Friday, June 14, 2024
Friday, June 14, 2024
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Parkinson’s Disease Current Research

Complementary And Supportive Therapies

How Does Basic Parkinson’s Research Get Us Closer To a Cure?

A wide variety of complementary and supportive therapies may be used for PD, including:

A healthy diet. At this time there are no specific vitamins, minerals, or other nutrients that have any proven therapeutic value in PD. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and other components of the National Institutes of Health are funding research to determine if caffeine, antioxidants, and other dietary factors may be beneficial for preventing or treating PD. A normal, healthy diet can promote overall well-being for people with PD just as it would for anyone else. Eating a fiber-rich diet and drinking plenty of fluids also can help alleviate constipation. A high protein diet, however, may limit levodopas absorption.

Exercise. Exercise can help people with PD improve their mobility, flexibility, and body strength. It also can improve well-being, balance, minimize gait problems, and strengthen certain muscles so that people can speak and swallow better. General physical activity, such as walking, gardening, swimming, calisthenics, and using exercise machines, can have other benefit. People with PD should always check with their doctors before beginning a new exercise program.

Alternative approaches that are used by some individuals with PD include:

Sidebar: Morris K Udall Centers Of Excellence For Parkinson’s Disease Research

The Morris K. Udall Parkinsons Disease Research Act of 1997 authorized the NIH to greatly accelerate and expand PD research efforts by launching the NINDS Udall Centers of Excellence, a network of research centers that provide a collaborative, interdisciplinary framework for PD research. Udall Center investigators, along with many other researchers funded by the NIH, have made substantial progress in understanding PD, including identifying disease-associated genes investigating the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to PD, developing and improving PD research models, and discovering and testing potential therapeutic targets for developing novel treatment strategies.

The Udall Centers continue to conduct critical basic, translational, and clinical research on PD including: 1) identifying and characterizing candidate and disease-associated genes, 2) examining neurobiological mechanisms underlying the disease, and 3) developing and testing potential therapies. As part of the program, Udall Center investigators work with local communities of patients and caregivers to identify the challenges of living with PD and to translate scientific discoveries into patient care. The Centers also train the next generation of physicians and scientists who will advance our knowledge of and treatments for PD. See the full list of Udall Centers.

Herbal Formulation With Anti

Ban Xia Hou Po Tang can significantly improve the swallowing reflex in Parkinsons disease patients . Bushen Yanggan Xifeng Decoction has effects on neurotransmitters and DA receptors in the striatum of PD model mice . Chuanxiong Chatiao pelvis has neuroprotective effects against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice models of Parkinsons disease. Huanglian Jiedu Decoction has protective effects on the injury of PC12 cells induced by MPP+ . Kami-shojo-san has effects against tremors due to antipsychotic-induced PD . Liuwei Dihuang Pill can protect dopaminergic neurons in MPTP-induced PD mice . San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang has neuroprotective effects in the MPP+/MPTP models of PD in vitro and in vivo . Tianma Gauteng Yin has protective effects against apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons and oxidation stress response in Parkinsons disease model rats . Yeoldahansotang has neuroprotective effects on the PD model via autophagy enhancement . Zhen-wu-tang has ameliorative and neuroprotective effects on rats induced by MPTP through keeping DA stable and vesicular monoamine transporter 2/DA transporter mRNA in balance . Zeichen Soup has the effect of promoting neural stem cell differentiation in PD model rats .

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What Is The Prognosis

The average life expectancy of a person with PD is generally the same as for people who do not have the disease. Fortunately, there are many treatment options available for people with PD. However, in the late stages, PD may no longer respond to medications and can become associated with serious complications such as choking, pneumonia, and falls.

PD is a slowly progressive disorder. It is not possible to predict what course the disease will take for an individual person.

One commonly used scale neurologists use for describing how the symptoms of PD have progressed in a patient is the Hoehn and Yahr scale.

The Latest In Nutrition And Parkinsons Disease

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Eating well can help you take control of your health. In fact, choosing to eat healthy foods can improve your Parkinsons disease symptoms. And some research suggests that sound nutritional choices could have disease-modifying effects, meaning that they could potentially slow PD progression. Changing your eating habits can be a challenge, but there are many small adjustments you can make to your diet that will add up to big benefits. Learning about them is the first step.

The following article is based on the latest research and a Parkinsons Foundation Expert Briefings about nutrition, hosted by John E. Duda, M.D., from Philadelphia VA Parkinsons Disease Research, Education & Clinical Center .

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Bringing Together Global Experts In The Parkinsons Arena

Professor Simon Lewis, Director of the ForeFront Parkinsons Disease Research Clinic at the Brain & Mind Centre is the Clinical Lead for the program, bringing critical expertise in clinical trial design to the balance of skills.

He says the clinical chemistry between the Brain and Mind Centre and the Garvan Institute makes for a perfect partnership.

From the very beginning of these discussions, I was very keen on the novel concept of targeting different pathways in the same trial said Professor Lewis.

On the clinical side, we measure the traditional indicators of disease progression, whilst some of our leading scientists at the University of Sydney, Prof Glenda Halliday and Dr Nic Dzamko have developed blood tests evaluating target and disease engagement to look at those important pathways underpinning the disease. Finally, the genomics arm led by the Garvan allows us to progress the field of precision medicine by identifying key genetic signatures.

The first clinical trial is being conducted across eight sites across Australia, integrating clinical, biomarker and genomic information to identify the patients who respond to treatments that target specific changes taking place in the brain.

Were hoping that the outcomes of our clinical trials will provide evidence to suggest that a targeted treatment for treating patients with particular genetic signatures is possible, said Professor Lewis.

Researchers From Johns Hopkins Create A Nanobody Capable Of Penetrating Brain Cells And Preventing Misshapen Proteins From Spreading Halting The Progression Of Neurocognitive Diseases

Image caption: The structure of alpha-synuclein clumps was disrupted by the nanobody PFFNB2. The debris from the disrupted clump is shown on the right.

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Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have helped develop a nanobody capable of getting through the tough exterior of brain cells and untangling misshapen proteins that lead to Parkinsons disease, Lewy body dementia, and other neurocognitive disorders.

The research, published last month in Nature Communications, was led by Xiaobo Mao, an associate professor of neurology at the School of Medicine, and included scientists at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Their aim was to find a new type of treatment that could specifically target the misshapen proteins, called alpha-synuclein, which tend to clump together and gum up the inner workings of brain cells. Emerging evidence has shown that the alpha-synuclein clumps can spread from the gut or nose to the brain, driving the disease progression.

The researchers had to shore up the nanobodies to help them keep stable within a brain cell. To do this, they genetically engineered them to rid them of chemical bonds that typically degrade inside a cell. Tests showed that without the bonds, the nanobody remained stable and was still able to bind to misshapen alpha-synuclein.

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How Is Parkinsons Disease Diagnosed

There are currently no specific tests that diagnose PD. The diagnosis is based on:

  • medical history and a neurological examination
  • blood and laboratory tests, to rule out other disorders that may be causing the symptoms
  • brain scans to rule out other disorders. However, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging brain scans of people with PD usually appear normal.

In rare cases, where people have a clearly inherited form of PD, researchers can test for known gene mutations as a way of determining an individuals risk of developing the disease. However, this genetic testing can have far-reaching implications and people should carefully consider whether they want to know the results of such tests.

What Is Parkinson’s Disease

New Frontiers in Parkinson’s Disease Research and Care

Parkinsons disease is movement disorder of the nervous system that worsens over time. As nerve cells in parts of the brain weaken or are damaged or die, people may begin to notice problems with movement, tremor, stiffness in the limbs or the trunk of the body, or impaired balance. As these symptoms become more obvious, people may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks. Not everyone with one or more of these symptoms has PD, as the symptoms appear in other diseases as well.

No cure for PD exists today, but research is ongoing and medications or surgery can often provide substantial improvement with motor symptoms.

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Onset Of Postural Instability In Parkinsons Disease Depends On Age Rather Than Disease Duration

Background. Postural instability and falls are considered a major factor of impaired quality of life in patients with advanced Parkinsons disease . The knowledge of the time at which postural instability occurs will help to provide the evidence required to introduce fall-prevention strategies at the right time in PD. Objective. To investigate whether postural instability of patients with different age at disease onset is associated with age or with disease duration of PD. Methods. Patients diagnosed with sporadic PD between 1991 and 2017 and postural instability part III, item 3.12 postural instability) were included, with strict inclusion criteria including regular follow-ups, agreement on data use, and exclusion of comorbidities affecting the free stand. Results. Applying these strict inclusion criteria, we included 106 patients. Those younger than 50 years at PD onset took significantly longer to develop postural instability compared with patients with later onset of PD . There was no association between total MDS-UPDRS III at onset of postural instability. . In PD, postural instability is primarily associated with the age of the patient and not with disease duration.

What Genes Are Linked To Parkinsons Disease

Several genes have been definitively linked to PD:

  • SNCA. This gene, which makes the protein alpha-synuclein, was the first gene identified to be associated with Parkinsons. Research findings by the National Institutes of Health and other institutions prompted studies of the role of alpha-synuclein in PD, which led to the discovery that Lewy bodies seen in all cases of PD contain clumps of alpha-synuclein. This discovery revealed the link between hereditary and sporadic forms of the disease.
  • LRRK2. Mutations in LRRK2 were originally identified in several English and Basque families as a cause of a late-onset PD. Subsequent studies have identified mutations of this gene in other families with PD as well as in a small percentage of people with apparently sporadic PD. LRRK2 mutations are a major cause of PD in North Africa and the Middle East.
  • DJ-1. This gene normally helps regulate gene activity and protect cells from oxidative stress and can cause rare, early forms of PD.
  • PRKN . The parkin gene is translated into a protein that normally helps cells break down and recycle proteins.
  • PINK1. PINK1 codes for a protein active in mitochondria. Mutations in this gene appear to increase susceptibility to cellular stress. PINK1 has been linked to early forms of PD.
  • GBA . Mutations in GBA cause Gaucher disease , but different changes in this gene are associated with an increased risk for Parkinsons disease as well.

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Widespread Imbalance Seen In Gut Microbiome Of Parkinsons Patients

More than 30% of gut microbial species are found at abnormal numbers in Parkinsons disease patients, according to a new analysis that assessed the gut microbiome in more detail than most prior studies. We have shown that there is a widespread imbalance in the Parkinsons , creating an environment

The State Of The Field

Parkinsons Disease Market Analysis

Understanding of Parkinson’s has grown substantially over the past two decades. The Michael J. Fox Foundation is building on this momentum to explore prevention of the disease and transform diagnosis and treatments.

Years of work spent uncovering Parkinsons secrets defining the highly variable patient experience, shedding light on genetic origins of disease, mapping molecular pathways are now paying off in a tangible quickening tempo of scientific progress. Investigators are increasingly linking cellular pathology to outward clinical symptoms to identify new therapeutic and biomarker targets. This has positioned drug makers to make rapid inroads toward treatments that have the potential to slow or stop progression of Parkinson’s disease . The field also is closer than ever to arriving at therapies that can treat all the symptoms of PD, including the less well understood non-motor aspects, such as cognitive impairment and mood disorders, sleeping and digestive issues, and speech and swallowing difficulties.

While the Parkinson’s pipeline is more active than at any previous point in the modern era of drug development, much work remains to be done in the quest to better understand the connection between pathological “bad actors” and the daily lived experience of the disease and to translate understanding of basic Parkinson’s biology into new therapies.

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Establishing Pd Research Priorities

The NINDS-organized Parkinsons Disease 2014: Advancing Research, Improving Lives conference brought together researchers, clinicians, patients, caregivers, and nonprofit organizations to develop 31 prioritized recommendations for research on PD. These recommendations are being implemented through investigator-initiated grants and several NINDS programs. NINDS and the NIHs National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences held the Parkinsons Disease: Understanding the Environment and Gene Connection workshop to identify priorities for advancing research on environmental contributors to PD.

Research recommendations for Lewy Body Dementia, including Parkinsons disease dementia, were updated during the NIH Alzheimers Disease-Related Dementias Summit 2019 .

Support For People Living With Parkinsons Disease

While the progression of Parkinsons is usually slow, eventually a persons daily routines may be affected. Activities such as working, taking care of a home, and participating in social activities with friends may become challenging. Experiencing these changes can be difficult, but support groups can help people cope. These groups can provide information, advice, and connections to resources for those living with Parkinsons disease, their families, and caregivers. The organizations listed below can help people find local support groups and other resources in their communities.

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Early Detection Of Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease affects about 1% of the population, primarily people in their late 50s and 60s. It is marked by tremor, slowness of movement, and muscle rigidity. Additional symptoms include gait and balance difficulties, speech issues, and bowel and bladder problems.

Dr. Stern noted how far the treatment of Parkinsons disease has come since he first started working in the field. The good news is were very effective now at being able to treat many of the symptoms of Parkinsons disease, and patients can live very long, productive lives with the right kind of therapy, he says.

Current research is paving the way for the early detection of Parkinsons disease. When researchers identify biomarkers, doctors will be able to detect and diagnose Parkinsons earlier. Biomarkers are specific signs that indicate the presence of a disease early on. Early detection can lead to earlier, more effective treatments. It may even become possible to prevent or slow the onset of symptoms.

What Im very excited about is this whole notion of biomarkers that may enable us to make the diagnosis of Parkinsons disease at a time when its not disablingin fact, at a time when there may be no symptoms at alland then intervene when we can make much more of a difference, Dr. Stern says.

The Concept Of Pd Without Parkinsonism

What’s the latest on Parkinsons Disease

It is now widely accepted that the classic PD course actually represents a relatively late stage of a broader process of disease . The extended PD course acknowledges a considerable pre-diagnostic phase, during which the underlying pathology has commenced, but symptomatology is either absent, non-specific or too subtle to meet current diagnostic criteria . The pre-diagnostic phase is commonly further subdivided into an at risk phase, a preclinical or premotor phase and a prodromal phase, depending on clinicopathologic manifestations .

If we are to move forward clinically and scientifically, we first need to come to grips that PD can be present in the absence of Parkinsonism. We then need objective and reliable measures to accurately identify those at risk of developing PD or those in the earliest developmental stages when traditional motor symptomatology has not emerged.

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Blood Biomarkers Identified For Cognitive Changes With Parkinsons

Blood levels of small vesicles originating in neurons and containing proteins related to Parkinsons disease or Alzheimers disease alpha-synuclein, phosphorylated tau, or insulin receptor substrate 1 can be biomarkers of cognitive impairment in Parkinsons patients, a study reported. Changes in the levels of vesicles carrying these

Research Breakthrough Will Help Develop Future Treatments Against Parkinsons Disease

Researchers from the University of Dundee have discovered a small molecule that helps to eliminate a Parkinsons disease-causing protein

Researchers from the University of Dundee have discovered a small molecule that helps to eliminate a Parkinsons disease-causing protein.

Parkinsons disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting more than 10 million people worldwide. No cure is available and current treatment is limited to symptomatic management.

Researchers from the Universitys Centre for Targeted Protein Degradation and MRC Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit have made significant strides towards developing new therapies through the design of XL01126, a small molecule that degrades a protein known to play a key role in the development of Parkinsons.

The protein, Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 , is one of the most important and promising targets for developing treatments for Parkinsons disease, but until now scientists have only been able to inhibit its function rather than destroying it completely.

XL01126 eliminates LRRK2 from within the cell by utilising the cells natural waste disposal system. The research also demonstrated that XL01126 can be taken orally and can be detected in the brain in mice, two sought-after features of drugs targeting neurodegenerative diseases that can be very challenging to achieve.

The article is available and open access here:

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