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Does Parkinson Disease Make You Tired

Pain In Parkinsons Disease: A Spotlight On Women

What is Parkinson’s Disease?

This 2-page interview with neurologist, Dr. Jori E. Fleisher, discusses pain in Parkinsons disease with some interesting statistics about women and pain. Dr. Fleisher outlines the 4 primary types of pain in PD, how depression interferes with pain management, the role of exercise and medications in pain management as well as alternative therapies.

What Is Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease is a nervous system disease that affects your ability to control movement. The disease usually starts out slowly and worsens over time. If you have Parkinsons disease, you may shake, have muscle stiffness, and have trouble walking and maintaining your balance and coordination. As the disease worsens, you may have trouble talking, sleeping, have mental and memory problems, experience behavioral changes and have other symptoms.

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Revisiting Pain In Pdthe 50 Shades Of Pain Experienced By Parkinsons Patients

Pain is a quality of life issue for people with Parkinsons disease and can be under treated by doctors who may assume that is worsens as the disease progresses, although for some pain is an initial symptom of PD. This article helps focus your physicians attention in the right direction to accurately diagnose your pain.

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How Is Parkinson Disease Treated

Parkinson disease cant be cured. But there are different therapies that can help control symptoms. Many of the medicines used to treat Parkinson disease help to offset the loss of the chemical dopamine in the brain. Most of these medicines help manage symptoms quite successfully.

A procedure called deep brain stimulation may also be used to treat Parkinson disease. It sends electrical impulses into the brain to help control tremors and twitching movements. Some people may need surgery to manage Parkinson disease symptoms. Surgery may involve destroying small areas of brain tissue responsible for the symptoms. However, these surgeries are rarely done since deep brain stimulation is now available.

How Are Sleep Problems Diagnosed In People With Parkinsons Disease

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If youre having problems sleeping, sit down with your healthcare provider to discuss the issue in detail. Your provider will ask you questions to better understand your symptoms.

Be prepared to explain when sleep disruptions happen and how they affect your life. Keeping a sleep journal for a few weeks can help you remember the details.

If your provider suspects you may have a sleep disorder, they may recommend you have a sleep study. This overnight test uses electrodes attached to your skin to track how your body functions when youre sleeping.

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What Else Can I Do To Sleep Better With Parkinsons Disease

Practicing healthy sleep hygiene habits may also promote more restful sleep.

  • Get outside during the day. Bright light tells your body its time to be awake.
  • Keep your body moving during the day. Even if all you feel up to is a short walk or two, all physical activity offers benefits.
  • Try at-home remedies, such as massage or a warm bath. Relaxing your mind may help your body fall asleep.

Dont:

  • Take long naps during the day.
  • Use stimulants, such as caffeine, within six hours of bedtime.
  • Use your bedroom for activities other than sleeping. Go to another room to read, watch TV or work.

Sleep Disorders In Parkinson’s Disease By Amer G Aboukasm

Although the daytime clinical manifestation of Parkinson’s disease have been well recognized for almost two centuries, the nocturnal symptoms, which occur in as many as 75% of patients and the associated sleep disorders were not studied until the 1960s. A variety of psychological and physiological processes can lead to disruption of the normal rhythm of the sleep-wake cycle in patients with Parkinsonism. First, the degenerative process in Parkinson’s disease affects the neurophysiological and neurochemical systems responsible for sleep organization, thus results in disruption of sleep. Second, the motor, respiratory and behavioral phenomena accompanying the disease may produce nocturnal symptoms. Third, the medication used in its treatment may induce new symptoms, such as nightmares or nocturnal movements. All these effects on sleep have implications for treatment planning.

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Fourth Type Of Leg Pain Is Radicular Pain

In this case, the pain is caused by compression of nerves in lumbar area which results in weakness, numbness and tingling, and loss of reflexes from buttocks to foot in a distribution of a nerve. It can be acute or chronic, and can be worse with standing and sitting, or better with laying down. Of note: in my experience many patients including myself have these symptoms not because of physically herniated disc but rather by the stretching of a nerve in the canal as it exists due to severe musculoskeletal rigidity and abnormal posturing.

Delusions From Parkinsons Disease

Fatigue and Sleepiness in Parkinsons Disease

Delusions affect only about 8 percent of people living with PD. Delusions can be more complex than hallucinations. They may be more difficult to treat.

Delusions often start as confusion that develops into clear ideas that arent based on reality. Examples of the types of delusions people with PD experience include:

  • Jealousy or possessiveness. The person believes someone in their life is being unfaithful or disloyal.
  • Persecutory. They believe that someone is out to get them or harm them in some way.
  • Somatic. They believe they have an injury or other medical problem.
  • Guilt. The person with PD has feelings of guilt not based in real behaviors or actions.
  • Mixed delusions. They experience multiple types of delusions.

Paranoia, jealousy, and persecution are the most commonly reported delusions. They can pose a safety risk to caregivers and to the person with PD themselves.

PD isnt fatal, though complications from the disease can contribute to a shorter expected life span.

Dementia and other psychosis symptoms like hallucinations and delusions do contribute to increased hospitalizations and increased rates of death .

One study from 2010 found that people with PD who experienced delusions, hallucinations, or other psychosis symptoms were about 50 percent more likely to die early than those without these symptoms.

But early prevention of the development of psychosis symptoms may help increase life expectancy in people with PD.

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Diagnosis And Treatment Of Parkinsons Sleep Problems

Parkinsons disease is chronic and progressive, meaning it tends to get worse over time. However, there are treatment options that can help manage symptoms and allow patients to get more restful sleep.

The simplest way to start sleeping better with Parkinsons disease is by adopting healthy sleep habits. Sleep hygiene tips for Parkinsons disease sufferers include:

  • Sticking to regular bedtimes
  • Following a consistent bedtime routine with soothing activities such as listening to music or reading a calming book
  • Getting regular exercise, preferably early in the day
  • Getting adequate exposure to light, whether outdoors or through light therapy
  • Avoiding long naps and naps late in the day
  • Creating a cool, dark, and comfortable sleeping environment
  • Restricting bedtime activities to sex and sleep only
  • Turning off screens an hour before bedtime
  • Reducing liquid intake before bedtime
  • Avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco
  • Eating a healthy diet and avoiding large meals at night

Light therapy, exercise, and deep brain stimulation have been successfully used to improve overall sleep quality and to treat specific conditions, such as REM sleep behavior disorder, in patients with Parkinsons disease. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia has proven effective at reducing insomnia in healthy adults, although further research is needed on the effects of CBT in patients with Parkinsons disease.

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What Treatment Is Available

For treatment to be effective, it is essential to understand the trigger or cause of the dystonia. Certain medications may be effective for some people but not for others. Some work by interfering with neurotransmitters in the brain and disrupting the messages they send to muscles. Others work by relaxing the muscles to reduce shaking and improve muscle control.

Depending on the cause and severity of your dystonia, your doctor may suggest the following strategies:

Remember that not all of these strategies will work for everyone so it is important to communicate well with your doctor so that, together, you can find the best solution for you.

Keeping a diary: If the dystonia is levodopa-related, it is a good idea to keep a motor diary to record when dystonic spasms occur and how they relate to the timing of medications. This information can help your doctor adjust dosage and/or timings of medication to better manage your dystonia. For more information, see Keeping a diary.

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Treatment Depends On Properly Identifying The Type

If pain is bilateral always assume it is central pain pain due to PD. In my experience Azilect works great for this type of pain. Other medications which can be employed for this pain as well.

Massage therapy works for all types of leg pain-my favorite therapy but can be costly. Water therapy may also work for all types except central pain. Physical therapy can alleviate dystonia pain, as well as musculoskeletal and radicular pain.

If pain is due to dystonia related to levodopa intake, find out when it occursend of dose or at peak dose. Typically adjusting medication doses will resolve problem. However, if dystonia is an initial symptom of PD, initiating treatment with levodopa will resolve. If medication adjustment does not work well for levodopa induced dystonia, another treatment option is DBS . Pain due to dystonia independent of cause can also respond well to Botox injections, as well as centrally acting muscle relaxants. To avoid and alleviate pain caused by stiff muscles, a great treatment option is activity in the form of stretching exercisesany number of activities will do such as tai-chi or yoga. For me when I start having radicular pain shooting down my leg it is time to up my levodopa dosage.

If you are having leg pain make sure to discuss it with your physician.

Understanding The Lexicon Of Fatigue In Parkinsons Disease

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Article type: Research Article

Authors: Mantri, Snehaa * | Klawson, Emilyb | Albert, Stevenb | Nabieva, Karinac | Lepore, Madelined | Kahl, Stephene | Daeschler, Margaretf | Mamikonyan, Eugeniag | Kopil, Catherinef | c | Chahine, Lana M.d

Affiliations: Department of Neurology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA | Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA | The Edmond J Safra Program in Parkinsons disease, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, USA | Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA | Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA | Michael J. Fox Foundation, New York, NY, USA | Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Correspondence: Correspondence to: Sneha Mantri, MD, MS, 932 Morreene Rd, DUMC 3333, Durham NC 27705, USA. Tel.: +1 919 684 1947 E-mail: .

Keywords: Fatigue, Parkinsons disease, qualitative research

DOI: 10.3233/JPD-202029

Journal: Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1185-1193, 2020

Abstract

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Parkinsons Sleep Problems: Diagnosis And Treatment

Parkinsons disease is chronic and progressive, meaning it tends to get worse over time. However, there are treatment options that can help manage symptoms and allow patients to get more restful sleep.

The simplest way to start sleeping better with Parkinsons disease is by adopting healthy sleep habits. Sleep hygiene tips for Parkinsons disease sufferers include:

  • Sticking to regular bedtimes
  • Following a consistent bedtime routine with soothing activities such as listening to music or reading a calming book
  • Getting regular exercise, preferably early in the day
  • Getting adequate exposure to light, whether outdoors or through light therapy
  • Avoiding long naps and naps late in the day
  • Creating a cool, dark, and comfortable sleeping environment
  • Restricting bedtime activities to sex and sleep only
  • Turning off screens an hour before bedtime
  • Reducing liquid intake before bedtime
  • Avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco
  • Eating a healthy diet and avoiding large meals at night

Light therapy, exercise, and deep brain stimulation have been successfully used to improve overall sleep quality and to treat specific conditions, such as REM sleep behavior disorder, in patients with Parkinsons disease. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia has proven effective at reducing insomnia in healthy adults, although further research is needed on the effects of CBT in patients with Parkinsons disease.

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Sleep Disturbances In Parkinsons Disease

In general, research seems to indicate that people with Parkinsonâs disease have more sleep disruptions than similarly aged people without the disease. The most commonly reported sleep-related problems are the inability to sleep through the night and difficulty returning to sleep after awakening, generally referred to as maintenance insomnia. Unlike many older adults, patients with Parkinsons disease often find that they have no trouble initiating sleep, but often wake up within a few hours and find sleeping through the rest of the night to be difficult. People with Parkinsonâs disease also report daytime sleepiness, nightmares, vivid dreams, nighttime vocalizations, leg movements/jerking while asleep, restless legs syndrome, inability to or difficulty turning over in bed, and awakenings to go to the bathroom.

Although all the reasons for these sleep changes are unknown, potential explanations include reactions to/side effects of medications and awakening due to symptoms such as pain, stiffness, urinary frequency, tremor, dyskinesia, depression and/or disease effects on the internal clock.

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Imaging Of Fatigue In Pd

Motor symptoms in PD result from nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation, but dopaminergic dysfunction does not appear to be related to fatigue in PD. In the ELLDOPA cohort, 49 levodopa-naive PD patients with fatigue had similar –CIT striatal dopamine transporter uptake as 82 PD patients without fatigue. Another study showed no difference in 18F-dopa uptake between 10 fatigued PD subjects and 10 nonfatigued PD subjects.,

Serotonin transporter uptake has been reported to be reduced in chronic fatigue syndrome,, suggesting that nondopaminergic pathways may be involved in PD fatigue. Pavese et al. compared serotonergic transporter uptake ligand 11C-DASB) in seven PD subjects with fatigue and eight PD subjects without fatigue. Serotonin transporter binding in the caudate, putamen, ventral striatum, insula, and thalamus was decreased in the fatigued patients. The relationship of the cholinergic system to PD fatigue has not been investigated. The autonomic nervous system may also be involved in PD fatigue. One study found that pressor responses in norepinephrine and dobutamine infusion tests were greater and MIBG cardiac uptake was decreased in PD subjects with fatigue compared with those without fatigue.,

How Are Sleep Problems Treated In People With Parkinsons Disease

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Your provider will recommend treatments that address whats causing your sleeping challenges. Your provider may:

  • Change your medication: If a medication could be causing your sleep issues, your provider may decide to adjust your treatment plan. Reducing the dose or switching medicines may solve the problem.
  • Prescribe a new medication or therapy: If you have a sleep disorder, your provider will discuss your options. In some cases, your provider may recommend a new medication. If you have sleep apnea, wearing a special oral appliance can help. The device enables you to get a steady flow of oxygen, so your body doesnt gasp for air.
  • Suggest lifestyle changes: Your daily habits and sleeping environment can help or hurt your sleep efforts. Setting regular sleep and wake times, keeping the room dark and avoiding electronic screens at bedtime may improve how well you sleep. If you have REM sleep disorder, your provider will discuss options for how best to protect you while you sleep.

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Study Sample And Assessments

Phase 1 and Phase 2 Sample Recruitment: Fox Trial Finder was used to identify individuals for this phase of the study. As previously described , FTF is a database of research volunteers. Individuals enrolled in FTF were sent an email invitation to participate in a study of fatigue in PD. The screening questionnaire included a question on dopamine agonist use, the Parkinson Fatigue Scale , Epworth Sleepiness Scale , and the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 item . In an effort to study primary fatigue participants self-reporting use of a dopamine agonist or with ESS> 10 or GDS> 5 were excluded.

Phase 1 Activities: Online journaling occurred for 1 hour per day over 3 days with a pilot sample of 12 participants . The online journaling phase consisted of interactive activities including responding to pictures and graphics and completing free-text responses to prompts provided by the research moderator . Prompts are included in the Appendix. The data collected from phase 1 were informally analyzed by the study team to define dimensions of fatigue important to patients and to inform data collection in other phases.

Assessments in Phase 3, including those administered as part of Fox Insight study as well as additional questionnaires/surveys collected as part of the PDEC 2018 sub-study, that were considered in this analysis are as follows:

What Types Of Sleep Problems Do People With Parkinsons Disease Have

Parkinsons disease affects every person differently. It also impacts sleep in different ways. People with Parkinsons may have:

  • Insomnia, finding it hard to fall asleep.
  • Fragmented sleep, waking up many times over the night.
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness, finding it hard to stay awake during the day.
  • Very vivid dreams, which may cause hallucinations or confusion after waking up.
  • Emotional dreams or nightmares, which may make you feel emotionally drained after waking up.

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Adverse Health Effects Of Methamphetamines

In addition to dopamine cell death, abuse of methamphetamine, a nervous system stimulant, can also lead to memory loss and cardiovascular damage, as well as psychotic behaviors, social isolation, aggravation or aggression, and mood disorders including anxiety, depression, and paranoia.

Someone who is abusing methamphetamine is also likely to experience an increase in both respiration and heart rate, irregular heartbeats, a significant reduction in appetite, and severe insomnia. Methamphetamine abuse can also lead to a feeling skin crawling, in which someone feels compelled to scratch or pick at their skin. Hair loss and tooth decay are also common with long-term use of methamphetamine, as is malnutrition from changes in diet.

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