Parkinsons Disease Vs Als: Risk Factors And Complications
Risk factors for Parkinsons disease include being over the age of 50, being male, having a family history of Parkinsons disease, carrying gene variations, experiencing a head injury, being exposed to environmental toxins, and taking certain medications such as anti-anxiety medications or sleeping pills.
Complications associated with Parkinsons disease include difficulty thinking, depression, emotional changes, swallowing problems, sleep problems and disorders, bladder issues, constipation, changes in blood pressure, smell dysfunction, fatigue, pain, and sexual dysfunction.
Studies into ALS have revealed some interesting insight. For example, it may just be that some people with this disease are triggered by certain environmental factors. The environmental triggers under investigation include smoking, lead exposure, and military service. Recent research has indicated that people who have served in the military are at a higher risk of getting ALS.
Studies are also looking at the entire human genome, since research has uncovered a number of genetic variations that people with familial ALS and some with non-inherited ALS have in common. These variations might make people more prone to ALS.
Key Difference Parkinsons Vs Huntingtons Disease
The key difference between Parkinsons and Huntingtons disease is that Parkinson disease is a disorder with rigidity, tremors, slowing of movements, postural instability and gait disturbances usually occurring in old age due to degeneration of the substantia nigra of the midbrain while Huntingtons disease is a familial neurodegenerative disorder usually occurring in a younger population, characterized by emotional problems, loss of thinking ability and abnormal choreiform movements .
Prognosis Of Als Vs Parkinsons
ALS is considered as a fatal disease. The damage and death of neurons begins to spread throughout the body. In the later stages, nerve damage will affect areas like breathing and swallowing.
Parkinsons disease in itself is not considered fatal but people do die from complications relating to the condition.
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Join Our Als Forums: An Online Community Especially For Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
The researchers noted that the ALS-PK group was disproportionately male , but both groups were similar in terms of other demographic features such as age at disease onset, family history of ALS and Parkinsons, and type of ALS.
The patients were tested for genetic mutations related to ALS and Parkinsons, but the investigators reported they did not find any difference in genetic mutation frequencies comparing ALS-PK and ALS patients.
The researchers also imaged a subset of the patients brains using positron emission topography and magnetic resonance imaging scans, noting some differences between people in the ALS-PK group and those in the ALS group.
For instance, ALS-PK patients tended to have more activity in the right insula the part of the brain associated with motor control, perception, and empathy, among other things but these patients also tended to have less brain matter in the region near the premotor cortex, a brain region involved in movement. Its not totally clear whether or how these differences result in Parkinsonian symptoms, and more research is needed, according to the scientists.
The study had several limitations. First off, its a relatively small sample of patients, so these results cant be globalized. The researchers also noted that it can be quite difficult to differentiate ALS-PK from ALS.
Key Difference Ms Vs Parkinsons
MS and Parkinsons disease are two diseases affecting the central nervous system. Multiple Sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune, T-cell mediated inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system. On the other hand, Parkinsons disease is a movement disorder characterized by a decline in the dopamine level of the brain. Although MS is an autoimmune disorder, there is no immune component in the pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease. This is the key difference between MS and Parkinsons.
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So Whats The Difference Between Als And Parkinsons Disease
So how closely linked to Parkinsons is ALS? Both are progressive neurodegenerative diseases, jaw, The cardinal signs include tremors, Parkinsons disease similarly results from the death of neurons, 2020< img src=”https://i0.wp.com/www.belmarrahealth.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/parkinsons-disease-vs-als-500×303.jpg” alt=”Parkinsons disease vs, 2015These are the symptoms most often noticed by patients or their families: Shaking or tremor: Called resting tremor, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
What Is The Survival Rate Of Huntington’s Disease
The rate of disease progression and duration varies. The time from disease emergence to death is often about 10 to 30 years. Juvenile Huntington’s disease usually results in death within 10 years after symptoms develop. The clinical depression associated with Huntington’s disease may increase the risk of suicide.
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Multiple System Atrophy Formerly Called Shy
As predicted by the name of this parkinsonism, multiple system atrophy affects multiple systems of the body. It affects both the motor skills movement system and the involuntary system of the body. Though the symptoms can often be treated with medications, there is no cure. In addition, there are no drugs that are able to slow the progress of MSA.
Cause Signs And Symptoms Treatment And Management Age Of Onset Of Parkinsons And Huntingtons Disease:
Parkinsons Disease: PD is caused by the degeneration of the neurons in Substantia nigra of the midbrain.
Huntingtons Disease: HD is caused by the mutations in the HTT gene.
Age of Onset:
Parkinsons Disease: PD usually occurs after the age of 50.
Huntingtons Disease: HD usually occurs in the thirties or forties.
Parkinsons Disease: PD causes tremors, rigidity, slowing of movements and gait disturbances.
Huntingtons Disease: HD causes higher function abnormalities such as problems in thinking and reasoning together with characteristic chorea.
Parkinsons Disease: PD is treated with dopamine-enhancing drugs such as levodopa, dopamine agonists, etc.
Huntingtons Disease: HD has no curative treatment and main the treatment is supportive.
Parkinsons Disease: PD doesnt have an effect on life expectancy. However, it reduces the quality of life.
Huntingtons Disease: HD patients live 15-20 years after the appearance of the first symptom.
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Posttranslational Modifications That Inactivate Parkin
The reports summarized above raise the intriguing possibility that idiopathic PD pathogenesis or disease risk may arise by processes whereby neuronal stress might inactivate parkin via insolubility and aggregation. As a biochemical phenocopy of PARK2-associated familial PD, a severe loss of active, soluble parkin could compromise the viability of nigral neurons in the sporadic disease.
The one problem with this model is that Lewy bodies have generally not been observed in PARK2-associated familial PD brains, whereas they are almost always present to some extent in postmortem analyses of sporadic PD patients. No biochemical or genetic evidence has yet conclusively tied parkin into -synuclein aggregation, raising the possibility that neither protein is the direct cause of any form of PD, but that each may act independently through either the same or different downstream initiators of cell death. Of course, the other possibility is that macroscopic -synuclein aggregates are not involved in pathogenesis, and that loss of parkin function causes disease by producing whatever the actual toxic -synuclein species is.
Serotonergic Modulation Of Basal Ganglia And Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Activity In Pd
The basal ganglia are composed of the striatum , subthalamic nucleus , internal and external globus pallidus and SN, and are part of the BG-cortico-thalamic circuits. This highly organized network is important for motor control, emotion, and cognition. It has been firmly established that BG nuclei receive vast serotonergic input mainly coming from the rostral RN clusters , with effects on mesencephalic dopaminergic activity depending on the specific nucleus and its receptor distribution . In PD, lesioning of the RN in addition to DA depletion in the striatum and SNparticularly of the pars compacta are hallmarks of the disease, leading to overactivation of the output regions of the BG, i.e., GPi and SN pars reticulata , which contain large GABAergic neurons. This cascade results in a net decreased activity of the supplementary motor areas, premotor, and primary motor cortices, triggering parkinsonian symptoms . Overall, the loss of 5-HT neurons is not as profound as the loss of DA neurons, and may not be sufficient to cause motor or non-motor symptoms per se, however, both systems closely interact, and combined depletion certainly seems to aggravate the situation, as was shown in a parkinsonian rat model . Moreover, 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels, as well as SERT expression, are reduced in various BG nuclei , and the serotonergic system is strongly involved in the mechanism of action of antiparkinsonian therapeutics, such as levodopa , and high frequency stimulation of the STN .
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Possible Link To Alzheimers
Though Alzheimers, Huntingtons, and Parkinsons are distinctly different diseases, some evidence has emerged that shows a common link between the three.
All three diseases have proteins within the cells that do not assemble properly. Though the molecular and cellular changes that occur in each disease vary greatly, this protein degradation has been shown to precede early clinical signs in each disease. This is promising news, as more studies are being done to determine whether this can either predict or prevent these neurodegenerative diseases.
Difference Between Parkinsons Disease And Als Signs And Symptoms
Parkinsons disease typically begins with tremors, followed by muscle stiffness, difficulty standing or walking, changes in speech, slow movements, impaired posture and balance, loss of automatic movements, and writing changes.
Signs and symptoms of ALS include slurred speech, hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, emotional liability , loss of tongue muscle contour, excess saliva, difficulty breathing, limp muscles or flaccid weakness, muscle wasting, and twitching.
In the early stages of the disease, ALS patients may notice that performing regular everyday tasks has become more challenging. For example, they may experience difficulty climbing steps or getting up from a chair. Symptoms may first begin on one side of the body, but as the condition progresses, they spread to both sides.
As you can see, ALS and Parkinsons disease share symptoms associated with the negative impact of both conditions on movement and muscle function.
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Dementia With Lewy Bodies
DLB is second only to Alzheimers as the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. It causes progressive intellectual and functional deterioration. In addition to the signs and symptoms of Parkinsons disease, people with DLB tend to have frequent changes in thinking ability, level of attention or alertness and visual hallucinations. They usually do not have a tremor or have only a slight tremor. The parkinsonian symptoms may or may not respond to levodopa.
The Differences Between Alzheimer’s And Parkinson’s
16 October, 2020
Do you know the differences between Alzheimers and Parkinsons? First of all, we must say that both diseases constitute two of the causes of dementia. Now, lets be a bit more specific. According to data from the WHO , dementia due to Alzheimers disease represents 60-70% of all cases of dementia in the world.
However, its important to keep in mind that theyre very different diseases. Additionally, we must make clear that having either condition doesnt always lead to the development of dementia . In this sense, we know that between 20-60% of people with Parkinsons disease end up developing dementia.
Buter et al. conducted a study that was published in the journal Neurology. It was conducted with 233 patients with Parkinsons disease. The researchers were able to observe that about 60% of them developed Parkinsons dementia in a period of 12 years.
So whats dementia? It refers to the set of symptoms that arise as a consequence of neurological damage or disease. These symptoms involve the loss or weakening of the mental faculties and mainly affect three different areas: cognitive , behavioral , and personality .
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How Do Treatments Differ
MS treatments can ease your symptoms during an attack or slow down the diseaseâs effects on your body.
Plasma exchange is another therapy if steroids donât work. Your doctor will use a machine to remove the plasma portion of your blood. The plasma gets mixed with a protein solution and put back into your body.
Some people with both diseases who take anti-inflammatory medicines like steroids see their Parkinsonâs symptoms get better.
Disease-modifying treatments slow down MS nerve damage and disability. They include:
National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke: âTremor Fact Sheet.â
Neurology: âParkinsonâs Disease in Multiple Sclerosis – A Population-Based, Nationwide Study in Denmark .â
Mayo Clinic: âMultiple Sclerosis: Overview,â âMultiple Sclerosis: Symptoms and Causes,â âMultiple Sclerosis: Treatment,â âParkinsonâs Disease: Causes,â âParkinsonâs Disease: Definition,â âParkinsonâs Disease: Risk Factors,â âParkinsonâs Disease: Symptoms.â
Christopher Reeve Foundation: âHow the spinal cord works.â
National Association for Continence: âParkinsonâs Disease.â
National Multiple Sclerosis Society: âMS Symptoms,â âWho Gets MS? .â
National Parkinson Foundation: âNon-Motor Symptoms.â
Multiple Sclerosis Trust: âLhermitteâs sign.â
Johns Hopkins Medicine: âPlasmapheresis.â
Advanced Stage Signs And Symptoms
Eventually, a person in the advanced stage of ALS will need help to move, eat, or breathe, and the condition can become life-threatening.
Breathing problems are the most common cause of death.
Motor neurons instruct the muscles to move by sending signals from the brain. They play a role in both conscious and automatic movements, such as swallowing and breathing.
Experts believe that around 10% of MNDs are hereditary. The other 90% happen randomly.
The exact causes are unclear, but the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke note that genetic, toxic, viral, and other environmental factors may play a role.
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How Are Als And Ms Diagnosed
To make a diagnosis, your doctor will ask for detailed information about your symptoms and your health history. There are also tests they can perform to help make a diagnosis.
These tests provide information on the transmission of nerve signals to your muscles and can show certain patterns that are consistent with a diagnosis of ALS.
Your doctor may also order blood and urine samples, or perform a lumbar puncture to examine your spinal fluid.
MRI scans or X-rays may be ordered as well. If you have an MRI scan, you may have special images ordered to increase visualization of demyelinating areas in the brain and spine.
Doctors can use MRI results to distinguish between MS and ALS. MS targets and attacks myelin in a process called demyelination.
Demyelination prevents the nerves from performing as well as they once did, and it can be detected by an MRI scan.
On the other hand, ALS attacks the motor neurons, which doesnt appear on brain or spine MRIs.
Theres no cure for either condition, but treatments are available.
Onset Of Als And Parkinsons
There are several different variants of ALS but it generally affects people between the age of 40 and 70. Juvenile onset ALS, however, can start in childhood or typically before the age of 25, although this form of ALS is particularly rare. The onset of ALS is estimated to be 20% more common in men compared with women and in 10% of cases there is likely to be a genetic component.
Parkinsons disease is usually diagnosed in people over the age of 60, though a small percentage exhibit the symptoms before the age of 50.
Once again, men are more likely to develop Parkinsons than women.
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What Is Parkinsonism
Parkinsonism is a general term that refers to a group of neurological disorders that cause movement problems similar to those seen in Parkinsons disease such as tremors, slow movement and stiffness. Under the category of parkinsonism there are a number of disorders, some of which have yet to be clearly defined or named. Early in the disease process, it is often hard to know whether a person has idiopathic Parkinsons disease or a syndrome that mimics it. Parkinsonisms, also known as atypical Parkinsons disease or Parkinsons plus, represent about 10-15% of all diagnosed cases of parkinsonism. These syndromes tend to progress more rapidly than Parkinsons, present with additional symptoms such as early falling, dementia or hallucinations, and do not respond or respond only for a short time to levodopa therapy.
Following are descriptions of some of the most common Parkinsons plus disorders. It is important to remember that many people will not exhibit the cardinal symptoms necessary for a diagnosis of a specific disorder and will simply be labeled parkinsonism. For these people a definite diagnosis will only come if the family requests a brain autopsy at time of death.
How Is Als Diagnosed
Lou Gehrig’s disease is different for every person who has it. In general, muscle weakness, especially in the arms and legs, is an early symptom for more than half of people with ALS. Other early signs are tripping or falling a lot, dropping things, having difficulty speaking, and cramping or twitching of the muscles. As the disease gets worse over time, eating, swallowing, and even breathing may become difficult.
It may take several months to know for sure that someone has Lou Gehrig’s disease. The illness can cause symptoms similar to other diseases that affect nerves and muscles, including Parkinson’s disease and stroke. A doctor will examine the patient and do special tests to see if it might be one of those other disorders.
One of the tests, an electromyogram , or EMG, can show that muscles are not working because of damaged nerves. Other tests include X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging , a spinal tap, and blood and urine evaluations.
Sometimes a muscle or nerve biopsy is needed. A biopsy is when a doctor takes a tiny sample of tissue from the body to study under a microscope. Examining this tissue can help the doctor figure out what’s making someone sick.