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HomeCureWhat Are The Plaques Called That Cause Parkinson's Disease

What Are The Plaques Called That Cause Parkinson’s Disease

How Do I Prevent Falls From Common Hazards

  • Floors: Remove all loose wires, cords, and throw rugs. Minimize clutter. Make sure rugs are anchored and smooth. Keep furniture in its usual place.
  • Bathroom: Install grab bars and non-skid tape in the tub or shower. Use non-skid bath mats on the floor or install wall-to-wall carpeting.
  • Lighting: Make sure halls, stairways, and entrances are well-lit. Install a night light in your bathroom or hallway and staircase. Turn lights on if you get up in the middle of the night. Make sure lamps or light switches are within reach of the bed if you have to get up during the night.
  • Kitchen: Install non-skid rubber mats near the sink and stove. Clean spills immediately.
  • Stairs: Make sure treads, rails, and rugs are secure. Install a rail on both sides of the stairs. If stairs are a threat, it might be helpful to arrange most of your activities on the lower level to reduce the number of times you must climb the stairs.
  • Entrances and doorways: Install metal handles on the walls adjacent to the doorknobs of all doors to make it more secure as you travel through the doorway.

Medicines For Parkinson’s Disease

Medicines prescribed for Parkinson’s include:

  • Drugs that increase the level of dopamine in the brain
  • Drugs that affect other brain chemicals in the body
  • Drugs that help control nonmotor symptoms

The main therapy for Parkinson’s is levodopa, also called L-dopa. Nerve cells use levodopa to make dopamine to replenish the brain’s dwindling supply. Usually, people take levodopa along with another medication called carbidopa. Carbidopa prevents or reduces some of the side effects of levodopa therapysuch as nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, and restlessnessand reduces the amount of levodopa needed to improve symptoms.

People with Parkinson’s should never stop taking levodopa without telling their doctor. Suddenly stopping the drug may have serious side effects, such as being unable to move or having difficulty breathing.

Other medicines used to treat Parkinsons symptoms include:

  • Dopamine agonists to mimic the role of dopamine in the brain
  • MAO-B inhibitors to slow down an enzyme that breaks down dopamine in the brain
  • COMT inhibitors to help break down dopamine
  • Amantadine, an old antiviral drug, to reduce involuntary movements
  • Anticholinergic drugs to reduce tremors and muscle rigidity

How Environmental Factors Could Cause Parkinsons Disease

Scientists differ about the extent that brain cells are impacted by environmental factors. However, the statistics associated with the disease show that the environment can play a very large role in whether parkinsons disease develops.

Most often, it is exposure to toxic chemicals that could play a role in the development of Parkinsons disease. Usually, these combine with genetic factors to produce the conditions that cause Parkinsons.

Increasing scientific evidence suggests that Parkinsons may be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to herbicides such as Paraquat.

Covid Vaccinations Are Causing Signs Of Parkinsons Disease And Other Neurological Diseases According To A Scientist

July 22, 2021 Scientists are issuing urgent warnings about a possible tsunami of other types of neurological injuries as cases of the reportedly rare neurological disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome in people who received a COVID vaccine mount forcing the sluggish US Food and Drug Administration to add a warning label to the Johnson & Johnson shot.

In February, immunologist J. Bart Classen, a former NIH contract scientist and owner of Classen Immunotherapies, a Maryland biotechnology firm, presented a paper describing the potential for messenger RNA COVID vaccinations to stimulate development.

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Classen has now published a second article on the dangers of prion disease, this time based on real-world data from the United Kingdom following vaccination with the AstraZeneca or Pfizer COVID vaccines.

The risk of neurodegenerative adverse outcomes is far from theoretical, according to these findings. In fact, the AstraZeneca vaccination for Parkinsons disease is already delivering a safety signal, and the Pfizer vaccine may not be far behind.

The signal is clear.Classens research focuses on six months of data for two of the experimental COVID injections that are now approved in the United Kingdom.

The data is organized by organ system and symptom or disease in the UK governments Yellow Card adverse event reporting system.

The following are statistically significant findings:

 

If You Develop A Tremor

Ideal Cure...: Parkinson

Urgent medical care isn’t needed if you have had a tremorâshaking or tremblingâfor some time. But you should discuss the tremor at your next doctor’s appointment.

If a tremor is affecting your daily activities or if it is a new symptom, see your doctor sooner.

A written description will help your doctor make a correct diagnosis. In writing your description, consider the following questions:

  • Did the tremor start suddenly or gradually?
  • What makes it worse or better?
  • What parts of your body are affected?
  • Have there been any recent changes in the medicines you are taking or how much you are taking?

Stiffness And Slow Movement

Parkinsons disease mainly affects adults older than 60. You may feel stiff and a little slow to get going in the morning at this stage of your life. This is a completely normal development in many healthy people. The difference with PD is that the stiffness and slowness it causes dont go away as you get up and start your day.

Stiffness of the limbs and slow movement appear early on with PD. These symptoms are caused by the impairment of the neurons that control movement. A person with PD will notice jerkier motions and move in a more uncoordinated pattern than before. Eventually, a person may develop the characteristic shuffling gait.

What Is The Prognosis And Life Expectancy For Parkinson’s Disease

The severity of Parkinson’s disease symptoms and signs vary greatly from person to peson, and it is not possible to predict how quickly the disease will progress. Parkinson’s disease itself is not a fatal disease, and the average life expectancy is similar to that of people without the disease. Secondary complications, such as pneumonia, falling-related injuries, and choking can lead to death. Many treatment options can reduce some of the symptoms and prolong the quality of life.

How Is Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosed

Your doctor will ask questions about your symptoms and your past health and will do a neurological examination. This examination includes questions and tests that show how well your nerves are working. For example, your doctor will watch how you move, check your muscle strength and reflexes, and check your vision.

Your doctor will also ask questions about your mood.

In some cases, your doctor may have you try a medicine. How this medicine works may help your doctor know if you have Parkinson’s disease.

There are no lab or blood tests that can help your doctor know whether you have Parkinson’s. But you may have tests to help your doctor rule out other diseases that could be causing your symptoms. For example, you might have an to look for signs of a stroke or brain tumour.

Age And Genetic Factors Are Not Everything

The rate of Parkinsons disease globally has exceeded far faster than the population has aged according to the American Parkinson Disease Association.

Cases of the disease are up by several multiples over the past decades. From 1990 to 2015, the cases of the disease globally more than doubled, suggesting that there is far more at work. From 2015 to 2040, cases are expected to double once again. This is far higher than the rate of aging in the population.

The Early Signs Of Parkinsons Disease

Health Check Certified By: Dr. Gerald Morris

Parkinsons diseasea chronic and progressive brain disorder that causes loss of muscle controlaffects nearly one million people in the U.S. This disease results in the death and malfunction of nerve cells in the brain, many of which produce dopamine, a chemical responsible for controlling movement and coordination.

While symptoms such as tremors, slowed movement and speech problems are among the most common symptoms of Parkinsons, they tend to present themselves only once the disease has progressed. To detect Parkinsons disease in the early stages of development, the following are 12 signs to keep an eye out for.

Who Is Prone To Parkinson’s Disease

Some people are more to Parkinsons disease than others. They include:

  • People who are of advanced age
  • Males are more likely to get Parkinsons disease than females
  • People with a family history of Parkinsons disease
  • Postmenopausal women who have very low levels of oestrogen
  • Women who have undergone hysterectomies
  • People who suffer from vitamin B deficiency
  • People who have suffered from head trauma
  • People who are frequently exposed to environmental toxins such as a pesticide or herbicide

Prevention Of Parkinsons Disease

Researchers dont know of any proven ways to prevent Parkinsons disease, but avoiding certain risk factors and adopting a healthy lifestyle may help reduce your risk.

Some studies have shown a diet high in antioxidants along with regular exercise may play a role in preventing Parkinsons. Other findings have suggested that compounds like caffeine, niacin, and nicotine may have a protective effect against Parkinsons disease.

What Lifestyle Changes Can I Make To Ease Parkinsons Symptoms

Reverse Parkinson

Exercise: Exercise helps improve muscle strength, balance, coordination, flexibility, and tremor. It is also strongly believed to improve memory, thinking and reduce the risk of falls and decrease anxiety and depression. One study in persons with Parkinsons disease showed that 2.5 hours of exercise per week resulted in improved ability to move and a slower decline in quality of life compared to those who didnt exercise or didnt start until later in the course of their disease. Some exercises to consider include strengthening or resistance training, stretching exercises or aerobics . All types of exercise are helpful.

Eat a healthy, balanced diet: This is not only good for your general health but can ease some of the non-movement related symptoms of Parkinsons, such as constipation. Eating foods high in fiber in particular can relieve constipation. The Mediterranean diet is one example of a healthy diet.

Preventing falls and maintaining balance: Falls are a frequent complication of Parkinson’s. While you can do many things to reduce your risk of falling, the two most important are: 1) to work with your doctor to ensure that your treatments whether medicines or deep brain stimulation are optimal; and 2) to consult with a physical therapist who can assess your walking and balance. The physical therapist is the expert when it comes to recommending assistive devices or exercise to improve safety and preventing falls.

Causes Of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is caused by a loss of nerve cells in part of the brain called the substantia nigra. This leads to a reduction in a chemical called dopamine in the brain.

Dopamine plays a vital role in regulating the movement of the body. A reduction in dopamine is responsible for many of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

Exactly what causes the loss of nerve cells is unclear. Most experts think that a combination of genetic and environmental factors is responsible.

Living With Parkinson’s Disease

As Parkinson’s develops, a person who has it may slow down and won’t be able to move or talk quickly. Sometimes, speech therapy and occupational therapy are needed. This may sound silly, but someone who has Parkinson’s disease may need to learn how to fall down safely.

If getting dressed is hard for a person with Parkinson’s, clothing with Velcro and elastic can be easier to use than buttons and zippers. The person also might need to have railings installed around the house to prevent falls.

If you know someone who has Parkinson’s disease, you can help by being a good friend.

Depression And Anxiety Are Also Early Warning Signs Of Parkinson’s How So

A: Like the other symptoms discussed here, late-onset depression and anxiety are nonmotor prodromal manifestations of the condition. It’s not that everyone who is depressed will get Parkinson’s, and the numbers are lower than they are for symptoms like anosmia and REM behavior disorder. But the link is important to explore, and we are doing more research on it all the time.

What Is Parkinson’s Disease Its A Movement Disorder

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive brain illness that affects the way you move. In more clinical terms, Parkinsons disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system.

Normally, there are cells in the brain that produce a chemical called dopamine. Dopamine sends signals to the parts of your brain that control movement. When approximately 60-80% of the dopamine-producing brain cells are damaged, symptoms of Parkinson’s disease appear, and you may have trouble moving the way you want.

Parkinson’s disease is a chronic illness and it slowly progresses over time. While there is no therapy or medicine that cures Parkinsons disease, there are good treatment options available that can help you live a full life.

Preparation Of Human Brain Sections

Brain tissue samples from 3 patients with neuropathologically confirmed PD were used for the measurements, i.e., a 75-y-old man , a 76-y-old man , and an 83-y-old woman . All samples were of the midbrain. The brain samples were fixed in 4% buffered formaldehyde and frozen according to routine tissue processing for pathological examination. For each sample, 20-m-thick sections were cut and deposited on Kapton polyimide films. Tissue sections from PD patient brains were incubated with the primary antibody, pSyn#64 , followed by incubation with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antimouse IgG . Final staining was completed with incubation in 3,3-diaminobenzidine + substrate chromogen for 510 min. Before measurements, these samples were dried at room temperature.

Environmental Factors And Exposures

Exposure to pesticides and a history of head injury have each been linked with PD, but the risks are modest. Never having smoked cigarettes, and never drinking caffeinated beverages, are also associated with small increases in risk of developing PD.

Low concentrations of urate in the blood is associated with an increased risk of PD.

Drug-induced parkinsonism

Different medical drugs have been implicated in cases of parkinsonism. Drug-induced parkinsonism is normally reversible by stopping the offending agent. Drugs include:

Some Are Calling Parkinsons A Man

Researchers are rapidly coming to the viewpoint that a large number of Parkinsons cases are tied to toxins. These researchers are even reaching conclusions that environment outranks genetics as a cause of Parkinsons.

One 2020 book discussed an exhaustive study of 17,000 twin brothers to pinpoint the effects that environment could play. The researchers found that people exposed to certain environmental factors were more than twice as likely to develop Parkinsons.

How Is Parkinsons Disease Diagnosed

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Diagnosing Parkinsons disease is sometimes difficult, since early symptoms can mimic other disorders and there are no specific blood or other laboratory tests to diagnose the disease. Imaging tests, such as or scans, may be used to rule out other disorders that cause similar symptoms.

To diagnose Parkinsons disease, you will be asked about your medical history and family history of neurologic disorders as well as your current symptoms, medications and possible exposure to toxins. Your doctor will look for signs of tremor and muscle rigidity, watch you walk, check your posture and coordination and look for slowness of movement.

If you think you may have Parkinsons disease, you should probably see a neurologist, preferably a movement disorders-trained neurologist. The treatment decisions made early in the illness can affect the long-term success of the treatment.

Early Signs Of Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, meaning it progressively affects the nervous system. The condition is caused by nerve cells in the brain breaking down or dying, which results in a loss of dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that works as a messenger between nerve cells, and plays a pivotal role in how we move, think, sleep, and feel. When dopamine levels are low, it causes abnormal brain activity and can lead to Parkinsons disease.

Your Home And Lifestyle

  • Modify your activities and your home. For example, simplify your daily activities, and change the location of furniture so that you can hold on to something as you move around the house.
  • Eat healthy foods, including plenty of fruits, vegetables, grains, cereals, legumes, poultry, fish, lean meats, and low-fat dairy products.
  • Exercise and do physiotherapy. They have benefits in both early and advanced stages of the disease.

Other Causes Of Parkinsonism

“Parkinsonism” is the umbrella term used to describe the symptoms of tremors, muscle rigidity and slowness of movement.

Parkinson’s disease is the most common type of parkinsonism, but there are also some rarer types where a specific cause can be identified.

These include parkinsonism caused by:

  • medication where symptoms develop after taking certain medications, such as some types of antipsychotic medication, and usually improve once the medication is stopped
  • other progressive brain conditions such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple systems atrophy and corticobasal degeneration
  • cerebrovascular disease where a series of small strokes cause several parts of the brain to die

You can read more about parkinsonism on the Parkinson’s UK website.

Page last reviewed: 30 April 2019 Next review due: 30 April 2022

What Are The Symptoms Of Parkinson’s Disease How Is Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosed

People with Parkinsons disease suffer from motor symptoms as well as non-motor symptoms. 

Motor symptoms include intermittent tremors, slow and rigid movements. Non-motor symptoms include loss of smell, pain and even dementia.

In the initial stages of Parkinsons disease a person may experience symptoms such as:

  • Slight rigidity in the arms and legs
  • unable to change facial expressions according to emotions spontaneously
  • Slight back pain due to which the posture of the person may be slightly stooped
  • Sudden stiffness in the body at times
  • Tremor on one arm on one side of the body
  • The symptoms may be experienced only on one side of the body
  • Handwriting may get messier and smaller

In the intermediate stage of Parkinsons disease a person may experience symptoms such as:

  • Slower movements and therefore takes longer to do the daily work such as combing, dressing etc
  • Loss of balance
  • Sudden falls due to frequent loss of balance
  • Slurring of speech
  • Inability to speak loudly and clearly
  • Erratic footwork, as the person is unable to start walking immediately after getting up as if the feet are stuck to the ground, or change direction quickly while walking
  • Taking smaller steps than normal while walking
  • Trouble swallowing food
  • May require aids while walking such as a walker

In the advanced stage of Parkinsons disease the symptoms include:

Surgical Options For Parkinsons Disease

As of 2019, there are two surgeries prescribed to treat Parkinsons. These are only ordered if medications previously helped control movement symptoms but are no longer effective.

The first is called deep brain stimulation. The surgeon inserts a wire, or lead, into the subthalamic nucleus, which is the part of the brain that controls movement. The wire extends to an external device called a neurostimulator. This sends electrical pulses through the lead to stimulate the subthalamic nucleus.

The second surgery is prescribed in cases where the patient suffers too many side effects from the levodopa or requires too strong a dose. A surgeon inserts a tube in the small intestine, through which the patient receives doses of carbidopa. This enhances the effect of levodopa, allowing the patient to receive a smaller dose.

What Are The Symptoms

The four main symptoms of Parkinson’s are:

  • Tremor, which means shaking or trembling. Tremor may affect your hands, arms, or legs.
  • Stiff muscles.
  • Slow movement.
  • Problems with balance or walking.

Tremor may be the first symptom you notice. It’s one of the most common signs of the disease, although not everyone has it.

More importantly, not everyone with a tremor has Parkinson’s disease.

Tremor often starts in just one arm or leg or on only one side of the body. It may be worse when you are awake but not moving the affected arm or leg. It may get better when you move the limb or you are asleep.

In time, Parkinson’s affects muscles all through your body, so it can lead to problems like trouble swallowing or constipation.

In the later stages of the disease, a person with Parkinson’s may have a fixed or blank expression, trouble speaking, and other problems. Some people also lose mental skills .

People usually start to have symptoms between the ages of 50 and 60. But sometimes symptoms start earlier.

What Is Lewy Body Dementia

Lewy body dementia is not a single disorder but rather a spectrum of closely-related disorders involving disturbances of cognition, behavior, sleep, movement and autonomic function.

In these progressive disorders, Lewy bodies build up in the brain. Lewy bodies in the brain stem cause a disruption in the production of chemical messengers called dopamine. Too little dopamine can cause parkinsonism, a clinical syndrome thats characterized by tremor, bradykinesia , rigidity and postural instability. Parkinsonism can be caused by Parkinsons disease itself as well as by other underlying neurological conditions such as LBD.  These Lewy bodies are also found throughout other areas of the brain, including the cerebral cortex. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is also depleted, causing disruption of perception, thinking and behavior.

A German neurologist, Friederich H. Lewy, first discovered the abnormal protein deposits in the early 1900s as he was conducting research on Parkinsons disease.

Medical Treatment For Parkinson’s Disease

What is Parkinson

Parkinson’s disease cannot be cured, though taking the medicines timely as prescribed by the doctor can control your symptoms, often dramatically. The doctor may suggest lifestyle changes, and exercises and physical therapy that focuses on balance and stretching.

Based on the severity of the patients condition the doctor may also suggest surgery. 

What Is Parkinsonism Is It Different From Parkinsons

Parkinsons disease is the most common cause of parkinsonism, a category of neurological diseases that cause slowed movement.

No quick or easy diagnostic tests exist for Parkinsons disease, so a patient may receive an initial diagnosis of parkinsonism without a more specific condition being confirmed.

Classic Parkinsons disease referred to as idiopathic because it has no known cause is the most common and most treatable parkinsonism.

About 15 percent of people with parkinsonism have atypical variants, which are also known as Parkinsons plus syndromes.

Parkinsons Disease Causes And Risk Factors

Parkinsons disease is a disorder that occurs throughout your bodys nervous system, and affects your muscle movement and coordination.  PD occurs when nerve cells, referred to as neurons, in your brain gradually break down or die. Neurons create a chemical in your brain called dopamine, which helps control the balance of your bodys movement. Therefore when there the amount of dopamine produced decreases, the result is abnormal brain activity, which leads to signs of Parkinsons disease.

But what causes PD, and how can you avoid the risk factors involved? While researchers are still working hard to find the underlying reason behind Parkinsons, and a cure for the disease; they have not been able to pinpoint the root cause. Still, through various studies, doctors and scientists have been able to find associating risk factors, which include:

Your genes: Research has shown that genetics play a role when it comes to Parkinsons disease. While the risk is small if you have one family member with the condition, your chances increase of getting PD when many relatives within your family suffer from this disease.

Environmental Issues: Studies have linked PD with environmental factors like exposure to toxins, pesticides, and chemicals. These factors increase with long-term exposure, however it is important to note that the risk is still quite low.

Caffeine: As caffeine has direct effects on the brain, lower consumption can help lower your risks of getting PD.

How Many People Have Parkinsons Disease

Worldwide, there are more than 10 million Parkinsons patients and the Parkinsons Foundation predicts nearly 1 million Americans will have PD by 2020. Each year, the U.S. sees around 60,000 new diagnoses. Age and gender are the greatest risk factors. Around 96 percent of patients are over the age of 50 and men are around 1.5 times more likely to have PD.

What Is Parkinsonism

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Parkinsonism refers to a group of neurological diseases that cause Parkinsons-type symptoms, such as tremor and slowed movement. Parkinson’s disease is the most common parkinsonism, accounting for about 85 percent of all cases.

Because there is no specific diagnostic test for Parkinson’s disease , a patient showing signs may get the initial diagnosis of parkinsonism without a more specific condition being confirmed.

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