Thursday, June 16, 2022
Thursday, June 16, 2022
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What Are The Two Types Of Parkinson’s Disease



Whats The Difference Between Progressive Supranuclear Palsy And Parkinsons

Parkinson’s disease

People with PSP generally progress more rapidly than people with Parkinson’s. A person with Parkinson’s tends to lean forward while a person with PSP tends to lean backward. Tremors are common in people with Parkinson’s and rare in people with PSP. Speech and swallowing abnormalities are more severe and show up sooner in those living with PSP.

For more information on progressive supranuclear palsy, read this fact sheet and insights from the CurePSP organization website.

Treatments For Parkinsons Disease Dementia And Dementia With Lewy Bodies

Treatments for DLB are similar to PDD and are aimed at symptom control. The motor symptoms of slowness, stiffness and walking difficulties can be treated with Levodopa. However, Levodopa can cause or exacerbate hallucinations, making it difficult to use it as a treatment for patients who have or are at risk of having hallucinations. Sometimes, clinicians will need to treat the hallucinations more aggressively in order for a patient to tolerate Levodopa given to help the motor symptoms. On the flipside, anti-psychotic medications to control hallucinations can worsen motor symptoms, so treating all the symptoms of LBD simultaneously can be a tricky balancing act.

Some One Who Has Pd Has Likened It To Wearing A Leaded Body Suit

You have the will to get where you’re going or do what you want to do but your body is determined to get you there by the slowest means possible , while exerting the most energy you have. It’s as if your life has switched to slow motion and everything takes so much longer. You expect to look into the mirror and see the likeness of a 70 year old and yet, you’re only 42. Life can be hard.

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And in the everyday, here are 7 things you may not know about Parkinson’s disease.

What Lifestyle Changes Can I Make To Ease Parkinsons Symptoms

Improve the quality of your sleep.

Whats The Difference Between Dementia With Lewy Bodies And Parkinsons

In dementia with Lewy bodies, dementia always appears first. There can also be changes in alertness as well as visual hallucinations. However, because of the presence of Lewy bodies throughout the entire brain, characteristics of this disease not only include cognitive characteristics, but also physical, sleep, and behavioral changes. As the disease progresses, the motor symptoms common to Parkinson’s such as tremor, slowness, stiffness, and walking and balance problems will appear.

For more information on dementia with Lewy bodies, visit www.lbda.org.

Whats The Difference Between Corticobasal Degeneration And Parkinsons

The main difference between CBD and Parkinson’s is that it usually starts on one side with the gradual loss of use of one hand or leg , and there may be little flicks of involuntary muscle jerks. Walking and balance difficulties usually occur later in CBD than in Parkinson’s. Also, in CBD, a person may have trouble with purposeful movements, such as buttoning a shirt or cutting food.

For more information on corticobasal degeneration, read this information page.

Whats The Difference Between Multiple System Atrophy And Parkinsons

Parkinsons disease V Pharm.D

Parkinson’s and MSA both affect the movement control system and the involuntary autonomic control system and early symptoms can make a differential diagnosis a challenge. MSA, however, tends to progress faster than Parkinson’s; balance problems and a stooped posture happen earlier and get worse more quickly with MSA; and autonomic functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, sweating, bladder function, and sexual problems are more severe in people with MSA.

For more information on multiple symptom atrophy, read this fact sheet.

Whats The Difference Between Vascular Parkinsonism And Parkinsons

As the name implies, vascular parkinsonism is caused by cerebrovascular disease which affects the blood supply to the brain. Vascular parkinsonism is caused by one or more small strokes, while Parkinson’s is caused by a gradual loss of nerve cells. One major difference from Parkinson’s is that it’s not progressive, while Parkinson’s becomes worse with time. Another difference is that there are no tremors in vascular parkinsonism.

For more information on vascular parkinsonism, read this journal article.

What Lifestyle Changes Can I Make To Ease Parkinsons Symptoms

Exercise: Exercise helps improve muscle strength, balance, coordination, flexibility, and tremor. It is also strongly believed to improve memory, thinking and reduce the risk of falls and decrease anxiety and depression. One study in persons with Parkinson’s disease showed that 2.5 hours of exercise per week resulted in improved ability to move and a slower decline in quality of life compared to those who didn’t exercise or didn’t start until later in the course of their disease. Some exercises to consider include strengthening or resistance training, stretching exercises or aerobics . All types of exercise are helpful.

Eat a healthy, balanced diet: This is not only good for your general health but can ease some of the non-movement related symptoms of Parkinson’s, such as constipation. Eating foods high in fiber in particular can relieve constipation. The Mediterranean diet is one example of a healthy diet.

Preventing falls and maintaining balance: Falls are a frequent complication of Parkinson’s. While you can do many things to reduce your risk of falling, the two most important are: 1) to work with your doctor to ensure that your treatments — whether medicines or deep brain stimulation — are optimal; and 2) to consult with a physical therapist who can assess your walking and balance. The physical therapist is the expert when it comes to recommending assistive devices or exercise to improve safety and preventing falls.

Improve the quality of your sleep.

Research Roundup: Two Types Of Parkinson’s Disease And More

Every week there are numerous scientific studies published. Here’s a look at some of the more interesting ones.

Parkinson’s Disease is Actually Two Diseases

Researchers from Aarhus Universityin Denmark indicating that Parkinson’s disease is actually two types of the disease. This helps explain why there are so many different symptoms and pathways. Parkinson’s is marked by slow deterioration of the brain from accumulation of alpha-synuclein, a protein that damages nerve cells. This causes slow, stiff movements. Some patients apparently have damage to the brain’s dopamine system before damage in the intestines and heart occurs. Other patients have damage to the nervous systems of the intestines and heart before the damage in the brain’s dopamine system. The research was published in the journal Brain.

“With the help of advanced scanning techniques, we’ve shown that Parkinson’s disease can be divided into two variants, which start in different places in the body,” said Per Borghammer, professor of clinical medicine at Aarhus University. “For some patients, the disease starts in the intestines and spreads from there to the brain through neural connections. For others, the disease starts in the brain and spreads to the intestines and other organs such as the heart.”

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In Patients Where Parkinsons Disease Starts In The Brain:

The order of symptoms will be opposite patients whose Parkinson’s disease starts in the gut, Borghammer says. “The pathology probably starts inside the brain and doesn’t really create a lot of symptoms initially,” he says. “The first clear symptom to emerge is the motor symptoms, signifying that the dopamine system is damaged.”

The disease then spreads down in the brainstem, where it can cause sleep issues, he says. “Finally, the pathology reaches the peripheral nervous system and causes constipation, urinary problems, and blood pressure problems.”

What Are the Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease?

The Overlaps Between Stress And Parkinsons Disease Part 2

These changes in internal pressure under stress would also explain the feelings of heaviness/being crushed expressed above, since if the internal pressure forces in the body aren’t sufficient to overcome the external force of gravity, it would stand to reason that the body would start to adopt concave shapes, like the classic stooped posture of PD. This is easy to understand with a simple analogy of a balloon. If we pump up the balloon to a high pressure, the balloon would be perfectly round. However, if we then started to deflate it again, decreasing its internal pressure, then the sphere would begin to collapse under gravity: the balloon becomes more rugby ball or american football shaped. This is because the internal pressure pushing outwards is no longer sufficient to completely overcome the external force of gravity. As we keep deflating the balloon , the balloon will continue to flatten out on. Indeed, eventually it will be just be a flat pancake of rubber on the floor, of course.

What Are The Primary Motor Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease

There are four primary motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease: tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability . Observing two or more of these symptoms is the main way that physicians diagnose Parkinson’s.

Tremors

Vocal Symptoms

What Are The Surgical Treatments For Parkinsons Disease

What Is The Outlook For Persons With Parkinsons Disease

The future is hopeful. Some of the research underway includes:

What Are The Symptoms Of Atypical Parkinsonian Disorders

Like classic Parkinson’s disease, atypical Parkinsonian disorders cause muscle stiffness, tremor, and problems with walking/balance and fine motor coordination.

Patients with atypical Parkinsonism often have some degree of difficulty speaking or swallowing, and drooling can be a problem. Psychiatric disturbances such as agitation, anxiety or depression may also be part of the clinical picture.

Dementia with Lewy bodies can cause changes in attention or alertness over hours or days, often with long periods of sleep during the day. Visual hallucinations — typically of small animals or children, or moving shadows in the periphery of the visual field — are common in DLB. DLB is second only to Alzheimer’s disease as a cause of dementia in the elderly, and it most commonly affects patients in their 60s.

Patients with progressive supranuclear palsy may have difficulties with eye movements, particularly when looking downward, and with balance — when descending stairs, for instance. Backward falls are common and may occur during the early course of the disease. PSP is not usually associated with tremor, unlike Parkinson’s disease.

Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center

Learn more about the center

Clinical Confirmation Of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

The clinical manifestations of PSP-tau pathology are variable, and diagnosis can be difficult at times because of the subtle early signs that may be difficult to discern from other physical or psychological symptoms. The diagnosis of PSP should be considered in all patients presenting with parkinsonism not responding to levodopa therapy; postural instability with falls; executive dysfunction; slowing of vertical saccades/supranuclear vertical gaze palsy; or dysarthria/dysphagia .20

What Are The Surgical Treatments For Parkinsons Disease

PARKINSON’S DISEASE

Most patients with Parkinson’s disease can maintain a good quality of life with medications. However, as the disease worsens, medications may no longer be effective in some patients. In these patients, the effectiveness of medications becomes unpredictable – reducing symptoms during “on” periods and no longer controlling symptoms during “off” periods, which usually occur when the medication is wearing off and just before the next dose is to be taken. Sometimes these variations can be managed with changes in medications. However, sometimes they can’t. Based on the type and severity of your symptoms, the failure of adjustments in your medications, the decline in your quality of life and your overall health, your doctor may discuss some of the available surgical options.

What Is The Outlook For Persons With Parkinsons Disease

Although there is no cure or absolute evidence of ways to prevent Parkinson’s disease, scientists are working hard to learn more about the disease and find innovative ways to better manage it, prevent it from progressing and ultimately curing it.

Currently, you and your healthcare team’s efforts are focused on medical management of your symptoms along with general health and lifestyle improvement recommendations . By identifying individual symptoms and adjusting the course of action based on changes in symptoms, most people with Parkinson’s disease can live fulfilling lives.

The future is hopeful. Some of the research underway includes:

  • Using stem cells to produce new neurons, which would produce dopamine.
  • Producing a dopamine-producing enzyme that is delivered to a gene in the brain that controls movement.
  • Using a naturally occurring human protein – glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, GDNF – to protect dopamine-releasing nerve cells.

Many other investigations are underway too. Much has been learned, much progress has been made and additional discoveries are likely to come.

What Are The Treatment Options For Parkinsons Psychosis

Because Parkinson’s drugs can cause psychosis, your doctor will likely start by taking you off your medications, one at a time, or adjusting the dose. Changing your medication may make your movement symptoms worse.

Your doctor will keep adjusting your medication. The goal is to get you to a dose that improves your movement without causing hallucinations and delusions.

If changing your medication doesn’t work, the next step is to go on an antipsychotic medication. These drugs prevent psychosis symptoms by altering levels of chemicals in your brain.

Older antipsychotic drugs can make Parkinson’s movement symptoms worse. Newer drugs, called atypical antipsychotics, are less likely to affect your movement. These drugs are off-label, meaning they’re not approved to treat Parkinson’s specifically. They include:

  • clozapine
  • quetiapine

In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration approved pimavanserin . It’s the first drug designed specifically to treat Parkinson’s disease psychosis. Nuplazid reduces the number of hallucinations and delusions without affecting movement.

Nuplazid and other newer antipsychotic drugs do carry a black box warning. They can increase the risk of death in older people who have psychosis related to dementia. Your doctor will consider this and other risks before prescribing one of these drugs.

What Medications Are Used To Treat Parkinsons Disease

Medications combat Parkinson’s disease by:

Treatment Options For Early Onset Parkinsons Disease

What Medications Are Used To Treat Parkinsons Disease

Medications are the main treatment method for patients with Parkinson’s disease. Your doctor will work closely with you to develop a treatment plan best suited for you based on the severity of your disease at the time of diagnosis, side effects of the drug class and success or failure of symptom control of the medications you try.

Medications combat Parkinson’s disease by:

  • Helping nerve cells in the brain make dopamine.
  • Mimicking the effects of dopamine in the brain.
  • Blocking an enzyme that breaks down dopamine in the brain.
  • Reducing some specific symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

Levodopa: Levodopa is a main treatment for the slowness of movement, tremor, and stiffness symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Nerve cells use levodopa to make dopamine, which replenishes the low amount found in the brain of persons with Parkinson’s disease. Levodopa is usually taken with carbidopa to allow more levodopa to reach the brain and to prevent or reduce the nausea and vomiting, low blood pressure and other side effects of levodopa. Sinemet® is available in an immediate release formula and a long-acting, controlled release formula. Rytary® is a newer version of levodopa/carbidopa that is a longer-acting capsule. The newest addition is Inbrija®, which is inhaled levodopa. It is used by people already taking regular carbidopa/levodopa for when they have off episodes .

What Are The Different Stages Of Parkinsons Disease

Each person with Parkinson’s disease experiences symptoms in in their own unique way. Not everyone experiences all symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. You may not experience symptoms in the same order as others. Some people may have mild symptoms; others may have intense symptoms. How quickly symptoms worsen also varies from individual to individual and is difficult to impossible to predict at the outset.

In general, the disease progresses from early stage to mid-stage to mid-late-stage to advanced stage. This is what typically occurs during each of these stages:

Early stage

Early symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are usually mild and typically occur slowly and do not interfere with daily activities. Sometimes early symptoms are not easy to detect or you may think early symptoms are simply normal signs of aging. You may have fatigue or a general sense of uneasiness. You may feel a slight tremor or have difficulty standing.

Often, a family member or friend notices some of the subtle signs before you do. They may notice things like body stiffness or lack of normal movement slow or small handwriting, lack of expression in your face, or difficulty getting out of a chair.

Mid stage

Mid-late stage

Standing and walking are becoming more difficult and may require assistance with a walker. You may need full time help to continue to live at home.

Advanced stage

What Is Parkinsons Disease Its A Movement Disorder

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive brain illness that affects the way you move. In more clinical terms, Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system.

Normally, there are cells in the brain that produce a chemical called dopamine. Dopamine sends signals to the parts of your brain that control movement. When approximately 60-80% of the dopamine-producing brain cells are damaged, symptoms of Parkinson’s disease appear, and you may have trouble moving the way you want.

Parkinson’s disease is a chronic illness and it slowly progresses over time. While there is no therapy or medicine that cures Parkinson’s disease, there are good treatment options available that can help you live a full life.

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Is There A Way To Slow The Progress Of Parkinson’s

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder, which means its symptoms worsen slowly over time. There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease yet and no known way to slow its progress.

But there are treatments and medications that can control or reduce the symptoms and help people live productive lives. Some research suggests that regular exercise may slow the progress of Parkinson’s. Physical activity can also alleviate stiffness and other symptoms.

While it’s not always easy, neurologists say a positive mindset can also help.

Understanding The Two Forms Of Parkinsons Disease

Approximately 50,000 new cases of Parkinson’s are diagnosed every year. The disorder is more prevalent in men, but the risk of developing the disease increases in both genders with age. The majority of people don’t realize there’s more than one form of the disease.

Many seniors in the early stages of Parkinson’s are able to live on their own, but they may need a bit of help with everyday activities, such as exercising and preparing nutritious meals. Aging adults who require assistance with the tasks of daily living can benefit from reliable home care services.Families trust Home Care Assistance to provide the high-quality care their elderly loved ones need and deserve. Our caregivers are trained to help seniors prevent and manage serious illnesses and encourage them to make healthier decisions as they age.

Risk Factors Associated With Parkinson’s Disease

  • Age: This is the most significant risk factor for the condition since most people develop it after the age of 60.
  • Family history: Having a family history of this condition can raise your chances of getting it.
  • Sex: 50% more men than women develop Parkinson’s disease.
  • Exposure to pesticides and toxins: Air pollution, pesticides, and certain industrial pollutants are linked to an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Head injury: Having a head injury can lead to lower dopamine levels, particularly in people who have also been exposed to pesticides.

How to Increase Your Dopamine Levels Naturally

Why 2 Types Of Parkinsons Disease Are Plausible

Association of pain in Parkinson’s disease with anxiety ...

Study coauthor Per Borghammer, MD, PhD, a professor of clinical medicine at Aarhus University, tells Verywell that it’s unclear why this might happen, and points out that this is a hypothesis at this point. However, he and his research team have some theories.

One theory is that the type of Parkinson’s that starts in the intestines is triggered by the gut microbiome, as well as inflammatory states and infections. “In addition, the person probably needs to be vulnerable, have some risk genes,” Borghammer says. That can include being older, which is a known risk factor for Parkinson’s disease, he says.

When it comes to “brain-first” Parkinson’s disease, Borghammer thinks the onset is also probably triggered by certain genes, along with aging.

With both types of Parkinson’s disease, the disease process likely starts with bad luck, Borghammer says. “In short, the first pathology is simply a random event and, if the person is vulnerable, the pathological process may multiply and spread out of control,” he says. Borghammer compares this to the way cancer develops. “The first cancer cell is most likely created by random events—random mutations—but then it multiplies and spreads,” he says.

Parkinson’s Disease Is Not One But Two Diseases

Date:
Aarhus University
Summary:
Researchers around the world have been puzzled by the different symptoms and varied disease pathways of Parkinson’s patients. A major study has now identified that there are actually two types of the disease.

Although the name may suggest otherwise, Parkinson’s disease is not one but two diseases, starting either in the brain or in the intestines. Which explains why patients with Parkinson’s describe widely differing symptoms, and points towards personalised medicine as the way forward for people with Parkinson’s disease.

This is the conclusion of a study which has just been published in the leading neurology journal Brain.

The researchers behind the study are Professor Per Borghammer and Medical Doctor Jacob Horsager from the Department of Clinical Medicine at Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.

“With the help of advanced scanning techniques, we’ve shown that Parkinson’s disease can be divided into two variants, which start in different places in the body. For some patients, the disease starts in the intestines and spreads from there to the brain through neural connections. For others, the disease starts in the brain and spreads to the intestines and other organs such as the heart,” explains Per Borghammer.

He also points out that the discovery could be very significant for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease in the future, as this ought to be based on the individual patient’s disease pattern.

Story Source:

What Its Like To Have Parkinsons For 15 Minutes

Technology

I’m at a close friend’s wedding, waiting to give a speech. Public speaking always makes me anxious, but today it’s worse than usual: my hand is shaking noticeably and I can’t seem to make it stop. The loss of control is unnerving.

When I try to speak to a neighbour, my voice comes out in a whisper, even though it seems to take more effort. Soon, my upper arm feels tired. I tell myself I just need to relax and snap out of it. I pick up my spoon and fill it with soup, but this only makes the tremors more obvious, as the metal beats against the bowl.

For a moment, I have forgotten that I’m immersed in an interactive installation called Transports, created by Liam Jarvis and his team from the Analogue theatre company.

It aims to simulate the physical and psychological effects of the early stages of Parkinson’s disease by taking inspiration from body illusions, like the rubber hand trick, in which the brain accepts a fake limb as its own.

Exercise Is Vital For Managing Parkinsons Disease

Research shows that people with Parkinson’s disease who exercised a minimum of two and a half hours a week experienced a slower decline in quality of life. Regular exercise helps significantly with maintaining balance, mobility and the ability to accomplish daily tasks. Workouts that focus on flexibility, stretching, aerobic activity and resistance training such as tai chi, Pilates and dance are often the most appropriate.

Parkinsons Disease And Sex: What You Need To Know

Age

What Are The Types Of Parkinsons Hallucinations

Hallucinations can affect any of the five senses:

  • Sight . Seeing something that isn’t there, such as insects crawling on the walls or a deceased relative.
  • Hearing . Hearing voices or sounds that aren’t real.
  • Smell . Smelling an odor that isn’t there, like cookies baking or a skunk’s spray.
  • Feeling . Feeling imaginary things, like bugs crawling on your skin.
  • Taste . Having a strange taste in your mouth that isn’t from something you’ve eaten or a medical condition.

Some people sense the presence of a person or an animal nearby. Others see real objects transform into other things — for example, a vase changes into a dog.

It’s more common to have hallucinations at night, when the darkness creates shadows. Hallucinations can last anywhere from a few seconds to a few minutes.

Early in the disease, most people with Parkinson’s psychosis have insight, which means they understand that what they’re experiencing isn’t real. Later in the disease, often people lose insight and believe that what they see, hear, or feel is real.

Early Symptoms Of Parkinson’s Can Be Overlooked

Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are divided into 2 groups: motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms.

Early non-motor symptoms can be subtle and it’s possible to overlook them as signs of Parkinson’s: for example, anxiety and depression, fatigue, loss of smell, speech problems, difficulty sleeping, erectile dysfunction, incontinence and constipation. Another sign of Parkinson’s is handwriting that becomes smaller.

Diagnosis And Management Of Parkinsons Disease

There are no diagnostic tests for Parkinson’s. X-rays, scans and blood tests may be used to rule out other conditions. For this reason, getting a diagnosis of Parkinson’s may take some time.  

No two people with Parkinson’s disease will have exactly the same symptoms or treatment. Your doctor or neurologist can help you decide which treatments to use.

People can manage their Parkinson’s disease symptoms through: 

  • seeing a Doctor who specialises in Parkinson’s
  • medication
  • multidisciplinary therapy provided for example, by nurses, allied health professionals and counsellors
  • deep brain stimulation surgery .

Medications For People With Parkinsons Disease

Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease result from the progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the brain and other organs such as the gut, which produce a neurotransmitter called dopamine. This causes a deficiency in the availability of dopamine, which is necessary for smooth and controlled movements. Medication therapy focuses on maximising the availability of dopamine in the brain. Medication regimes are individually tailored to your specific need. Parkinson’s medications fit into one of the following broad categories: 

  • levodopa – dopamine replacement therapy
  • dopamine agonists – mimic the action of dopamine
  • COMT inhibitors – used along with levodopa. This medication blocks an enzyme known as COMT to prevent levodopa breaking down in the intestine, allowing more of it to reach the brain
  • anticholinergics – block the effect of another brain chemical to rebalance its levels with dopamine
  • amantadine – has anticholinergic properties and improves dopamine transmission
  • MAO type B inhibitors – prevent the metabolism of dopamine within the brain.

Scans Reveal The Starting Point Of The Disease

Parkinson’s disease is characterised by slow deterioration of the brain due to accumulated alpha-synuclein, a protein that damages nerve cells. This leads to the slow, stiff movements which many people associate with the disease. In the study, the researchers have used advanced PET and MRI imaging techniques to examine people with Parkinson’s disease. People who have not yet been diagnosed but have a high risk of developing the disease are also included in the study. People diagnosed with REM sleep behaviour syndrome have an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.

The study showed that some patients had damage to the brain’s dopamine system before damage in the intestines and heart occurred. In other patients, scans revealed damage to the nervous systems of the intestines and heart before the damage in the brain’s dopamine system was visible.

This knowledge is important and it challenges the understanding of Parkinson’s disease that has been prevalent until now, says Per Borghammer.

“Until now, many people have viewed the disease as relatively homogeneous and defined it based on the classical movement disorders. But at the same time, we’ve been puzzled about why there was such a big difference between patient symptoms. With this new knowledge, the different symptoms make more sense and this is also the perspective in which future research should be viewed,” he says.

New Knowledge Offers Hope Of Better Treatment

The study from Aarhus University is longitudinal, i.e. the participants are called in again after three and six years so that all of the examinations and scans can be repeated. According to Per Borghammer, this makes the study the most comprehensive ever, and it provides researchers with valuable knowledge and clarification about Parkinson’s disease – or diseases.

“Previous studies have indicated that there could be more than one type of Parkinson’s, but this has not been demonstrated clearly until this study, which was specifically designed to clarify this question. We now have knowledge that offers hope for better and more targeted treatment of people who are affected by Parkinson’s disease in the future,” says Per Borghammer.

According to the Danish Parkinson’s Disease Association, there are 8,000 people with Parkinson’s disease in Denmark and up to eight million diagnosed patients worldwide. This figure is expected to increase to 15 million in 2050 due to the ageing population, as the risk of getting Parkinson’s disease increases dramatically the older the population becomes.

What Are The Different Forms Of Parkinsonism

Pharmacology

There are three main forms of parkinsonism, as well as other related conditions.

Most people with parkinsonism have idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, also known as Parkinson’s. Idiopathic means the cause is unknown.

The most common symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson’s are tremor, rigidity and slowness of movement.

Vascular parkinsonism affects people with restricted blood supply to the brain. Sometimes people who have had a mild stroke may develop this form of parkinsonism.

Common symptoms include problems with memory, sleep, mood and movement.

Some drugs can cause parkinsonism.

Neuroleptic drugs , which block the action of the chemical dopamine in the brain, are thought to be the biggest cause of drug-induced parkinsonism.

The symptoms of drug-induced parkinsonism tend to stay the same – only in rare cases do they progress in the way that Parkinson’s symptoms do.

Drug-induced parkinsonism only affects a small number of people, and most will recover within months – and often within days or weeks – of stopping the drug that’s causing it.


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