Tuesday, October 3, 2023
Tuesday, October 3, 2023
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Why Is Parkinson’s Increasing

Is Parkinson’s Becoming More Common

Why do Parkinson’s symptoms vary so much?

Parkinson’s diagnoses are on the rise In 2017, approximately 90,000 commercially insured adults between the ages of 30 and 64 were diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. While that number is relatively small, our research shows that the prevalence rate has grown more than 50% in the span of five years.

Systematic Review And Meta

In order to examine whether our findings were consistent with those from studies conducted in other settings using other methods, we undertook a systematic review of PD incidence studies. Two authors sought studies published before 31 January 2015, using Medline we also searched reference lists of papers identified by this search and previous reviews for additional references.,,

Studies were eligible for the meta-analysis if they included PD incidence data broken down by age and sex with at least two of three following parameters available for each age-by-sex strata in order to be able to perform calculations: number of PD cases, person-years, incidence rate. If several publications were based on the same population, we selected the most recent report.

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Spotlight On Parkinsons Disease: Staying Healthy Keeping Fit

In this 45-minute webinar Terry Ellis, PhD, PT, shares which Parkinsons symptoms are reduced by what types of exercise, the intensity of exercise required to have an impact on PD symptoms, how to overcome resistance to exercising, and tips for implementing an effective exercise routine. In the last 15 minutes of the webinar Dr. Ellis answers listener questions.

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What Medications And Treatments Are Used

Medication treatments for Parkinsons disease fall into two categories: Direct treatments and symptom treatments. Direct treatments target Parkinsons itself. Symptom treatments only treat certain effects of the disease.

Medications

Medications that treat Parkinsons disease do so in multiple ways. Because of that, drugs that do one or more of the following are most likely:

Several medications treat specific symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Symptoms treated often include the following:

  • Erectile and sexual dysfunction.
  • Hallucinations and other psychosis symptoms.

Deep brain stimulation

In years past, surgery was an option to intentionally damage and scar a part of your brain that was malfunctioning because of Parkinsons disease. Today, that same effect is possible using deep-brain stimulation, which uses an implanted device to deliver a mild electrical current to those same areas.

The major advantage is that deep-brain stimulation is reversible, while intentional scarring damage is not. This treatment approach is almost always an option in later stages of Parkinson’s disease when levodopa therapy becomes less effective, and in people who have tremor that doesnt seem to respond to the usual medications.

Experimental treatments

Researchers are exploring other possible treatments that could help with Parkinsons disease. While these arent widely available, they do offer hope to people with this condition. Some of the experimental treatment approaches include:

What Is Parkinsons Disease

How Does Parkinson

Parkinsons disease is a condition where a part of your brain deteriorates, causing more severe symptoms over time. While this condition is best known for how it affects muscle control, balance and movement, it can also cause a wide range of other effects on your senses, thinking ability, mental health and more.

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What Can We Do

As the UKs leading Parkinsons charity, we drive better care, treatments and quality of life.

Over the last few decades we have unlocked vital research discoveries. The science is now ready we wont wait for a treatment that can stop, slow or reverse Parkinsons. I want to change these statistics. Pioneering research is the only way to bring forward the day when no one fears Parkinson’s. Steve Ford, Chief Executive, Parkinsons UK.

Patient Selection And Diagnostic Criteria

We selected all PD patients registered in the RID program during the 6-year study period. The diagnostic criteria for PD established by the NHI in the RID program are similar to the UK PD society brain bank clinical diagnostic criteria, and are as follows: 1) diagnosis of Parkinsonian syndrome : mild or worse bradykinesia and at least one of the following: muscular rigidity, rest tremor, postural instability 2) the exclusion criteria for PD: history of strokes, head injury, definite encephalitis, drug side effects, and hypoxia 3) supportive prospective positive criteria for PD: three or more required for diagnosis of definite PD in combination with step one: unilateral onset, rest tremor present, progressive disorder, persistent asymmetry affecting the side of onset most, excellent response to levodopa, severe levodopa-induced chorea, levodopa response for 5years or more, clinical course of 10years or more.

The database did not contain any personal identifiers as all identifiable personal information in the database was removed to comply with the privacy rules of the health insurance portability and accountability act. Informed consent was not required for this study as all the data was obtained from medical records. This study was performed based on the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association. All procedural and ethical aspects of this study were approved by the Institutional Review Board of Korea University Ansan Hospital .

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Incidence And Prevalence Mf Ratios

Among 457027 persons with at least one reimbursement of antiparkinsonian drugs in 2010, 188562 persons were predicted as being treated for PD, of whom 10723 died in 2010. The corrected number of prevalent cases was 149672 . Among persons treated for PD in 2010, 29940 were new cases. The corrected number of incident cases was 25438 . There were no important sex differences among prevalent and incident PD cases for characteristics included in the prediction model .

Systematic review of age-specific male-to-female incidence ratios of Parkinsons disease. Circles represent observed male-to-female incidence ratios for each study by age-by-sex strata, estimated by modelling incidence through Poisson regression their size is proportional to the variance of the male-to-female incidence ratios, and more precise estimates are represented by larger circles. Solid line, linear regression of male-to-female incidence ratios weighted by the inverse of their variance on age . Dashed line, 95% CIs of the linear regression.

What Causes The Condition

Why does Parkinson’s affect swallowing?

Although there are several recognized risk factors for Parkinsons disease, such as exposure to pesticides, for now, the only confirmed causes of Parkinsons disease are genetic. When Parkinsons disease isnt genetic, experts classify it as idiopathic . That means they dont know exactly why it happens.

Many conditions look like Parkinsons disease but are instead parkinsonism from a specific cause like some psychiatric medications.

Familial Parkinsons disease

Parkinsons disease can have a familial cause, which means you can inherit it from one or both of your parents. However, this only makes up about 10% of all cases.

Experts have linked at least seven different genes to Parkinsons disease. Theyve linked three of those to early-onset of the condition . Some genetic mutations also cause unique, distinguishing features.

Idiopathic Parkinsons disease

Experts believe idiopathic Parkinsons disease happens because of problems with how your body uses a protein called -synuclein . Proteins are chemical molecules that have a very specific shape. When some proteins dont have the correct shape a problem known as protein misfolding your body cant use them and cant break them down.

With nowhere to go, the proteins build up in various places or in certain cells . The buildup of these Lewy bodies causes toxic effects and cell damage.

Induced Parkinsonism

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Parkinsons Disease Quiz Questions

  • What was Parkinsons Disease originally refered to?
  • John Parkinson discovered Parkinsons Disease
  • Dopamine affects the part of the brain associated with and
  • The average age of onset of Parkinsons is about
  • Parkinsons disease appears to be slightly more common in
  • Is as Resting Tremor a symptom of Parkinsons Disease?
  • What Chromosome is affiliated with Parkinsons Disease
  • How many stages of Parkinsons Disease are there?
  • What is the name of the workout video for Parkinsons offered on the website?
    • Sample QuestionThe dopamine-producing region of the brain which dies in Parkinsons disease is called theAmygdala
    • Sample QuestionYou are having lunch with a friend in your office cafeteria. It is seemingly quiet, and the only other sound is the soft humming of the refrigerator. Your friend sits across from you and places her container on the table. You take a quick peek which of the following foods listed would alarm you the most?Stacys Pita Chips

    Exercise For Parkinsons Recommendations For Managing Symptoms

    This 8-page booklet includes an overview of exercise for Parkinsons Disease , a word on PD exercise research, safety considerations, recommendations PD exercise, PD exercise principles, a table of PD symptoms and suggested movement and activities to help manage them, and links to Exercise for Parkinsons Training for Professionals and to free online exercise videos.

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    Support For People With Parkinsons Disease

    Early access to a multidisciplinary support team is important. These teams may include doctors, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, social workers and specialist nurses. Members of the team assess the person with Parkinsons disease and identify potential difficulties and possible solutions.There are a limited number of multidisciplinary teams in Victoria that specialise in Parkinsons disease management. But generalist teams are becoming more aware of how to help people with Parkinsons disease.

    Other Causes Of Parkinsonism

    Stages of Parkinson

    Parkinsonism is the umbrella term used to describe the symptoms of tremors, muscle rigidity and slowness of movement.

    Parkinsons disease is the most common type of parkinsonism, but there are also some rarer types where a specific cause can be identified.

    These include parkinsonism caused by:

    • medication where symptoms develop after taking certain medications, such as some types of antipsychotic medication, and usually improve once the medication is stopped
    • other progressive brain conditions such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple systems atrophy, and corticobasal degeneration
    • cerebrovascular disease where a series of small strokes cause several parts of the brain to die

    You can read more about parkinsonism on the Parkinsons UK website.

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    Can We Turn The Tide

    The study authors believe that the key to transforming this seemingly inevitable rise in Parkinsons disease is activism.

    Conditions such as HIV and breast cancer have benefited widely from this approach. For example, many focus on raising awareness, amassing funds, improving treatments, and changing policy.

    Stopping the production and use of certain chemicals that may increase the risk of Parkinsons is essential. As the authors write:

    We have the means to prevent potentially millions from ever experiencing the debilitating effects of Parkinson disease.

    Also crucial, as ever, is financial backing. More research is needed to understand why the condition appears and how it progresses, and this type of scientific investigation is never cheap.

    In particular, scientists need to develop better medications. Currently, the most effective therapy is levodopa, which is 50 years old and not without its issues, including both psychological and physical side effects.

    While this recent analysis is worrying, the authors leave the reader with some positivity, concluding that he Parkinson pandemic is preventable, not inevitable.

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    New Ongoing And Published Research

    In 2001, VA created six specialized centers to provide Veterans state-of-the-art clinical care, education, research, and advocacy for Parkinson’s disease.

    Known as the Parkinson’s Disease Research, Education, and Clinical Centers , they are located in Philadelphia, Richmond, Virginia, Houston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and the Seattle/Portland area. The centers also provide comprehensive diagnosis and treatment services for other movement disorders, including essential tremor, restless leg syndrome, dystonia, Lewy body disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, and corticobasal degeneration.

    Researchers at these sites are studying the biochemical pathways involving dopamine and testing a variety of treatment approaches for PD, including medication, surgery, and electrical stimulation. Biomedical and clinical studies on PD are ongoing at many other VA sites as well.

    If you are interested in learning about joining a VA-sponsored clinical trial, visit our research study .

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    Diagnosis And Management Of Parkinsons Disease

    There are no diagnostic tests for Parkinsons. X-rays, scans and blood tests may be used to rule out other conditions. For this reason, getting a diagnosis of Parkinsons may take some time.

    No two people with Parkinsons disease will have exactly the same symptoms or treatment. Your doctor or neurologist can help you decide which treatments to use.

    People can manage their Parkinsons disease symptoms through:

    • seeing a Doctor who specialises in Parkinsons
    • multidisciplinary therapy provided for example, by nurses, allied health professionals and counsellors
    • deep brain stimulation surgery .

    Increased Feelings Of Anxiety Or Depression

    Why do people get Parkinson’s?

    Anxiety and depression have been linked to Parkinsons. In addition to movement problems, the disease can also have an impact on your mental health. Its possible that changes in your emotional well-being can be a sign of changing physical health as well.

    If you are more anxious than usual, have lost interest in things, or feel a sense of hopelessness, talk to your doctor.

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    Death Rate From Parkinson’s Rising In Us Study Finds

    Date:
    American Academy of Neurology
    Summary:
    A new study shows that in the last two decades the death rate from Parkinson’s disease has risen about 63 percent in the United States. The study also found that the death rate was twice as high in men as in women, and there was a higher death rate in white people than other racial/ethnic groups.

    A new study shows that in the last two decades the death rate from Parkinson’s disease has risen about 63% in the United States. The research is published in the October 27, 2021, online issue of Neurology┬«, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. The study also foundthat the death rate was twice as high in men as in women, and there was a higher death rate in white people than other racial/ethnic groups.

    We know that people are living longer and the general population is getting older, but that doesn’t fully explain the increase we saw in the death rate in people with Parkinson’s,” study author Wei Bao, MD, PhD, who conducted the research at the University of Iowa in Iowa City. “Understanding why more people are dying from this disease is critical if we are going to reverse the trend.”

    The study looked at a national death registry that included 479,059 people who died of Parkinson’s between 1999 and 2019.

    After adjusting for age, researchers found that the number of people who died from the disease increased from 5.4 per 100,000 people in 1999 to 8.8 per 100,000 people in 2019. The average annual increase was 2.4%.

    How Can I Remember To Take My Parkinsons Medication On Time

    There are lots of things you can do to help you get your medication on time.

    For example, you could:

    • set an alarm on your phone or smart watch

    • get a family member to call you at the right time or arrange care visits around when you need to take your medication

    • use a pill box with sections for each day and time. You pharmacist can advise on the different ones available and we also sell them on the Parkinsons UK shop

    Talk to your Parkinsons nurse if you are struggling to remember to take your medication. They can work with you to reschedule your treatment regime so that it fits around you.

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    Exercise And Healthy Eating

    Regular exercise is particularly important in helping relieve muscle stiffness, improving your mood, and relieving stress.

    There are many activities you can do to help keep yourself fit, ranging from more active sports like tennis and cycling, to less strenuous activities such as walking, gardening and yoga.

    You should also try to eat a balanced diet containing all the food groups to give your body the nutrition it needs to stay healthy.

    Causes Of Parkinsons Disease And Risk Factors

    Parkinson

    Parkinsons disease is caused by low dopamine activity in certain areas of the brain. Its associated with degeneration of the substantia nigra, a small area of the brain that produces dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates motor movements and other body functions.

    The underlying cause or trigger for these changes is not known, although some people have a family history of the condition.

    Many potential risk factors have been examined as possible triggers, including exposure to chemicals, but no environmental or lifestyle factors have been confirmed as causing Parkinsons disease.

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    General Comments On Methodology

    This analysis identified many potentially important differences in the incidence of PD, which could possibly be attributed to environmental or genetic factors. However, as this meta-analysis contains studies with a range of methodological strategies, the differences between age- and gender-specific incidence may also be due to methodological differences or potential population confounders. Ideally, only studies using the same methods of case ascertainment would be combined in the meta-analysis. However, only 27 studies of PD incidence were found, with only 14 providing data that could be combined in the meta-analysis. There were only a few studies that used identical methodologies for case ascertainment. As all methods of case ascertainment have drawbacks, including attrition, misclassification, and nonresponse, the quality of individual studies may be equally as important as the method of case ascertainment in determining PD incidence. Therefore, we chose to combine studies using different methodologies and examine closely for heterogeneity using the I2 statistic calculated from the Cochrane Q chi-square test for heterogeneity. I2 values showed low to moderate heterogeneity in the female age groups from 40 to 70, with considerable heterogeneity in those 70-79 and 80+. Similarly, heterogeneity increased with age in males, though considerable heterogeneity was found in all age groups over 50.

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