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Link Between Parkinson’s And Heart Disease

Parkinsons Disease And Alcohol: Your Guide

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If you have Parkinsons disease , you may be wondering whether alcohol consumption affects the development or progression of your condition. Some people may wonder if they should avoid drinking completely. As one MyParkinsonsTeam member asked, How does alcohol affect Parkinsons how much can I drink? Or should I avoid drinking altogether?

Some studies havent found that small amounts of alcohol are associated with a higher PD risk, while others highlight the dangers alcohol can pose for anyone with a chronic condition. In addition, there may be adverse interactions between alcohol and common Parkinsons medications. Because of conflicting information, people with PD may feel confused about whether or not to drink.

Ive been told by more than one doctor that I should not have any alcohol, one MyParkinsonsTeam member wrote. And at this point, I dont remember which doctor or specifically why.

So, how do you decide what approach to take?

If you have Parkinsons disease and are trying to decide whether or not to reduce your drinking or quit alcohol completely here are some things to consider.

How Parkinsons Disease Affects The Autonomic Nervous System And The Heart

In PD, there are two major reasons why the automatic control of the cardiac system is impaired. First, areas of the brain that control this system often contain Lewy bodies and have undergone neurodegeneration. In addition, the autonomic nervous system itself is directly affected by Lewy body-like accumulations and neurodegeneration. This means, when the baroreceptors in the heart and carotid artery sense a drop in blood pressure and try to generate a signal to the heart and blood vessels to increase the blood pressure, the message may not get through. This results in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension , or drops in blood pressure upon standing due to autonomic nervous system dysfunction. There are no medications that can cure nOH by restoring the autonomic nervous system in PD. nOH however, can be treated. Read more about nOH and its treatments here.

Structural problems of the heart such as coronary artery disease or cardiomyopathy are not thought to be part of the pathology of PD, although of course, could co-exist with PD.

Heart Attack Survivors Less Likely To Develop Parkinsons Disease

  • People who have had a heart attack are at increased risk of stroke and vascular dementia however, a new study found they may be less likely to develop Parkinsons disease.
  • A large, nationwide study in Denmark found that the risk of Parkinsons disease was moderately lower among people who have had a heart attack than among the general population.

People who have had a heart attack may be slightly less likely than people in the general population to develop Parkinsons disease later in life, according to new research published recently in the Journal of the American Heart Association, an open access, peer-reviewed journal of the American Heart Association.

Parkinsons disease is a brain disorder characterized by progressive loss of physical movement, including tremors, slow or slurred speech, and/or stiffness or limited range of motion for walking and other physical activities. There is no cure for Parkinsons disease, and it is also associated with behavioral changes, depression, memory loss, and fatigue. Secondary parkinsonism, which has symptoms similar to Parkinsons disease, may be caused by stroke, psychiatric or cardiovascular medications, or other illness.

It is not known whether this inverse relationship with risk of Parkinsons disease extends to people who have had a heart attack. Therefore, we examined the long-term risk of Parkinsons disease and secondary parkinsonism among heart attack survivors, Sundbøll said.

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Having A Healthy Sex Life

Most people with heart failure can still have an active and safe sex life. Talk with your doctor if you have concerns about having sex.

Unfortunately, sexual problems are common. Your interest may drop, or you may have shortness of breath or other symptoms that limit your ability to have sex. Men may have erection problems.

Talk to your doctor. You can get help for erection problems or other sexual troubles.

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What Are The Complications Of Parkinson Disease

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Parkinson disease causes physical symptoms at first. Problems with cognitive function, including forgetfulness and trouble with concentration, may arise later. As the disease gets worse with time, many people develop dementia. This can cause profound memory loss and makes it hard to maintain relationships.

Parkinson disease dementia can cause problems with:

  • Speaking and communicating with others
  • Problem solving
  • Paying attention

If you have Parkinson disease and dementia, in time, you likely won’t be able to live by yourself. Dementia affects your ability to care of yourself, even if you can still physically do daily tasks.

Experts don’t understand how or why dementia often occurs with Parkinson disease. Its clear, though, that dementia and problems with cognitive function are linked to changes in the brain that cause problems with movement. As with Parkinson disease, dementia occurs when nerve cells degenerate, leading to chemical changes in the brain. Parkinson disease dementia may be treated with medicines also used to treat Alzheimer’s disease, another type of dementia.

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How Is It Treated

Most people with heart failure need to take several medicines. Your doctor may prescribe medicines to:

  • Help keep heart failure from getting worse. These drugs include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers , beta-blockers, and vasodilators like hydralazine and a nitrate.
  • Reduce symptoms so you feel better. These drugs include diuretics and digoxin.
  • Treat the cause of your heart failure.

It is very important to take your medicines exactly as your doctor tells you to. If you dont, your heart failure could get worse.

Pacemaker or defibrillator

A pacemaker or a defibrillator may be an option for you if you have a problem with your heart rhythm. A pacemaker can help your heart pump blood better. A defibrillator can prevent a dangerous heart-rhythm problem.

Care at home

Lifestyle changes are an important part of treatment. They can help slow down heart failure. They may also help control other diseases that make heart failure worse, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and coronary artery disease.

The best steps you can take are to:

Ask your doctor if cardiac rehab is right for you. Rehab can give you education and support that help you learn self-care and build new healthy habits, such as exercise and healthy eating.

To stay as healthy as possible, work closely with your doctor. Have all your tests, and go to all your appointments. It is also important to:

We Have Previously Found That Following A Heart Attack The Risk Of Neurovascular Complications Such As Ischemic Stroke Or Vascular Dementia Is Markedly Increased So The Finding Of A Lower Risk Of Parkinson’s Disease Was Somewhat Surprising Said Lead Study Author

Does heart attack have a connection to Parkinson’s disease? According to new research, people who have had a heart attack may be slightly less likely than people in the general population to develop Parkinson’s disease later in life.

The study was published in the ‘Journal of the American Heart Association’, an open access, peer-reviewed journal of the American Heart Association.

Parkinson’s disease is a brain disorder characterized by progressive loss of physical movement, including tremors, slow or slurred speech, and/or stiffness or limited range of motion for walking and other physical activities. There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, and it is also associated with behavioural changes, depression, memory loss and fatigue. Secondary Parkinsonism, which has symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease, may be caused by stroke, psychiatric or cardiovascular medications, or other illnesses.

“It is not known whether this inverse relationship with risk of Parkinson’s disease extends to people who have had a heart attack. Therefore, we examined the long-term risk of Parkinson’s disease and secondary parkinsonism among heart attack survivors,” Sundboll said.

In general, more heart attack patients smoke and have elevated cholesterol, either of which may explain the slightly reduced risk of Parkinson’s disease among heart attack survivors.

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Caring For Your Health With Parkinsons Disease

In addition to caring for your Parkinsons health, it is also important to care for your overall health. This means visiting your primary care physician periodically for preventive care like the annual flu shot and cancer screeningsfor example, a mammogram for breast cancer screening and a colonoscopy for colon cancer screening.

A primary care physician can also evaluate for risk factors related to heart attacks and strokes, and provide counseling on exercise, smoking, alcohol use, depression, or other mental health concerns. Regular visits to your primary care physician or neurologist will also allow them to catch bacterial infections like urinary tract infections before they get serious.

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Understanding The Neurologic Control Of The Cardiac System

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Before we explore this issue, lets first learn a bit about the autonomic nervous system and about the cardiac systems place within it. The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system, a network of nerves throughout the body. The ANS exerts control over functions that are not under conscious direction such as respiration, heart function, blood pressure, digestion, urination, sexual function, pupillary response, and much more. The ANS is further subdivided into the parasympathetic nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system. Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems regulate most major organs. Often, they have opposite effects, with the sympathetic nervous system activating a system and the parasympathetic system calming it down.

One of the systems controlled by the ANS is cardiac regulation. Blood pressure sensors, known as baroreceptors, reside in the heart as well as in the carotid artery, the major artery in the neck. If the baroreceptors sense a change in the blood pressure, a signal is sent to particular areas in the brain. From there, the autonomic nervous system sends signals to the heart to control heart rate and cardiac output. Signals are also sent to the blood vessels to change the size of their diameter, thereby regulating blood pressure.

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Talk To Your Doctor About Other Weight Loss Options

If you still have a hard time losing weight after adjusting your diet and portion sizes, and increasing your physical activity, talk to your doctor about other options, such as prescription medications or weight loss surgery.

  • Prescription medications for weight loss work in different ways. Some types of medications can help curb your hunger, while other medications may make it more difficult for your body to absorb fat from the food you eat.
  • Weight loss surgery, also known as bariatric surgery, treats obesity by decreasing the size of your stomach which, in turn, limits how much food you can comfortably eat. There are different types of bariatric surgery, including:
  • Gastric sleeve: With gastric sleeve surgery, about 80% of your stomach is removed. The part of the stomach that remains is sewn into a banana-shaped pouch. This is the most common type of weight loss surgery in the United States.
  • Gastric bypass: With this type of surgery, also known as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the surgeon removes a large portion of your stomach and the first part of your small intestine.
  • Gastric band: A less invasive procedure, gastric band surgery involves the placement of a band around the top of the stomach to create a pouch that holds a smaller amount of food. The band is adjustable, which means your surgeon can change the size of the pouch if necessary.

How To Talk To Someone With Hallucinations Or Delusions

  • It is usually not helpful to argue. Avoid trying to reason. Keep calm and be reassuring.
  • You can say you do not see what your loved one is seeing, but some people find it more calming to acknowledge what the person is seeing to reduce stress. For example, if the person sees a cat in the room, it may be best to say, “I will take the cat out” rather than argue that there is no cat.

Page reviewed by Dr. Kathryn P Moore, Movement Disorders neurologist at Duke Health, a Parkinson’s Foundation Center of Excellence.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Parkinson Disease

Parkinson disease symptoms usually start out mild, and then progressively get much worse. The first signs are often so subtle that many people don’t seek medical attention at first. These are common symptoms of Parkinson disease:

  • Tremors that affect the face and jaw, legs, arms, and hands
  • Slow, stiff walking

Strengths And Weaknesses Of The Study

IJMS

The present study is the largest to date to investigate the associations of important correlates of physical activity, measured in late adolescence, with the future risk of PD. The prospective study design, the large sample size, the long and complete follow-up period, and the large number of PD cases all ensured a robust analysis with high statistical power. The independent collections of the exposures and the outcome greatly alleviated concerns about information and selection biases. The additional adjustment of a rich panel of potential confounders and mediators constitutes another strength. Finally, the combined use of observational study and MR analysis is a novelty, which provides additional evidence for a potentially causal relationship between IQ and PD.

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May Cause Sleep Apnea And High Blood Pressure

Obesity is a

A 2019 study compared postmenopausal women with more body fat at the waist to those with more body fat at the hips and legs . All women had a healthy BMI and no previous history of heart disease.

After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors, the researchers found that having higher body fat around the waist and reduced body fat at the hips and legs was associated with an increased risk of heart disease.

Why is this? Generally speaking, waist size is correlated with something called visceral fat. This is hidden fat found around your abdominal organs. Its different from subcutaneous fat, which is the fat at your waistline that you can pinch.

Visceral fat is

found that weight loss in people with obesity can reduce the risk of heart disease, particularly coronary artery disease.

So, how much weight needs to be lost before you begin to see health benefits? An older 2011 study , which looked at the effects of weight loss in people with type 2 diabetes and overweight or obesity, found that even modest weight loss can help.

After a year, those that lost 5% to 10% of their baseline body weight had a higher likelihood of notable decreases in A1C levels, blood pressure, and triglycerides as well as improvements in HDL cholesterol.

While modest weight loss was associated with benefits, researchers observed an even greater improvement for those who lost 10% to 15% of their baseline body weight.

How Is Pneumonia Treated

Bacterial pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics usually by mouth. For more severe pneumonia, you may need to go to the hospital to be treated. Hospital treatment may include oxygen therapy to increase oxygen in the blood, intravenous antibiotics, and fluids. Pain relievers and medicine to reduce fever may also be given. With treatment, bacterial pneumonia usually begins to improve within 24-48 hours.

Viral pneumonia is usually less serious. A stay in the hospital is rarely needed. Antibiotics cannot be used to treat viral pneumonia, but may be given to fight a bacterial infection that is also present. Other drugs, such as those listed above, may be used to lessen symptoms. If you are given antibiotics, make sure you take all of the medicine, even if you feel better. If you stop taking the medicine too early, the infection can come back and may be harder to treat.

For both viral and bacterial pneumonia:

  • Drink warm fluids to relieve coughing.

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Pesticides And Pd Risk

Pesticides and occupational exposure to chemicals can increase the risk of PD176,177. Paraquat is the chemical most linked to risk, and even rotenone, a natural plant-derived pesticide used by home gardeners, has been associated with disease178. Both compounds inhibit mitochondrial respiration, which could impact an already dysfunctional endolysosomal pathway in individuals with particular genetic mutations179,180. In addition to paraquat and rotenone, exposure to the toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , after its accidental discovery as an agent that caused dopaminergic neuronal loss in humans during recreational drug use, has become one of the main methods to induce dopaminergic neuronal loss and degeneration in animal models181183. Studies have shown that paraquat, rotenone and MPTP all induce both central and peripheral inflammation and oxidative stress184188.

Increases The Risk Of Diabetes

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Obesity is a leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Over time, high levels of blood sugar can damage the blood vessels in and around your heart, as well as the nerves that control your heart.

In fact, adults who have diabetes are almost to develop heart disease or stroke compared to adults who dont have diabetes.

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Parkinson’s Called Hidden Killer

Life expectancy for patients with Parkinson’s disease is poorer than some previous studies have suggested, with barely one-third of patients surviving six years with the condition, researchers said.

Among nearly 140,000 Medicare beneficiaries with Parkinson’s disease diagnosed in 2002 — about half of whom were younger than 80 — 64% had died by 2008, reported Allison W. Willis, MD, and colleagues at Washington University in St. Louis.

This rate was similar to that seen in Medicare patients suffering myocardial infarctions and Alzheimer’s disease, and substantially higher than in those diagnosed with congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , or colorectal cancer, the researchers pointed out in Archives of Neurology.

Action Points

  • Life expectancy for patients with Parkinson’s disease is poorer than some previous studies have suggested, with barely one-third of patients surviving six years with the condition.
  • The incidence of dementia was common and markedly increased the risk of death in Parkinson’s disease, whereas women, Hispanics, and individuals of Asian ancestry were at lower risk of death.

Willis and colleagues also found that the incidence of dementia was common and markedly increased the risk of death in Parkinson’s disease, whereas women, Hispanics, and individuals of Asian ancestry were at lower risk of death during the study period.

Not surprisingly, risk of both death and dementia rose substantially with patients’ age.

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