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Does Parkinson’s Affect Handwriting

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What Are The Complications Of Parkinson Disease

Parkinson disease causes physical symptoms at first. Problems with cognitive function, including forgetfulness and trouble with concentration, may arise later. As the disease gets worse with time, many people develop dementia. This can cause profound memory loss and makes it hard to maintain relationships.

Parkinson disease dementia can cause problems with:

  • Speaking and communicating with others
  • Problem solving
  • Forgetfulness
  • Paying attention

If you have Parkinson disease and dementia, in time, you likely won’t be able to live by yourself. Dementia affects your ability to care of yourself, even if you can still physically do daily tasks.

Experts don’t understand how or why dementia often occurs with Parkinson disease. Its clear, though, that dementia and problems with cognitive function are linked to changes in the brain that cause problems with movement. As with Parkinson disease, dementia occurs when nerve cells degenerate, leading to chemical changes in the brain. Parkinson disease dementia may be treated with medicines also used to treat Alzheimer’s disease, another type of dementia.

Diagnosing Parkinsons Vs Essential Tremor

The difference between essential tremor and Parkinsons can be so slight that it can be difficult for doctors to diagnose these conditions correctly. In fact, they are often mistaken for one another, which can be frustrating for physicians and patients alike. Specialty physicians that diagnose and treat these conditions are Movement Disorder Neurologists.

While there are no official tests for either condition, there are several diagnostic techniques that physicians employ to attempt properly diagnose essential tremor vs. Parkinsons, including:

  • Physical examination: During a physical examination, a physician evaluates the patients motor skills to help in their determination of whether they suffer from essential tremor vs. Parkinsons.
  • DaTscan: During a DaTscan, a radioactive tracer is injected, which makes its way into the brain, where it attaches to dopamine transporters. Special imaging scans are then conducted to see whether the dopamine system is healthy. If it is irregular, it may help diagnose your condition as Parkinsons.
  • Handwriting sample evaluation: A doctor may be able to differentiate Parkinsons vs. essential tremor using a handwriting sample because those with Parkinsons typically exhibit exceptionally small handwriting, whereas those with ET exhibit larger, shaky handwriting.

What Causes Parkinsons Movement Symptoms

Dopamine is a chemical messenger that is primarily responsible for controlling movement, emotional responses and the ability to feel pleasure and pain. In people with Parkinsons, the cells that make dopamine are impaired. As Parkinsons progresses, more dopamine-producing brain cells die. Your brain eventually reaches a point where it stops producing dopamine in any significant amount. This causes increasing problems with movement.

Page reviewed by Dr. Chauncey Spears, Movement Disorders Fellow at the University of Florida, a Parkinsons Foundation Center of Excellence.

Hand And Finger Stimulation Exercises

I have done a lot of hand/finger stimulation and experimented to optimize such exercises, in the spirit of Curiosity and Play. Ive personally found significant benefit in pursuing this line of research. Indeed, I have managed to recover a lot of my independence and quality of life through hand and finger therapy, and I know just how much of a major part it has played in my own progressive symptom reduction.

I therefore encourage everyone with PD to do as much hand and finger stimulation as possible, through games and play and self-discovery. By doing nothing, the only thing that will happen is that out situation will rapidly become worse, because we will lose the use of our hands quicker and consign ourselves to increased suffering. By applying neuroplasticity techniques , we can delay the worse ravishes of the disease or even, like in my own case, continuously push the symptoms back and recover some independence. I feel this is an important message for those newly diagnosed, in particular.

Here are some suggestions of the type of stimulatory exercises and games which can help, more ideas which I have personally found beneficial will be provided in forthcoming articles.

How Is Parkinson Disease Treated

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Parkinson disease can’t be cured. But there are different therapies that can help control symptoms. Many of the medicines used to treat Parkinson disease help to offset the loss of the chemical dopamine in the brain. Most of these medicines help manage symptoms quite successfully.

A procedure called deep brain stimulation may also be used to treat Parkinson disease. It sends electrical impulses into the brain to help control tremors and twitching movements. Some people may need surgery to manage Parkinson disease symptoms. Surgery may involve destroying small areas of brain tissue responsible for the symptoms. However, these surgeries are rarely done since deep brain stimulation is now available.

If Your Handwriting Changes Be Sure To Adjust Your Signature On Important Documents

If your handwriting begins to get smaller, there’s a good chance your signature may change as welland it’s important to document the shift, the Parkinson’s Foundation notes. “When it comes to legal documentsfrom financial documents to advanced directives and planned givinghave your lawyer prepare several formal witnessed and notarized affidavits which you sign at different points during the day to document the changes in your signature,” suggests the foundation. Having this can be helpful down the line if your signatures aren’t matching up.

What Is The Outlook For Persons With Parkinsons Disease

Although there is no cure or absolute evidence of ways to prevent Parkinsons disease, scientists are working hard to learn more about the disease and find innovative ways to better manage it, prevent it from progressing and ultimately curing it.

Currently, you and your healthcare teams efforts are focused on medical management of your symptoms along with general health and lifestyle improvement recommendations . By identifying individual symptoms and adjusting the course of action based on changes in symptoms, most people with Parkinsons disease can live fulfilling lives.

The future is hopeful. Some of the research underway includes:

  • Using stem cells to produce new neurons, which would produce dopamine.
  • Producing a dopamine-producing enzyme that is delivered to a gene in the brain that controls movement.
  • Using a naturally occurring human protein glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, GDNF to protect dopamine-releasing nerve cells.

Many other investigations are underway too. Much has been learned, much progress has been made and additional discoveries are likely to come.

Tips For Living With Hallucinations

It is important for people with PD to talk about hallucinations with their family and care team, because they are manageable and can be troublesome if not treated. Discuss all possible symptoms with your doctor, no matter how minor, rare or bizarre you may think they are.

  • Good lighting and stimulating activities in the evening can help keep hallucinations at bay.
  • While a hallucination is occurring, caregivers can help their loved one by reassuring them that they will be safe and validating their partners experience. For example, say, Ill take the cat outside instead of arguing that there is no cat.

Handwriting Changes Indicates Development Of Parkinsons Disease

  • Parkinson’s disease affects a lot of people nowadays
  • There are early symptoms that could prompt you to find treatment at the earliest
  • One of the symptoms can appear on your handwriting

In Parkinsons disease, the nerve cells located deep within the brain become damaged, and over time, it causes a huge part of the brain to sustain damage as well. Among the symptoms of Parkinsons disease are tremors or the involuntary shaking of certain parts of the body, stiff and inflexible muscles, and slow movement. Another symptom of Parkinsons disease is a noticeable change in the handwriting of a person.

A Sign In Handwriting

According to the Mayo Clinic, patients suffering from Parkinsons disease may find it hard to write. If they manage to write at all, the penmanship may appear illegible or small. parkinson’s disease symptomsPhoto: StartupStockPhotos – Pixabay

This is known as micrographia. It is characterized by tiny or cramped handwriting. Those suffering from the condition may also find they start their handwriting normally, then as they continue writing, the penmanship becomes progressively smaller.

The Reason

Parkinsons Foundation said that it is true handwriting may change as you grow older. This is particularly true if your hands or fingers feel stiff from bone and muscle conditions like arthritis. It may also occur if you are suffering from poor vision.

Other Parkinson s Disease Symptoms

How Is Parkinsons Disease Diagnosed

Diagnosing Parkinsons disease is sometimes difficult, since early symptoms can mimic other disorders and there are no specific blood or other laboratory tests to diagnose the disease. Imaging tests, such as or scans, may be used to rule out other disorders that cause similar symptoms.

To diagnose Parkinsons disease, you will be asked about your medical history and family history of neurologic disorders as well as your current symptoms, medications and possible exposure to toxins. Your doctor will look for signs of tremor and muscle rigidity, watch you walk, check your posture and coordination and look for slowness of movement.

If you think you may have Parkinsons disease, you should probably see a neurologist, preferably a movement disorders-trained neurologist. The treatment decisions made early in the illness can affect the long-term success of the treatment.

What Are The Surgical Treatments For Parkinsons Disease

Most patients with Parkinsons disease can maintain a good quality of life with medications. However, as the disease worsens, medications may no longer be effective in some patients. In these patients, the effectiveness of medications becomes unpredictable reducing symptoms during on periods and no longer controlling symptoms during off periods, which usually occur when the medication is wearing off and just before the next dose is to be taken. Sometimes these variations can be managed with changes in medications. However, sometimes they cant. Based on the type and severity of your symptoms, the failure of adjustments in your medications, the decline in your quality of life and your overall health, your doctor may discuss some of the available surgical options.

Correlations Among Assessments And Other Variables

contains statistically significant Pearsons correlation values for pertinent variables and assessments. Participants age was significantly correlated with the pure tone average air conduction threshold for both the PD and control groups. Age was also correlated with RAVLT total score in the PD group but not in the control group . Significant correlations were found between age and several central auditory assessments for the control group. However, the PD group only exhibited a significant correlation between age and WIN test in the left ear . In all of these examples, greater age was associated with poorer performance on assessments.

In addition to age, pure tone average air conduction threshold also correlated significantly with several assessments: WIN test , Dichotic Digits Test in the right ear, and HHIA score for both groups; GIN detection test in the right ear, SSW test, and spatial release from masking test for the control group; and RAVLT score for the PD group . In all of these examples, greater PTA air conduction threshold was associated with poorer performance on assessments.

Particularly Small Handwriting Can Be An Early Sign Of Parkinson’s Disease

Alternative Treatment for Parkinson

If you notice your handwriting has gotten smaller and more cramped, it could be an early sign of Parkinson’s. Tiny, crowded handwriting, also known as micrographia, is frequently one of the early symptoms of the disease, according to the Parkinson’s Foundation.

Parkinson’s affects the brain in a way that can lead to “movements are that slower and smaller than normal,” James Beck, PhD, the Parkinson Foundation’s Chief Scientific Officer told Best Life. So, considering it requires movement, the handwriting of a person with Parkinson’s will likely begin to shrink and slow as well.

Physician Chris Airey, MD, medical director at Optimale, confirms that “a sudden change to small handwriting can be a sign that a person is beginning to find it difficult to control the movement of their hand and exercise fine motor skills such as writing.”

Though a change in handwriting could be due to something else, Beck says there are a handful of other early signs of Parkinson’s to look out for, including constipation, a diminished sense of smell, and reduced arm swing when walking. “A common Parkinson’s disease symptom is stiffness,” said Beck. “This will usually be described as a sore shoulder. The joint is fine, but the muscles, due to the disease, are very rigid and can be painful to move.” Physically active people may also notice their coordination is reduced while engaging with things they used to be good at, such as golf or tennis.

Movement Feature Extraction And Analysis

The handwriting recordings were filtered using a frequency domain low pass filter at 7 Hz . The beginning and end points of the writing pattern were first roughly located by the first and the last sample, respectively, where the absolute vertical velocity exceeded 5% of the absolute peak velocity. Subsequently, the beginning and end points of the patterns were located more precisely by searching in the opposite direction for respectively the first and last zero crossing or reversal. Finally, the segmentation points were estimated by linear interpolation between the two successive samples where the vertical velocity crosses the zero level. Each stroke pattern was thus segmented into alternating up and down strokes and occasional segmentation points between two consecutive up strokes or two consecutive down strokes were removed. A stroke pattern verifier was used to check that each pattern consisted of a sequence of counterclockwise loops. Initial downward strokes were removed. Any trials with less than six up-down stroke pairs, or that did not form six cursive l loops, were discarded. The proportion of discarded trials was 2.5% in the young, 4.2% in the elderly controls, and 13.4% in the patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Tips For Coping With Breathing Difficulties

  • Work with your doctor to identify and treat any non-PD causes of shortness of breath, such as lung disease, heart disease or lack of physical conditioning and endurance.
  • Exercise as much as possible. Shortness of breath may lead a person to move less. Less physical activity reduces the ability to take deep breaths. Staying active improves pulmonary function.
  • Take steps to cope with anxiety. Talk with your doctor to figure out what sets off anxiety and find treatments and techniques that work for you.
  • Speak to your doctor about getting an evaluation performed by a speech-language pathologist  who can help you address issues related to swallowing.
  • Give up smoking.

Page reviewed by Dr. Chauncey Spears, Movement Disorders Fellow at the University of Florida, a Parkinsons Foundation Center of Excellence.

Why Does Parkinsons Disease Cause A Mask

PD is a chronic, progressive disease that affects the nerves, especially the nerves that control muscle movement. There are at least 43 muscles in the face, which move in concert to create expressions ranging from happiness to anger and despair. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter that transmits the signal from the brain to the muscles to produce movement. When PD damages the nerve cells that produce dopamine, the motor symptoms and ability to control muscles are affected.4,5

Surgical Treatment For Parkinsons

This is advised when the disease progresses and the medications are no longer controlling the symptoms of PD adequately.

  • As the disease progresses, Levodopa still works, but the brains response to the medication becomes less predictable. Levodopa may take longer to kick in and may wear off earlier, requiring patients to take medication more frequently during the day. Higher doses of levodopa are associated with abnormal involuntary movements, known as dyskinesias . Unpredictable medication effect results in OFF time when patients feel stiff, rigid, stuck, frozen, slow, or fatigued, compared to ON time when movements are smooth and closer to normal.
  • Treatment options as the disease progresses include taking levodopa more frequently; making the medication last longer by adding medications to reduce the metabolism of levodopa, or dopamine adding or changing to long-acting forms of levodopa , or adding or changing to long-acting forms of dopamine agonist . Amantadine can be added to reduce dyskinesia. As these options are being considered and implemented, its time to consider deep brain stimulation surgery .
  • Deep brain stimulation surgery is FDA-approved for the treatment of motor complications in Parkinsons disease and is not experimental. DBS is not a last-resort treatment. It has been shown that DBS is more beneficial when performed earlier in the course of the disease compared to waiting for disability.

Stiffness While Moving Or Walking

Stiffness or trouble moving could be due to injury, or an issue like arthritis, says Beck. But if the stiffness doesn’t go away when you move, it can be a sign of Parkinson’s disease. An early signal may be stiffness or pain in your shoulder or hips; you might also feel like your feet are stuck to the floor.

How Does Parkinsons Affect The Face

Everyday tasks such as getting dressed, writing, picking something up off the floor take twice as long as they used to. Some people describe the feeling of slowness and stiffness as walking through molasses or moving in slow-motion. Because subconscious muscle movements of the face are responsible for ones facial expressions and others interpretation of our mood, patients can be thought to be upset or depressed when they are not. This is known as having a masked face.

Breathing & Respiratory Difficulties

Some people with Parkinsons disease may experience shortness of breath. There is no clear cause underlying respiratory dysfunction in PD, its frequency or the effect that medications have on respiration. Several reasons for shortness of breath in PD include:

  • Wearing off is a common experience among people with PD who have been taking levodopa for several years. These occur when the medication benefit wears off and PD symptoms return before the next dose.
  • Respiratory dyskinesia refers to an occurrence of irregular and rapid breathing when levodopa medications reach their peak effect. These may accompanied by involuntary body movements, typically experienced as dyskinesia.
  • Anxiety is a common symptom of PD that may also exacerbate shortness of breath, whether by itself or as a consequence of wearing off of the medication.
  • Aspirationpneumonia is a pneumonia that develops after food or liquid goes down the wrong pipe. Advanced PD can increase the risk of swallowing difficulties, choking and aspiration pneumonia.
  • Non-PD health issues include conditions such as asthma, allergies, lung disease, heart disease and other conditions that may cause shortness of breath.

Living With Parkinson Disease


These measures can help you live well with Parkinson disease:

  • An exercise routine can help keep muscles flexible and mobile. Exercise also releases natural brain chemicals that can improve emotional well-being.
  • High protein meals can benefit your brain chemistry
  • Physical, occupational, and speech therapy can help your ability to care for yourself and communicate with others
  • If you or your family has questions about Parkinson disease, want information about treatment, or need to find support, you can contact the American Parkinson Disease Association.

Parkinsons Disease: Six Early Warning Signs Indicating Risk To Progressive Condition

is a progressive condition whereby the signals communicated between the brain and nervous system are disrupted. This causes a number of impairments, many of which relate to movement. The symptoms are often subtle at first but become quite pronounced as the condition advances. What are the six early warning signs of the condition?

Handwriting Gives An Early Warning Sign Of Parkinsons Disease

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Doctors usually diagnose Parkinsons disease after patients complain of the telltale symptomstremors, rigidity, slowed movements, impaired balance. These signs typically dont appear until this degenerative neurological disease is at a relatively late stage. In its early stages, however, Parkinsons often goes unnoticedwhich is a problem, because early diagnosis maximizes the treatment options.

Breakthrough: Theres a simple clue that can help detect Parkinsons in the early stages, long before obvious symptoms appear, a new study reveals. All thats required is putting pen to paper


The study included 20 patients who had been diagnosed with early-stage Parkinsons disease and did not yet have obvious signs of motor impairmentplus 20 healthy people who were matched for age, gender, education level and hand dominance. All of the participants were asked to write their names and copy an address. You may think that this is a very simple task, but actually its quite complexbecause it involves manual dexterity as well as cognitive, sensory and perceptual-motor abilities.

Findings: Compared to the healthy control group, the patients with early-stage Parkinsons

  • Spent more time with their pens in the air between strokes .
  • Applied less pressure when writing.
  • Required more time to complete the handwriting task.
  • Wrote smaller letters.


Is Parkinsons Disease Inherited

Scientists have discovered gene mutations that are associated with Parkinsons disease.

There is some belief that some cases of early-onset Parkinsons disease disease starting before age 50 may be inherited. Scientists identified a gene mutation in people with Parkinsons disease whose brains contain Lewy bodies, which are clumps of the protein alpha-synuclein. Scientists are trying to understand the function of this protein and its relationship to genetic mutations that are sometimes seen in Parkinsons disease and in people with a type of dementia called Lewy body dementia.

Several other gene mutations have been found to play a role in Parkinsons disease. Mutations in these genes cause abnormal cell functioning, which affects the nerve cells ability to release dopamine and causes nerve cell death. Researchers are still trying to discover what causes these genes to mutate in order to understand how gene mutations influence the development of Parkinsons disease.

Scientists think that about 10% to 15% of persons with Parkinsons disease may have a genetic mutation that predisposes them to development of the disease. There are also environmental factors involved that are not fully understood.

How To Talk To Someone With Hallucinations Or Delusions

  • It is usually not helpful to argue with someone who is experiencing a hallucination or delusion. Avoid trying to reason. Keep calm and be reassuring.
  • You can say you do not see what your loved one is seeing, but some people find it more calming to acknowledge what the person is seeing to reduce stress. For example, if the person sees a cat in the room, it may be best to say, I will take the cat out rather than argue that there is no cat.

Page reviewed by Dr. Chauncey Spears, Movement Disorders Fellow at the University of Florida, a Parkinsons Foundation Center of Excellence.

What Are The Symptoms Of Parkinson Disease

Parkinson disease symptoms usually start out mild, and then progressively get much worse. The first signs are often so subtle that many people don’t seek medical attention at first. These are common symptoms of Parkinson disease:

  • Tremors that affect the face and jaw, legs, arms, and hands
  • Slow, stiff walking

Why Does Parkinsons Disease Cause Micrographia

PD damages many areas of the brain. Scientists believe that PDs effects on the basal ganglia and the cortex of the brain cause bradykinesia, which can lead to micrographia. The basal ganglia are a group of neurons located deep in the brain that process information on movement and play an important role in planning actions to achieve specific goals, such as using hands to catch a ball or write with a pen. The basal ganglia work in cooperation with the cortex to signal and activate muscles. As PD progresses, the impulses from the basal ganglia are insufficient to prepare and execute the commands to move. Several additional factors that contribute to bradykinesia in people with PD include muscle weakness, rigidity, tremor, movement variability , and slowing of thought.3,4

What Are The Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease

Symptoms of Parkinsons disease and the rate of decline vary widely from person to person. The most common symptoms include:

Other symptoms include:

  • Decreased facial expressions: You may not smile or blink as often as the disease worsens; your face lacks expression.
  • Speech/vocal changes: Speech may be quick, become slurred or be soft in tone. You may hesitate before speaking. The pitch of your voice may become unchanged .
  • Handwriting changes: You handwriting may become smaller and more difficult to read.
  • Depression and anxiety.
  • including disrupted sleep, acting out your dreams, and restless leg syndrome.
  • Pain, lack of interest , fatigue, change in weight, vision changes.
  • Low blood pressure.


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