Depression And Pd: A Non
This 2-page fact sheet explains and recommends cognitive behavioral therapy to manage Parkinsons-related depression. ;Set goals for daily activities with a focus on exercise, socialization and positive emotional self care. ;Recognize negative thoughts and implement strategies to minimize them. ;Work with your care partner to reinforce positive behaviors and implement healthy habits.
Parkinsons Disease And Depression: Causes And Treatments
Parkinson’s disease and depression are incredibly common, but that doesn’t make them easy to live with. Depression can occur as the result of the emotional challenges of Parkinson’s disease as well as from chemical changes in the brain or medication side-effects. Depression in Parkinson’s disease can be treated much the same as for the general population, with some exceptions. Let’s explore everything we know about Parkinson’s disease and depression, including causes, symptoms and treatments.
Help For Depression And Anxiety
Depression is a serious matter for anyone. For people with Parkinson’s, it can affect critical elements of disease management such as staying socially connected, exercising and proactively seeking needed care.
It is not always easy to recognize depression in oneself. Be on the lookout for a lack of interest in activities and situations that once brought you joy. Pay attention to observations made by family and friends, and talk to your doctor if you’re not feeling like yourself. Sometimes, your physicians may not even ask you about these conditions if you don’t mention changes in mood or outlook.
NOTE: If you are in crisis, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at or visit;www.suicidepreventionlifeline.org.
Helping Parkinsons Patients With Depression
Due to changes that Parkinsons causes in the chemistry of the brain, depression is a common side effect. ;Even though at least half of those with PD suffer with depression, most go undiagnosed or are under-treated. ;This short article explains the physiological and psychological factors that contribute to depression, the most common symptoms and numerous treatment options.
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Suicidal Behaviour In Ms
Suicidal ideation is very common in MS. In one study, a quarter of clinic attenders with MS had suicidal ideation sometime in the week before their attendance. Around 3% of people with MS will kill themselves. A study of the cause of death in 3000 people with MS over 16 years indicated that 15% of the deaths were recorded as suicide. Other studies have confirmed this increased risk and indicated that additional risk factors for suicide in MS include being male, young age of onset, previous history of depression, social isolation, and substance abuse. A study comparing MS patients with and without lifetime suicidal ideation could distinguish the groups by severity of depression, social isolation, and alcohol abuse. This study also noted that patients with suicidal ideation often were not in receipt of psychiatric evaluation.
The differential diagnosis of depression in MS includes adjustment disorders, paroxysmal changes in mood , and mood changes in relation to drugs for MS.
A number of drugs used to treat MS or its symptoms have been implicated as risk factors for low mood. There are case reports of steroid induced low mood in MS and other disorders. All the anti-spasticity drugs have been associated with low mood . There are also case reports of psychiatric changes following the abrupt discontinuation of baclofen and other anti-spasticity drugs. This means that history taking in respect to depression should include a detailed drug history.
Diagnosis Of Depression Post
A number of factors can make the diagnosis of depression difficult post-CVA. Communication difficulties, impairments of facial and emotional expression, and disturbance in vegetative functions can make assessment of mental state extremely difficult. A deterioration in function over a few days or weeks following a period of improvement is one clinical clue for the development of depression.
Extreme abulia can sometimes be mistaken for depression and can be related to either frontal and diencephalic lesions. The patient may appear to be extremely retarded but may function at a high level within a structured environment. Dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine, have been used to treat abulia.
Pathological emotionalism is relatively common after stroke, affecting up to 20% of patients in the first six months post-stroke but tending to improve over the following year. Severe examples of pathological emotionalism have been treated with antidepressant medication and levodopa.
Scales Used To Measure Depression In Parkinsons Disease
As mentioned above, symptoms of idiopathic PD have considerable overlap with those of depression. This means that standard rating scales for depression may not be valid in this situation. Rating scales for depression may be loaded with somatic or vegetative symptoms, which reduce their validity.
Three rating scales have been tested using a clinical interview with operationalised diagnosis as a gold standard. Using receiver operating curves, the sensitivity and specificity at a given cut off point can be calculated. From this methodology, it is clear that the Beck depression inventory is not a useful rating scale in PD. The Montgomery and Asberg depression rating scale and the Hamilton depression scale have performed better. In summary, diagnosis of depression should be made clinically, using appropriate diagnostic criteria, with severity or response to treatment being measured using MADRS or HAM-D.
Breathing Problems And Parkinsons Disease
Usually, trouble breathing is not thought of as a symptom of PD. Those with PD who complain of this will typically have testing of their heart and lung function. This is necessary since, as we continue to emphasize, a person with PD can develop medical problems unrelated to PD and needs every new symptom evaluated like someone without PD. However, often the testing does not reveal a cardiac or pulmonary abnormality. Could difficulty breathing be a symptom of PD itself?
There are a number of ways in which difficulty breathing may be a symptom of PD:
Shortness of breath can be a wearing-OFF phenomenon
Some non-motor symptoms can fluctuate with brain dopamine levels, which means that they change as a function of time from the last levodopa dose. For some people, shortness of breath can be one of the non-motor symptoms that appears when medication levels are low. However, shortness of breath can be due to anxiety which can also be a wearing-OFF phenomenon. Sometimes it is not possible to determine whether the key symptom is anxiety or shortness of breath.; Treatment involves changing medication dosing and timing so that OFF time is minimized. You can view this webinar which discusses the concept of wearing OFF and potential treatments.;
Abnormal breathing can be a type of dyskinesia
Restrictive lung disease
Serotonin Hypothesis Of Depression
Serotonin is mainly produced in the dorsal raphe nucleus . Serotonin transporters take up released serotonin from the synaptic cleft into serotonergic neurons in a manner that helps to modulate various functions in the brain including mood and emotion . The striatum, the amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex are regions of the brain that are innervated by serotonergic neurons . These brain regions including the dorsal raphe nucleus which is part of the brains serotonergic system, are activated during early maternal stress . Abnormal 5-HT levels in these brain areas have been associated with depression . Pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that early life stress affects 5-HT levels in the brain and this may lead to depression . Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are a class of antidepressant drugs commonly used to treat depression . SSRIs work by blocking 5-HT re-uptake thus increasing the availability of 5-HT in the synaptic cleft as well as its chance to bind to receptors in the post-synaptic membrane . Therefore, by restoring the levels of monoamines and their transporters in the brain, SSRIs drugs are appropriate treatments to address early life stress dysfunction that predisposes to depression later in life.
Depression Linked With Parkinson’s Disease Risk
20 May 2015
People who have been diagnosed with depression may have an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease later on, a new study suggests.
In the study, researchers looked at about 140,000 people who had been diagnosed with depression between 1987 and 2012. They matched each of them with three people of the same age and gender who had not been diagnosed with depression. The people in the study were all at least 50 years old by 2005.
The investigators followed the participants for 26 years, and found that 1 percent of the people with depression developed Parkinson’s disease, whereas 0.4 percent of the people without depression developed the disease.
The researchers noted that Parkinson’s disease is not common, even among people with depression. “Only a very little proportion of those with depression develop;Parkinson’s disease,” said study author Peter Nordström, of Umeå University in Umeå, Sweden.
Still, the link should be studied further because the new study adds to the growing body of research connecting Parkinson’s disease with certain other health conditions and personality traits. For example, a 2012 study presented at the American Academy of Neurology meeting that year showed that people who are cautious and avoid taking risks are more likely to develop the disease.
The study was published today in the journal Neurology.
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Ask The Md: Depression And Anxiety In Parkinsons Disease
This 4-minute video is a summary of depression and anxiety symptoms in Parkinsons disease by Dr. Rachel Dolhun. ;She packs a lot of information into such a short time, ;explaining precisely how both can be managed with medication, talk therapy and/or behavioral strategies, such as regular exercise and social activities.
How Does Alcohol Affect Parkinsons Symptoms
In general, alcohol can be harmful to people with chronic conditions. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , overconsuming alcohol can be a long-term risk factor for a weakened immune system, learning and memory problems, high blood pressure, digestive issues, and various types of cancer. When looking specifically at Parkinsons symptoms, however, reports differ on how alcohol and PD may be linked.
The type of alcoholic beverage consumed may affect whether drinking has an impact on PD. A 2013 study found that the risk for developing Parkinson’s disease appeared to increase depending on the amount of liquor consumed, although no link was conclusively found between drinking wine and the development of PD.
In terms of how long-term alcohol use affects the risk of PD, one study published in 2013 followed people who had been admitted to the hospital with alcohol use disorders for up to 37 years. The study authors found that a history of alcohol abuse increased the risk of admission into the hospital for Parkinsons for both men and women. The study authors suggested that chronically drinking too much alcohol can have neurotoxic effects on dopamine, the neurotransmitter in the brain that is relevant to Parkinson’s disease.
There may also be factors other than observable symptoms such as how alcohol interacts with your medication that are important to consider when making decisions about your lifestyle and drinking habits.
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How Is Depression Diagnosed
Most people with PD will go undiagnosed or undertreated for;depression; therefore, being diagnosed is a critical first step towards effective treatment and recovery. To be diagnosed with depression, a person must experience one of the following symptoms most of the time over the previous two weeks:
- Depressed mood;
- Loss of interest or pleasure in activities once enjoyed
In addition, some of the following symptoms must be present:
- Changes in sleep or appetite
- Increased fatigue
- Feeling slowed down or restless
- Feeling worthless and guilty
- Suicidal thoughts or a wish for death
Epidemiology Of Depression Post
Epidemiological studies of depression post-stroke are fraught with a variety of methodological problems related to ascertainment bias, rating of depression, and the heterogeneity of cerebrovascular disease. The peak incidence of depression is between six months and two years post-stroke and point prevalence for depression varies between 1034% according to studies. In one large, US based, community epidemiological study, patients with depression post-stroke were more likely to be younger, more often white and less likely to be alive three years post-cerebrovascular accident than those who were not depressed post-stroke.
Other risk factors for depression include functional and cognitive impairment, a past history of depression, and a lack of social support
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Gait And Balance Problems
One of the most debilitating effects of Parkinsons disease is the loss of coordination and control in body movements, which in many cases leads to severe walking disabilities. Although gait symptoms can vary among patients, there are some commonly observed movements. These include a tendency to lean or stoop forward while walking, dragging and shuffling of feet, and a decreased arm swing.
How To Address Suicidal Thoughts
People living with Parkinson’s benefit most from a comprehensive, team-based healthcare approach that includes a social worker, therapist, psychologist or counselor. With a team in place, should depression or suicidal thoughts occur, you have an established relationship with a professional you trust. However, it is never too late to add a mental health professional to your care team.;
The below tips are designed to help you find support for yourself if you have thoughts of suicide.;
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A Combined Depression/pd Animal Model
In our own studies, we have developed an animal paradigm that combines the striatal 6-OHDA lesion model of PD with the CVS-induced model of depression. With this model we are able to examine the combined effects that chronic stress and relatively progressive dopaminergic neuron loss can have on motor symptoms and nigral cell degeneration. We have observed that CVS worsens motor symptoms and increases neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc . However, it appears that the stressors needs to be administered concomitant with the neurotoxin lesion in order to do so, as administering the stressors only prior to or only following the lesion did not affect motor symptoms. The stress dysfunction occurring prior to the onset of motor symptoms and continuing after neuronal loss ultimately causes a worsening of the PD symptoms and accelerates nigral dopaminergic cell degeneration. Potential mechanisms underlying this CVS-induced exacerbation of experimental parkinsonism are currently being investigated.
Mood Changes In Parkinson’s
When faced with a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease , it is understandable to feel depressed or anxious. But mood disorders such as;depression and anxiety are clinical symptoms of Parkinson’s, just as are slowness of movement and tremor. In fact, up to half of all people with Parkinson’s may suffer from depression and/or anxiety at some point during the course of their disease. Like all symptoms of PD, mood changes are different for different people. Some people with depression feel sad and lose interest in things they used to enjoy, while others feel irritable and have difficulty sleeping. People with anxiety often feel overly worried or concerned, or say they are “on edge.”
The good news: Over the past decade, researchers have placed increasing focus on these aspects of PD, and today we have a;better understanding of how to treat mood disorders;in Parkinson’s.
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Depression And Parkinsonism In An Animal Model Of Neurodegeneration
Early post-natal maternal separation is widely used to create an animal model that exhibits some depressive/anxiety-like behaviors . This established model of depression is useful to study 6-OHDA lesion of the medial forebrain bundle to lesion nigrostriatal DA neurons. We recently investigated the antiparkinsonian effects of Fluvoxamine maleate in a parkinsonian rat model of neurodegeneration associated with anxiety/depressive-like behaviors . Although these studies were a small exploratory open-label trial, they anticipated outcomes on a larger double-blind placebo-controlled study that include non-depressive animals with Parkinsonism. Fluvoxamine maleate treatment has shown potential in decreasing dopaminergic neuronal loss as well as potential to regulate neuronal pro- and anti-inflammation markers in the striatum . Therefore, a combined animal model of chronic stress-induced depression with a 6-OHDA lesioned parkinsonian animal model is an appropriate model to investigate the relationship between depression and PD. This association suggests that the stressor needs to be applied prior to the injection of the neurotoxin 6-OHDA to combine depressive-like behaviors with a potential risk of developing motor-symptoms that characterize Parkinsonism. This combination showed the double advantage of investigating a non-motor symptom as part of an early onset of PD together with the neuroprotective effects of a treatment on the development of the disease.
Parkinsons Disease And Alcohol: Your Guide
If you have Parkinsons disease , you may be wondering whether alcohol consumption affects the development or progression of your condition. Some people may wonder if they should avoid drinking completely. As one MyParkinsonsTeam member asked, How does alcohol affect Parkinsons how much can I drink? Or should I avoid drinking altogether?
Some studies havent found that small amounts of alcohol are associated with a higher PD risk, while others highlight the dangers alcohol can pose for anyone with a chronic condition. In addition, there may be adverse interactions between alcohol and common Parkinsons medications. Because of conflicting information, people with PD may feel confused about whether or not to drink.
Ive been told by more than one doctor that I should not have any alcohol, one MyParkinsonsTeam member wrote. And at this point, I dont remember which doctor or specifically why.
So, how do you decide what approach to take?
If you have Parkinsons disease and are trying to decide whether or not to reduce your drinking or quit alcohol completely here are some things to consider.
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