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Parkinson’s And Cancer Treatment

Parkinsons Disease And Cancer: Whats The Connection

Towards a Stem Cell-Based Treatment for Parkinson’s Disease — Where do we stand?

Researchers have long tried to understand the relationship between Parkinsons disease and cancer, with multiple studies conducted over the years. Intuitively, PD and cancer are not at all similar, and can even be thought of as biochemically opposite in one disease , cells die unexpectedly and in the other , cells divide too often and are perpetuated for too long. In fact, there have been many epidemiological studies over past decades that have shown that patients who have had cancer have a lower risk of developing PD than the general population. Other studies have shown that people with PD have lower overall cancer risks than people without PD.

Despite many papers demonstrating this inverse relationship between PD and overall cancer risk, an occasional study has been conducted which concluded that people with PD have an increased risk of cancer. It can be confusing to understand the different studies and determine how the resulting information may or may not apply to you.

Here we highlight some of the more common cancer-related topics when it comes to PD:

Parkinsons Disease Associated With Higher Risk Of Certain Cancers

People with Parkinsons disease and their relatives may be more likely to develop prostate cancer and melanoma. Researchers believe neurodegenerative diseases may share common mechanisms with the cancers.

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Dysfunctional Protein Clearance Systems

There are two central protein clearance systems within cells responsible for the removal of dysfunctional proteins: the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosome pathway. The UPS is primarily responsible for breaking down abnormal proteins, and it does so by tagging them with ubiquitin and transporting them to the proteasome for degradation. The autophagy-lysosome pathway is divided into three constituents: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy . Briefly, in macroautophagy, intracellular components, including cytosolic proteins, are engulfed by the autophagosome, which then fuses with the lysosome, leading to the breakdown of its contents. On the other hand, in microautophagy, the lysosome alone engulfs and destroys cytoplasmic components. CMA is a more selective process, whereby molecular chaperones target specific proteins and transport them to the lysosome for degradation . Monomeric -synuclein is generally cleared by both the UPS and the autophagy-lysosome pathway , and damage in either of their machineries is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD by contributing to the accumulation of defective proteins, in particular soluble misfolded -synuclein .

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Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated And P53

ATM can activate repair proteins in response to DNA double-strand breaks, but when the DNA repair machinery is overwhelmed, ATM can also activate p53 to induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. p53 has been recently shown to be involved in aging and neurodegenerative disorders. In PD, p53 levels are increased, possibly through s-nitrosylation of parkin , where it mediates microglial activation and subsequent pro-inflammatory phenotypes, leading a p53-driven microglial-evoked neurotoxicity . In addition, interaction of p53 with -synuclein is purported to suppress Notch1 signaling, leading to retarded neurogenesis in mature neurons . Inhibition of p53 prevents cell death .

Natural Ways To Treat Parkinsons

Stem Cells Parkinson

1. Exercise: The neuroactivity that occurs in your brain needs to be protected, and according to researchers, exercise increases the protection of that activity. Researchers have related exercising to taking medicationâif you donât continue to do it, you will not see distinctive results.

2. Medication: The key to taking your Parkinsonâs medication is timing. The medication will eventually wear off, so you want to ensure that you take your medication at scheduled times.

3. Dietary habits: A strict diet will also impact how effective the medication will work and it can help manage the symptoms. Avoid heavy proteinâprotein can interfere with a commonly-prescribed Parkinsonâs medication called levodopa. You shouldnât obtain more than 12% of your daily calories from protein. In order to properly follow a low-protein diet, you will want to carefully read the labels of every product you purchase work with your doctor or dietitian to properly structure a diet plan.

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4. Lifestyle changes: Making certain changes at home can also make it significantly easier for people to function and deal with Parkinsonâs symptoms. For example, hiring the services of an occupational therapist may be a good idea. This type of therapist will generally look at where your furniture is placed to make it easier for you to maneuver around or where to place extra railings and extensions for your toilets.

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Coping With Parkinsons Hallucinations

Living with hallucinations is difficult. It can make you question whats real and whats not. It can also cause you to develop mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety. While your healthcare provider is in the best place to provide effective treatment, here are ways you can cope with the pressures of living with Parkinsons hallucinations:

  • Talk to your family and friends: Letting the people who are closest to you know whats going on can relieve some of the pressure. When the people around you know whats happening, they are more equipped to support you through hallucination episodes.
  • Speak to your healthcare provider often: Keep your healthcare provider updated about changes and developments in your condition. If you have a hallucinatory episode even once, dont dismiss it. Contact your doctor about it immediately. The earlier they are aware, the quicker they can get on top of the situation and provide you with efficient and adequate care.

Hallucinations can also be difficult for a person with Parkinsons carer to manage. Knowing how to manage a hallucinatory episode is crucial as a caretaker of a person with Parkinsons disease.

Invalidating the experience of a person having hallucinations or telling them that what they are experiencing isnt real does very little to help them.

Instead, provide support. If they become stressed, try out calming techniques such as deep breathing exercises to help alleviate their stress.

Reasons Why Parkinsons Disease Occurs

The scientific reason given for Parkinsons disease is that the patient has lost nerve cells in the part of the brain called the substantia nigra. A very important chemical called dopamine is produced by the substantia nigra. The loss of the ability to produce dopamine contributes to the early stages of Parkinsons disease.

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Types And Symptoms Of Cognitive Changes

Discuss all of these possible causes of cognitive problems with your health care team. This will help you receive the correct diagnosis and treatment.

Mild cognitive changes

Sometimes survivors experience changes in their ability to remember or concentrate after they have chemotherapy. This typically mild form of cognitive change is sometimes called chemo-brain. Even these typically mild cognitive changes can disrupt daily living and the ability work. Symptoms include:

  • Difficulty concentrating and multi-tasking.
  • Inability to think clearly.

Neurocognitive effect of tumors

A tumor or cancer cells in the brain can injure healthy cells and can cause cognitive changes. Chemotherapy, radiation and surgery are treatments that are used to remove or destroy cancer cells. However, they can also damage some of the surrounding healthy cells either by direct administration or by impacting the brain indirectly. Depending on how much damage occurs, there could be noticeable symptoms such as with thinking, memory, speech, visual-spatial problems and behavior changes.

Acute onset cognitive changes

Acute onset cognitive changes are those that occur suddenly. Some acute changes, such as delirium, come and go with no real pattern. This can happen during treatment with certain medications and chemotherapy agents, and may be reversible. Symptoms include:

  • Fluctuating alertness and orientation.

Other cognitive changes in cancer survivors

Multiple Sclerosis Vs Parkinsons Disease: Treatment And Therapies

Parkinson’s Disease (Shaking Palsy) – Clinical Presentation and Pathophysiology

Treatment for multiple sclerosis is lifelong, and although it cannot cure the condition, it aims to minimize symptoms and allow the patients to live as normal of a life as possible. Some treatment methods include corticosteroids and plasma exchange, beta interferons, Glatiramer acetate, Dimethyl fumarate, Fingolimod, Teriflunomide, Natalizumab, Alemtuzumab, and Mitoxantrone, which all help to reduce the likelihood of relapses.

Other treatment methods include physical therapy to improve mobility, muscle relaxants, medications to reduce fatigue, and other medications like antidepressants, medications to control the bowels and bladder, and medications to improve sexual function.

Exercise, meditation, yoga, and acupuncture are also recommended as a means to reduce stress and improve overall mental and physical well-being.

There is no cure for Parkinsons disease as well, but treatments are available to manage the symptoms and slow down the disease progression as much as possible. Alongside traditional treatments, supportive therapies are also used to improve different aspects of a persons health.

Common medications prescribed in Parkinsons disease include dopamine replacement therapy, dopamine agonists, anticholinergics, amantadine, monomine oxidase type B inhibitors, and catechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitors.

You can work closely with your doctor to create a specific treatment plan for you.

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Differentiating Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms With Parkinsons Disease

Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis include numbness or weakness in one or more limbs, partial or complete vision loss, prolonged double vision, tingling or pain, electric-shock sensations, tremors and lack of coordination, fatigue, dizziness, slurred speech, and problems with bowel and bladder function.

Parkinsons disease symptoms typically begin with tremors followed by muscle stiffness, difficulty standing or walking, changes in speech, slow movements, impaired posture and balance, loss of automatic movements, and writing changes.

As you can see, Parkinsons disease and multiple sclerosis do have some symptoms in common, which can make early diagnosis difficult.

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Chronic Inflammation Links Cancer And Parkinsons Disease

  • 1Translational Medicine Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China
  • 2Key Laboratory for Cancer T-Cell Theranostics and Clinical Translation, Xiamen, China
  • 3INNOVA Cell Theranostic, Yangzhou, China
  • 4TRANSLA Health Group, Xiamen, China

An increasing number of genetic studies suggest that the pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease and cancer share common genes, pathways, and mechanisms. Despite a disruption in a wide range of similar biological processes, the end result is very different: uncontrolled proliferation and early neurodegeneration. Thus, the links between the molecular mechanisms that cause PD and cancer remain to be elucidated. We propose that chronic inflammation in neurons and tumors contributes to a microenvironment that favors the accumulation of DNA mutations and facilitates disease formation. This article appraises the key role of microglia, establishes the genetic role of COX2 and CARD15 in PD and cancer, and discusses prevention and treatment with this new perspective in mind. We examine the evidence that chronic inflammation is an important link between cancer and PD.

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Prostate Cancer Cause May Be Linked To Parkinsons Disease Through A Common Enzyme: Study

The role of individual genes that trigger prostate cancer onset is yet to be fully understood. Researchers have undertaken to explore an enzyme that regulates prostate cancer formation in order to develop effective preventative strategies. Sirtuin enzymes have been associated with neurodegeneration, obesity, heart disease, and cancer. The research revealed the loss of one of sirtuin prompts the formation of prostate cancer in mice models.

Researcher Dr. Richard Pestell said, Using genetic deletion, we found that SIRT1 normally restrains prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in animals. Therefore, too little SIRT1 may be involved in the cellular processes that start human prostate cancer As we had shown that gene therapy-based re-expression of SIRT1 can block human prostate cancer tumor growth, and SIRT1 is an enzyme which can be targeted, this may be an important new target for prostate cancer prevention.

The researchers created a mouse model that lacked SIRT1 and found that the mice were more likely to develop prostate cancer.

The next logical step in this line of research is to determine whether the processes at work in SIRT1-defficient mice carry the same significance for the development of prostate cancer in humans.

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Parkinsons Disease And Prostate Cancer

Parkinson´s Facts

University of Utah School of Medicine scientists have found compelling evidence that Parkinsons disease is linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer and melanoma, and that this increased cancer risk also extends to close and distant relatives of individuals with Parkinsons disease. Eventhough a link between Parkinsons disease and melanoma has been suspected before, this is the first time that an increased risk of prostate cancer has been reported in Parkinsons disease.

Did you know? Parkinsons disease and prostate cancer

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Common Symptoms Of Drug

The motor features of PD are often very easy to see via a neurologic exam in a doctors office. Rest tremor for example, is seen in virtually no other illness and can therefore be very important in diagnosing PD. But there is one other common condition that induces the symptoms of PD, including a rest tremor, which must be considered every time PD is being considered as a diagnosis, and that is drug-induced parkinsonism.

Parkinsonism is not technically a diagnosis, but rather a set of symptoms including slowness, stiffness, rest tremor, and problems with walking and balance. This set of symptoms can be caused by PD, but also can occur as a side effect of certain prescription medications .

A number of medications can cause parkinsonism because they block the dopamine receptor and thereby mimic the symptoms of PD that are caused by loss of dopamine neurons in the brain. Reviewing a patients medications is therefore a critical step for a neurologist when seeing someone with parkinsonism. Anti-psychotics and anti-nausea treatments make up the bulk of the problematic medications, although there are other medications that can also cause parkinsonism. The primary treatment for this type of parkinsonism is weaning off of the offending medication, if possible.

Surgery For Parkinsons Disease

Based on the severity of the condition and the medical profile, the doctor may recommend surgery as one treatment option for Parkinson’s disease.

There are several types of surgery that may be performed that can help patients with Parkinson’s disease. Most of the treatments are aimed at helping the tremor or rigidity that comes with the disease. In some patients, surgery may decrease the amount of medication that is needed to control the symptoms.

There are three types of surgeries that may be performed for Parkinson’s disease, including the following:

It is important to remember that surgery may help with symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, but does not cure the disease or stop the progression of the disease.

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What Are The Causes Of Parkinsons Tremor

The exact cause of tremors in Parkinsons isnt fully understood. It may be tied to the degradation of cells that produce dopamine in the brain. And the causes may vary for different tremors.

Symptoms of Parkinsons can also differ among people. About 75 percent of people with Parkinsons disease report the presence of some kind of tremor, but not everyone who has the condition experiences tremors.

Rest tremors are frequently an early sign of the condition and are often used to make a Parkinsons diagnosis. But studies have shown that several types of tremors can affect people with Parkinsons.

For example, in a 2018 study involving nearly 400 people with Parkinsons:

  • 20 percent of the participants had no rest tremor at the start of the study
  • almost 90 percent had some sort of tremor
  • about 70 percent reported rest tremors
  • 50 percent reported both postural and kinetic tremors

Many people have also reported changes in the type, severity, and location of tremors throughout the course of their experience with Parkinsons disease.

Tremors in the hands are most common, but some people may also have Parkinsons tremors in the:

In the early stages of the disease, tremors usually only appear on one side of the body, but tremors can spread to both sides of the body as the condition progresses.

Other factors like stress or difficult emotional events can also affect the strength or frequency of tremors.

Sensitivity Analysis And Publication Bias

Parkinson’s Disease Symptoms, Treatment, Nursing Care, Pathophysiology NCLEX Review

In sensitivity analysis, we recalculated the combined OR by omitting one study per iteration. Each study included in our meta-analysis showed no obvious influence on the effect size. Neither the funnel plot nor the publication bias was performed in any pooling analysis due to the included studies were less than ten.

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Literature Search And Data Extraction

This meta-analysis followed the MOOSE guidelines for reporting meta-analysis on observational studies and was registered on PROSPERO . We searched all published literature that reported PD association with cancer in MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE up to 1 March 2021. Search items related to PD, cancer and epidemiological studies were identified and modified for each database. We constrained our search in human studies and in the English language. Detailed search terms can be found in . Duplicates were matched based on author, year, and title in Endnote X9 and manually compared before removing.

Is It Genetic Or Environmental

Underlying functional changes are part of the disease process for prostate cancer, PD and melanoma.1 PD and cancer seem to have opposite effects on cells. PD degenerates nerve cells, and cancer causes cells to grow out of control. Identifying any genetic links between these diseases may help direct future screening and development of treatment protocols. Similarly, environmental factors may play an influential role. The Utah study had a geographically-controlled and genetically-similar population.

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