There Are Some Key Differences Between Young Onset And Idiopathic Parkinsons:
- In general, individuals diagnosed with YOPD may experience a slower progression of Parkinsons.
- Dystonia, an involuntary and sometimes painful contraction of your muscles that leads to twisting, pulling or bending across a joint is more common in those with YOPD and may be one of the first symptoms experienced. Dystonia can appear as toe curling, the foot turning in or arm or hand flexion or cramping. Sadly, these symptoms in younger individuals can lead to misdiagnosed orthopedic issues before they get to a diagnosis of Parkinsons.
- There appears to be a lower rate of cognitive impairment in younger individuals with Parkinsons, including dementia.
- Motor symptoms of both young and older-onset Parkinsons respond well to medication. Over time though, complications from the medication can become a problem, which lead to ups and downs in your response to Parkinsons medications throughout the day. Both motor fluctuations and dyskinesia can occur earlier in the progression of Parkinsons and tend to be more severe in YOPD.
Women with YOPD are often still menstruating and describe the impact Parkinsons symptoms, as well as Parkinsons medications, have on their menstrual cycles and the management of those cycles.
Parkinsons Dementia Vs Alzheimers Dementia
According to experts, Parkinsons dementia can cause impaired physical activity and impacts motor skills. Two neurotransmitters called dopamine and serotonin tend to be damaged by Parkinsons.
In addition to causing issues with movement and coordination, this form of dementia can also cause a slower thought process and memory problems. This is usually less pronounced however, until the later stages of the disease.
With Alzheimers, two types of proteins in the brain, tangles and plaques , accumulate and kill brain cells. This Alzheimers-induced dementia affects memory, clear thinking, language skills, and orientation. It reduces comprehension, learning capacity, and judgement. Storing new information and memory retrieval are impacted more than motor skills.
Distinguishing between these neurodegenerative conditions is important to determine the best treatment approach. Medications for one of condition might create problems when given to a patient with the other condition.
What Are The Complications Of Parkinson Disease
Parkinson disease causes physical symptoms at first. Problems with cognitive function, including forgetfulness and trouble with concentration, may arise later. As the disease gets worse with time, many people develop dementia. This can cause profound memory loss and makes it hard to maintain relationships.
Parkinson disease dementia can cause problems with:
- Speaking and communicating with others
- Problem solving
- Paying attention
If you have Parkinson disease and dementia, in time, you likely won’t be able to live by yourself. Dementia affects your ability to care of yourself, even if you can still physically do daily tasks.
Experts don’t understand how or why dementia often occurs with Parkinson disease. Its clear, though, that dementia and problems with cognitive function are linked to changes in the brain that cause problems with movement. As with Parkinson disease, dementia occurs when nerve cells degenerate, leading to chemical changes in the brain. Parkinson disease dementia may be treated with medicines also used to treat Alzheimer’s disease, another type of dementia.
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Epidemiology And Natural History Of Dlb And Pdd
Approximately 12% of those aged above 65 years are diagnosed with DLB worldwide , affecting approximately 5% of all dementia cases in those over the age of 75 . Its incidence is 0.71.4 new cases/100,000 person-years or 3.5/100,000 person-years . For PDD, the cumulative prevalence is of 75% of PD patients surviving more than 10 years , 83% after 20 years , and up to 95% by age 90 years , with an overall prevalence of 31.1% and incidence rates from 0.43 to 1.13/100,000 person-years , indicating that, annually, approximately 10% of a PD population will develop dementia . The data concerning age at disease or dementia onset are highly variable. Whereas in the Olmsted County study DLB patients were younger at symptom onset than those with PDD and had more hallucinations and cognitive fluctuations, others have reported younger age at disease onset in PDD , or no essential differences between disorders .
What Causes Parkinson Disease
Parkinson disease arises from decreased dopamine production in the brain. The absence of dopamine makes it hard for the brain to coordinate muscle movements. Low dopamine also contributes to mood and cognitive problems later in the course of the disease. Experts don’t know what triggers the development of Parkinson disease most of the time. Early onset Parkinson disease is often inherited and is the result of certain gene defects.
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Wait So What Is Parkinsonism
Parkinsonism refers to the motor symptoms that are typically associated with PD, such as tremors, stiffness, and walking/balance problems. Both PD and LBD are forms of Parkinsonism, meaning that PD patients and LBD patients may experience these motor symptoms.2 Because the Parkinsonism motor symptoms of PD and LBD can be very similar, it can be difficult to differentiate between the two conditions.
Drug Target Could Fight Parkinson’s And Alzheimer’s Disease
- University of Queensland
- Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease are in the firing line after researchers identified an attractive therapeutic drug target.
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease are in the firing line after researchers identified an attractive therapeutic drug target.
An international collaboration, co-led by University of Queensland researchers, has isolated and analysed the structure and function of a protein found in the brain’s nerve fibres called SARM1.
Dr Jeff Nanson said the protein was activated when nerve fibres were damaged by injury, disease, or as a side effect of certain drugs.
“After a damaging incident occurs, this protein often induces a form of nerve fibre degeneration — known as axon degeneration — a ‘self-destruct’ mechanism of sorts,” Dr Nanson said.
“This is a key pathological feature of many terrible neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, and also amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , traumatic brain injury, and glaucoma.
“There are currently no treatments to prevent this nerve fibre degeneration, but now we know that SARM1 is triggering a cascade of degeneration we can develop future drugs to precisely target this protein.
“This work will hopefully help design new inhibiting drugs that could stop this process in its tracks.”
“It’s time we had effective treatments for these devastating disorders,” Dr Nanson said.
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Lewy Bodies: More Than Lbd
LBD is characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies in the nerve cells of the brain, meaning that LBD patients have Lewy bodies in the brain.2 However, Lewy bodies are also common with other conditions, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinsons disease. In fact, most people with PD also have Lewy bodies in their brain. However, even if they have Lewy bodies, not all Parkinsons patients will also develop LBD.2
Don’t Smoke Lessen Alcohol Intake & Do Not Take Drugs
Even if you don’t drink a lot, alcohol has a cumulative effect on your brain. One blackout after a drinking binge can induce life long memory loss. Over time, smaller amounts of alcohol will lead to blackouts and soon you’ll have a ton of lost time even though you barely drank one bottle of beer.
Smoking negatively affects memory by reducing the amount of oxygen that reaches the brain while repeated drug use kills your neurons and the rushes of dopamine reinforce drug dependence.
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Difference Between Alzheimers Disease And Parkinsons Disease
Categorized under Health | Difference Between Alzheimers Disease and Parkinsons Disease
Alzheimers Disease vs Parkinsons Disease
Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease are both degenerative brain diseases. However, they differ in their symptoms, biological and physical manifestations , causes, and treatment.
Alzheimers disease is a form of dementia thats more directly related with a persons age. The primary pathophysiology of Alzheimers disease observes nerve cell deterioration which is demonstrated as an increased loss of coherence and a progressive loss of ability to conduct normal activities of daily living.
From a biochemical perspective, Alzheimers disease is caused by the lack of acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter in both the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system . Anatomically, portions of the brain such as the temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and frontal cortex are affected.
There is little known treatment for Alzheimers disease, though research indicates that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can slow the progression of the disease once a positive diagnosis has been established. Studies for prevention suggest that performing simple mental exercises such as reading and maintaining regular mentally stimulating activity reduces the chance of acquiring the disease.
Treatment for Parkinsons disease involves dopamine precursors and agonists to increase the presence of dopamine.
Lipid Autacoids In Central Neuroinflammation
Models for central nervous system neuroinflammatory indications supporting the use of the lipid autacoids are among other models of MS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease , Parkinsons disease, Huntingtons disease, depression, and meningitis.3640 Importantly, most of the lipid autacoids defined in this chapter are effective in the nanomolar range, and for many the upstream targets have been identified.41 In a number of models for central neuroinflammation, lipid autacoids proved to have a clear anti-inflammatory effect. This also holds true for the precursors, such as DHA. DHA treatment in an inflammation paradigm could reduce the inflammation-induced activation of microglia, phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase , and reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF- and interleukin-1 .42 Alzheimers is currently seen as a disorder very much related to a central neuroinflammatory pathology. Zhu and colleagues have explored the entorhinal cortex, an area often affected early in AD pathogenesis, and found that the levels of the lipid autacoids, such as maresin 1 , protectin D1 , and resolvin D5, were all lower in concentration in the brain regions explored in AD patients as compared to the same brain regions of healthy volunteers, indicating a reduced break in the inflammatory axis in AD.43
Yury O. Chernoff, … Tatiana A. Chernova, in, 2020
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Key Brain Changes Are Different
The key brain changes linked to Parkinsons disease and Parkinsons-related dementia are abnormal deposits of common brain proteins, called alpha-synuclein. These deposits are known as Lewy bodies, named after the doctor who discovered them. As more of these proteins clump in the brain, normal brain cells begin to die off.1
In Alzheimers disease, the key brain changes include the buildup of different brain proteins, called amyloid and tau. When amyloid proteins clump together, they form abnormal structures known as plaques. Abnormal groups of tau proteins form tangles.3 Over time, the buildup of these proteins causes normal brain cells to die, and affected parts of the brain may shrink.5
Other Causes Of Dementia
Common mental disorders in Parkinsons disease could also cause dementia-like symptoms, including:
- Depression sadness, tearfulness, fatigue, withdrawal, loss of interest in activities once enjoyed, sleeping too much or too little, weight gain or loss
- Anxiety excessive worry or fear that disrupts everyday activities or relationships, restlessness, extreme fatigue, muscle tension, sleeping problems
- Psychosis inability to think realistically, hallucinations, delusions , paranoia , and problems with thinking clearly
Symptoms Related To Brain Function Are Different
There is some overlap, but in general, the overall cognitive symptoms that people experience with Parkinsons disease dementia and Alzheimers are different. Alzheimers mainly affects language and memory at the outset, whereas Parkinsons affects problem-solving, speed of thinking, memory, and mood.6
Unlike in Alzheimers disease, people with Parkinsons-related dementia often experience hallucinations, delusions, and paranoid thoughts. Both conditions can lead to depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances.4,6
What Is Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s disease was named by James Parkinson nearly 100 years before Dr. Alois Alzheimer described the type of dementia called Alzheimer’s disease .
This disease was colloquially referred to as the “shaking palsy” by James Parkinson. It is diagnosed in people who exhibit at least two of these three symptoms: slowed movements , muscle rigidity, and tremor even at rest.
Other recognized associated signs of Parkinson’s Disease includes having an expressionless face, difficulty swallowing, cramped handwriting, trouble getting out of a chair, and a shuffling gait. Many of the symptoms are a result of nerve cell death in those that produce dopamine.
In addition to movement-related symptoms, Parkinson’s symptoms may be non-motor. Examples of non-motor symptoms include indifference, depression, constipation, sleep disorders, loss of the ability to smell, and cognitive impairment.
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Is Dementia In Parkinsons Different From Dementia In Alzheimers
When people hear dementia, Alzheimers is usually the first and only condition to come to mind. The truth is, there are a number of different conditions that can cause dementia. Parkinsons disease is one of them.
Dementia describes a group of symptoms connected to a decline in memory and mental ability. Its caused by damage to the brain cells, affecting a persons ability to communicate, think, behave, and feel.
People think dementia in Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease are one and the same. This couldnt be further from the truth. Alzheimers dementia and Parkinsons dementia affect people in entirely different ways.
Alzheimers Vs Parkinson’s Disease Dementia
The dementia of Parkinsons disease has some similarities to the dementia of Alzheimers disease. And there are some differences, too. Alzheimers disease causes dementia slowly over time, while the dementia of Parkinsons disease often develops more quickly and dramatically.
The symptoms of Parkinsons dementia can come and go from day to day, while the symptoms of Alzheimers dementia will not go away.
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Coping With Alzheimers And Parkinsons Disease
Living with both Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease is extremely challenging. The dementia of Alzheimers combined with the movement effects of Parkinsons can make self-care especially difficult.
Rivastigmine is the only medication that is specifically approved for the treatment of Parkinsons dementia. Additionally, you may need medication for the motor symptoms of Parkinsons disease and medication to help with other symptoms, such as dry skin.
Treating Alzheimers Disease Vs Other Types Of Dementia
Neither Alzheimerâs nor most other types of dementia have a cure. Doctors focus treatments on managing symptoms and keeping the disease from getting worse.
Some of the treatments for dementia and Alzheimerâs overlap.
- Cholinesterase inhibitors can help with memory loss in certain types of dementia and Alzheimerâs.
- Glutamate inhibitors help with learning and memory in both dementia and Alzheimerâs.
- Sleep medications may help with sleep changes.
- Antidepressants can help with depression symptoms.
- Antipsychotic medications may help with behavior changes.
Some types of dementia respond to treatment, depending on what is causing it. Your doctor may recommend:
- Stopping the use of drugs and alcohol
- Tumor removal
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What Is Parkinson Disease
Parkinson disease is a movement disorder. It can cause the muscles to tighten and become rigid This makes it hard to walk and do other daily activities. People with Parkinsons disease also have tremors and may develop cognitive problems, including memory loss and dementia.
Parkinson disease is most common in people who are older than 50. The average age at which it occurs is 60. But some younger people may also get Parkinson disease. When it affects someone younger than age 50, it’s called early-onset Parkinson disease. You may be more likely to get early-onset Parkinson disease if someone in your family has it. The older you are, the greater your risk of developing Parkinson disease. It’s also much more common in men than in women.
Parkinson disease is a chronic and progressive disease. It doesn’t go away and continues to get worse over time.
Memory And Thinking Problems
You may experience forgetfulness, slowed thinking and difficulty concentrating. You might find it harder to follow conversations, and remember some words and names. This can make communication difficult.
You may also find it increasingly difficult to make decisions, plan activities and solve problems. This can make everyday activities harder.
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Prevalence Of Ad And Pd By Year In Individuals Over 60 Years Old
The pooled prevalence rates of AD in 19972001, 20022006, 20072011, 20122016, and 20172018 were 1.68, 1.90, 3.65, 4.16, and 3.96%, respectively, with a significant increase in 20072011 and 20122016 compared to its respective previous period. The pooled prevalence rates of PD in 19851999, 20002014 and 20152018 were 0.94, 1.14, and 2.04%, respectively, with a significant increase in the latter two periods compared to its respective previous period .
Based on the yearly pooled prevalence of AD from 1997 to 2018 in China, a model was identified as the best fitting specification . The rate of AD showed a slightly increasing trend with no seasonal variation, and was predicted to be 3.81% , 5.24% , 5.35% , 4.84% , and 6.17% for the next 5 years from 2019 to 2023 . PD was not analyzed due to insufficient data.
Figure 3. Prediction of AD prevalence in Chinese over 60 years old in the next 5 years. AD, Alzheimer’s disease.
Differences Between Alzheimers And Parkinsons
Were going to group the differences between both illnesses into different blocks and explain what each of them consists of. All of them have been extracted from two reference psychopathology manuals: Belloch, Sandín, and Ramos and the DSM-5 .
The first block of differences between Alzheimers and Parkinsons refers to their type of symptoms. Lets see what they are.
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Can You Have Both Parkinsons And Alzheimers
People who already have Parkinsons disease and later develop signs of dementia are diagnosed with Parkinsons dementia.6 However, if you first have Alzheimers disease and develop signs of movement difficulties, you can also have a diagnosis of Parkinsons disease.
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