson’s.
  • Pesticides and herbicides -substances such as insecticides, pesticides and herbicides contain chemicals that researchers have strongly linked with higher incidences of Parkinson’s. One of the leading contributors is considered to be Paraquat. For information on Paraquat Parkinson’s lawsuits, look here.

Disadvantages Of Regional Anesthesia Over General Anesthesia

  • Regional anesthesia will not eliminate Parkinson’s symptoms, such as tremor or rigidity, except in the areas directly affected by the anesthetic.

  • Tremor can interfere with some monitoring device and makes it more difficult to interpret.

  • If the surgery is delicate, the surgeon may want the patient to be absolutely still.

  • The surgical procedure may not be possible under regional anesthesia.

  • Two Areas In Which Parkinsons Disease May Bring About Death

    I. Falls

    PD patients are at an increased risk of falling and bad falls can lead to death. This usually occurs as a complication of a fall that requires hospitalization, particularly if it involves surgery. While most people do not fracture their hips when they fall, some do, and hip surgery, while routine, is still major surgery. It carries the risk of infection, delirium related to pain medications and anesthesia, heart failure, pneumonia, blood clots in the legs that then go to the lungs, and general weakness from immobility. Hip fractures are probably the main cause for death for those who fall, but people can fracture other bones and require surgery. They may fracture their ribs, which leads to reduced coughing, because of the pain, and an increased risk of lung infections . It is surprisingly uncommon for Parkinson’s Disease patients to die from brain injuries related to falls, but it still may occur.

    II. Pneumonia

    What Causes Pain In Cases Of Parkinsons Syndrome Sufferers

    For Your Good Health: Can Lyme Disease Lead To Parkinsons


    DEAR DOCTOR. ROACH: Can Lyme Disease Put A Person Into Parkinson’s Disease? I tested positive for Lyme – I had the rash, a fever, and a terrible headache. After a month on doxycycline, my left arm started shaking and my neurologist diagnosed me with Parkinson’s. The doctor said it had nothing to do with Lyme disease. What is your opinion? – SM

    ANSWER: I can absolutely understand why you suspect that the neurologist might be wrong. Chance seems too much to believe. However, I think your neurologist is probably right. The different types of neurological complications of Lyme disease are many.

    The most common are any combination of meningitis symptoms ; Disorders of the cranial nerves ; and damage to peripheral nerves causing pain and weakness or numbness, often similar to sciatica .

    A detailed neurological exam by a neurologist would look for signs of Parkinson’s disease – not just the tremors you described, but muscle stiffness and gait changes. These would be very unusual in Lyme disease. I found cases that resembled some aspects of Parkinson’s disease, but they improved with treatment.

    It’s possible that the stress of Lyme disease hastened the onset of Parkinson’s disease you were meant to be. I say your neurologist is “probably right” because what I’ve found – the lack of data to show a correlation – doesn’t mean there isn’t a correlation, and it is possible that time can prove the Lyme -Borreliosis related to Parkinson’s. However, I think it is unlikely.

    What Helps Parkinson Causes What Protects Dopamine Cells

    Turns out that no, it is not the caffeine! 

    Researchers at the Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, University of British Columbia, tested the ingredients in coffee.

    • They discovered that a compound called quercetin is in fact the main neuro protective compound in coffee against Parkinson’s disease as well as Alzheimer’s disease.

    How does it work? 

    They found that the quercetin actually reduced the amount of damage to the DNA, and the fats and proteins in the brain cells. .

    • The quercetin in the coffee, in turn increased the amount to GSH, or glutathione in the cells. 
    • It is already known that improving glutathione is very important for PD patients. Glutathione, GSH is the protective molecule that reduces damage inside brain and nerve cells, and keeps them healthy. 

    So, drink more coffee!!

    But protecting your brain is also multi-factoral! You may need a different Parkinson diet and supplements than others. 

    Unfortunately, it is not as simple as taking a pill! You have to take the pre-cursors, or building blocks. 

    Who Are At Risk Of Developing Drug Included Parkinsonism

    Some patients may be at a higher risk of developing medication-induced Parkinson

    ism than others. Some of the risks include-

    Women: Women are seen to be two times as much at risk of having drug inducing Parkinson’s disease than men.

    AIDS Patients: People with AIDS are at a higher risk.

    Family History: Patients having a family history Parkinson’s disease are at a higher risk of having drug induced Parkinsonism.

    Elderly: Since elder people are usually on multiple medicines, they are at risk of having drug induced Parkinsonism.

    How Environmental Factors Could Cause Parkinsons Disease

    Scientists differ about the extent that brain cells are impacted by environmental factors. However, the statistics associated with the disease show that the environment can play a very large role in whether parkinson’s disease develops.

    Most often, it is exposure to toxic chemicals that could play a role in the development of Parkinson’s disease. Usually, these combine with genetic factors to produce the conditions that cause Parkinson’s.

    Increasing scientific evidence suggests that Parkinson’s may be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to herbicides such as Paraquat.

    What Other Health Risks Have Been Linked To Paraquat Use


    Paraquat is highly toxic to humans – one small accidental sip is often fatal, and there is no antidote. Many deaths occur around the world each year from accidental ingestion of Paraquat, often as a result of the concentrate being transferred into a beverage container. Paraquat and another herbicide, Diquat, caused 85% of all herbicide-related deaths in the U.S. from 1998 to 2011.

    Other health risks due to long-term low-dose exposure to Paraquat include asthma, kidney disease, and scarring of the lungs.

    The Link Between Parkinsons Disease And Toxic Chemicals

    Member for

    New York Times

    The article highlights the link between Parkinson’s disease and toxic chemicals. Includes citations from Parkinson’s Foundation National Medical Director, Dr. Michael S. Okun’s new book, Ending Parkinson’s Disease. The article also highlights the rising prevalence of PD across the globe.

    Read full article

    This Chemical Is Banned In Europe But Common In The Us


    Doctors have a difficult time tracing cases of Parkinson’s Disease back to their root cause, in no small part because the degenerative neurological condition can be triggered by exposure to chemicals years before any symptoms emerge.

    But case numbers have increased drastically in the US over the course of the last decade, University of Rochester Medical Center neurologist Ray Dorsey warned The Guardian, and a carcinogen called TCE that’s commonly used in household and industrial cleaning products might be to blame.

    Scientists first linked TCE to Parkinson’s back in 2012, but the compound is often overlooked in studies on the disease because whole decades can pass in between exposure and the onset of symptoms in some cases, according to The Guardian. In the meantime, other causes — including gut hormones — have been linked to the disease, but an increasing body of evidence continues to point toward chemical exposure. TCE is banned in Europe, but there are no federal restrictions on it in the US, and only Minnesota and New York have banned the compound.

    “Numerous studies have linked well water to Parkinson’s disease, and it’s not just TCE in those cases, it can be pesticides like paraquat, too,” Dorsey told The Guardian.

    New Proof Of Environmental Link To Parkinson’s Disease

    Researchers based their study on previous findings that show exposure to environmental toxins may raise the risk of developing the disease by increasing the rate of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is related to the body’s ability to eliminate free radicals in the body and can result in cell damage within the body.

    In the study, researchers showed that flies lacking forms of the DJ-1 gene were normal under standard conditions. But when they were exposed to high doses of the herbicide paraquat and insecticide rotenone, which have previously been linked to Parkinson’s disease, the flies suffered from extreme oxidative stress and died.

    Researchers say these findings suggest that a loss of DJ-1 gene function increases sensitivity to chemicals that cause oxidative stress.

    Together, researchers say the results shed new light on the biological connections between the inherited and sporadic forms of Parkinson’s disease and may lead to more effective treatments.

    Certain Chemicals Lead To More Dangerous Contamination

    Those who consumed well water in close proximity to certain pesticides were found to be at a higher risk than others. In particular, the UCLA study found that people drinking well water within 500 meters of fields sprayed with pesticides had a 66 percent increased risk of later developing PD. Those drinking well water near land treated with the insecticides propargite or chlorpyrifos had a 90 percent higher risk. This translates into a nearly doubled risk of someday developing Parkinson’s.

    “The chemical with the most data linking it to an increased PD risk is paraquat,” says the APDA, referring to a chemical herbicide used to kill weeds. Exposure to paraquat is “associated with a 2-3 fold increased PD risk over the general population,” the organization warns.

    If you regularly consume well water, especially in areas being sprayed with chemical pesticides or herbicides, be sure to have your water filtered and regularly tested.

    Naturaltreatment For Parkinsons #6 Magnesium & Iodine:

    Magnesium is vital for the health of the entire nervoussystem, especially the protective layer that surrounds the nerves . Magnesiumis also essential for the production of dopamine and helps protect dopaminergicneurons in the substantia nigra from degeneration. In addition to this, new evidence is showing that low levels of magnesium in the brain causes a build-up ofheavy metals – a major factor in the development of Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s,epilepsy and MS. In a recent trial, 30 epileptics were given 450 mg ofmagnesium daily and this successfully controlled their seizures. Ifmagnesium can help epilepsy patients, it can certainly help Parkinson’s sufferers. Worldrenowned magnesium expert and author, Dr Carolyn Dean, has both Parkinson’s andAlzheimer’s disease in her “top 55 health conditions caused by amagnesium deficiency” list and says that magnesium is 100% essential for the preventionand treatment of both of these diseases… Dr Carolyn Dean Interview

    In regards to iodine, well-known researcher and author,Dr James Howenstein, says…

    “Iodineis found in large quantities in the brain and the ciliary body of the eye. A lackof iodine may be involved in the production of Parkinson’s disease andglaucoma.”

    “Inthe brain, iodine concentrates in the substantia nigra, an area of the brainthat has been associated with Parkinson’s disease.”

    David Brownstein M.D. 9

    Best Sources of Magnesium and Iodine…

    -What You’ll Need

    1 cup of Magnesium Chloride Flakes

    1 cup of Distilled Water


    Parkinson Causes: What Adds Up To Trigger The Disease

    Researchers say that Parkinson causes are “multifactorial”. 1

    Risk factors that add up as Parkinson Disease causes, are exposure to:

    • pesticides
    • environmental toxins and metals e.g. manganese, iron
    • drugs
    • genomic defects
    • injury in a specific location of the brain , resulting in neurologicdysfunction

    Some or all factors combine in the brain and nervous system and cause:

    • neuro-toxicity
    • oxidative stress

    A combination of factors can converge over a lifetime as Parkinson causes:

    • For instance, when researchers fed extra metal – iron  – and the pesticide rotenone to experimental animals, this led to Parkinsons Disease in the substantia nigra part of the brain.  
    • However, when they gave only one of these, or each separately — just iron or rotenone alone — this did not happen.2

    Is Parkinson’s a Syndrome rather than a specific Disease?

    There is evidence that instead of long term chronic exposure, there was likely a more specific “environmental” or toxic event or exposure.

    This would have killed some nigraldopaminergic cells, and damaging others. 3

    Chemical That Triggers Parkinson’s Disease Discovered

    Saint Louis University
    The key brain chemical that causes Parkinson’s disease has been discovered. This is a breakthrough finding that could pave the way for new, far more effective therapies to treat one of the most common and debilitating neurological disorders.

    Researchers at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine have discovered the key brain chemical that causes Parkinson’s disease – a breakthrough finding that could pave the way for new, far more effective therapies to treat one of the most common and debilitating neurological disorders.

    Currently, the main approach for treating Parkinson’s disease, which afflicts more than 1.5 million Americans, is to replace dopamine that’s lost when the cells that produce it die off and cause the disorder. With this new research, however, scientists can better work toward ‘neuroprotective’ therapies – those that actually block dopamine cells from dying off in the first place.

    “We believe this work represents a very significant breakthrough in understanding the complicated chemical process that results in Parkinson’s disease,” said William J. Burke, M.D., Ph.D., professor of neurology at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine and the study’s lead author.

    “For the first time, we’ve identified the chemical that triggers the events in the brain that cause this disorder,” Burke added. “We believe these findings can be used to develop therapies that can actually stop or slow this process.”

    Story Source:

    Clinicopathological Correlation In Parkinsons Disease


    PD is traditionally defined by a series of clinical symptoms. These are predominantly motor disorders that give rise to the rigid-akinetic syndrome. PD is the main aetiology of rigid-akinetic syndromes. Nevertheless, non-motor symptoms are widely distributed in PD patients.

    Figure 1

    Braaks staging of Parkinsons disease pathology progression. Illustrations showing the intracerebral progression of PD pathology. Schematics of the pathology progression from the ENS. Correlation between PD staging and the appearance of the pathology in different intracerebral structures. Modified from Braak et al. .

    Full size image

    Corresponding to structural alterations, there are motor and non-motor symptoms in iPD. The onset of motor features correlates with the loss of dopamine input to the posterior putamen, corresponding to the motor region of the striatum. The main classical features of PD are therefore mainly related to the dysfunction of the motor circuit. As the disease progresses and the loss of dopaminergic neurons increases, the dopaminergic input to other areas of the striatum and the cortex decreases, giving rise to clinical symptoms characteristic of the dysfunction of higher cerebral structures.

    Neurotoxicity Of Pq Mptp And Other Dopamine Congeners

    Several studies suggest that systemic administration of PQ can cause neuronal damage and a parkinsonian-like syndrome in experimental animals . The linking mechanism between PQ exposure and Parkinson’s disease is suggested by the alleged chemical similarity between this compound and others known to cause a parkinsonian syndrome, particularly MPTP. MPTP can reproduce most of the biochemical, neuropathological and clinical characteristics of human parkinsonism in both human and non-human primates,36 with the notable exception of Lewy body formation. MPTP toxicity has been studied in cell systems in mice and in non-human primates. In rats, dopaminergic neurodegeneration is observed at high doses,37 whereas mice have become the most commonly used species for MPTP studies as they develop a dopaminergic degeneration that may be related to human parkinsonism.

    Figure 1

    Mechanisms of PQ and MPTP toxicity. PQ can cause an oxidative stress either intracellularly by redox cycling or by activation at cell surfaces by the NADPH oxidase . Mitochondria can be affected indirectly or directly by PQ. In neurons the effects of PQ are believed to be primarily cytosolic. MPTP is converted to its toxic metabolite MPP+ and then sequestered through the dopamine transporter in dopaminergic neurons in which it primarily affects complex I, promoting oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage

    Full size image

    Natural Remedy For Parkinsons #4 Chlorella And Borax:

    If you have a neurological disease such as Parkinson’s orAlzheimer’s, the importance of removing heavy metals from the body – especiallyfrom the brain and nervous system – cannot be overstated. Heavy metalsaccumulate in the brain and nervous system at a rapid rate and cause damage tothe neurological pathways and “brain inflammation”. Fluoride is one ofthe worst, however, mercury, lead, aluminium and cadmium are also extremely dangerous.Chlorella and borax not only remove these heavy metals completely, theycontinue to prevent further toxic build-ups.

    Chlorella is a miracle blue-green algae and one of themost powerful detoxifiers and chelators yet discovered. Whenit’s combined with cilantro, its benefits are enhancedsignificantly. A Russian study found that chlorella, combined with cilantro,was able to remove all heavy metals from the body, including fluoride and mercury,with no adverse or harmful side effects. You can purchase chlorellain powdered form online or from most health food stores. Just make sure you buythe Broken Cell Wall Chlorella as this is the strongest and most bio-available.For dosage recommendations, simply follow the directions on the container.

    Naturalremedy For Parkinsons #10 Foods You Must Avoid

    The foods and liquids you should be eating and drinkingmore of to help you along include:

    The foods you should be avoiding or not eating at allinclude:

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