Whats The Difference Between Parkinsons And Huntingtons
Although and Huntingtons disease are very similar, they also have some marked differences that can help in the diagnosis.
First of all, the diseases onset is quite different since Parkinsons patients do not suffer from chorea. Instead, they begin with small tremors in their fingers that look as if they were rubbing coins.
It continues as rigidity and very slow movements, small steps as they walk and not balancing their arms. Their facial expression also disappears, giving them a permanent poker face.
In this disease, there is a direct link to the loss of neurons that produce dopamine, which causes these particular symptoms. It isnt well known the precise cause of this disease, although its most likely genetics, some patients dont show precise mutations.
What is certain is the presence of Lewy Bodies in the brain cells, which this disease affects. Lewy bodies are inclusions in brain cells with a-synuclein; protein cells cannot get rid of, causing their death.
Parkinsons patients also suffer from psychiatric symptoms such as dementia and depression, making it even more similar to Huntingtons.
What differentiates both diseases without a doubt is the presence of mutant huntingtin in Huntingtons patients. A gene test confirms its existence and excludes Parkinsons diseases from being a potential diagnosis.
What Is The Most Common Cause Of Death In This Condition
The most common cause of death in Huntingtons disease is and suffocation. Motor symptoms cause both problems.
When the condition is in its later stages, the person has poor muscle control, including those in the throat. This causes the main problem that leads to the patients death, which is not swallowing most foods adequately.
When the HD patient is being fed the food, whether it is liquid or not, it can go to the lungs. This small portion of food in the lungs carries anaerobic bacteria that cause pneumonia, which leads to the patients death.
Aspiration pneumonia can be more severe than common infections, especially if doctors do not identify quicky that its this type of infection, the one causing trouble and treat it as ordinary pneumonia. Suffocation happens when solid foods obstruct the upper airways in its totality because of the patients lack of muscle control.
Other causes of death are common such as:
- Heart disease: People with this disease suffer from nerve conduction in the heart that can cause low heart rate and arrhythmia. It also generates heart failure.
- Suicide: Usually in early or mid-stages of the disease because of the depression proper of the gene mutation that affects the brain.
- Cachexia: Is a state in which the body deteriorates through the loss of muscle mass and fat. It happens mostly in chronic diseases and is not because of less food ingestion.
Activation Pattern In Parkinson’s Disease And Huntington’s Disease Patients
The major finding emerging from our investigations in Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease patients is that task-related differences in cortical and subcortical sensory-evoked activation exist by comparison with healthy control subjects and, like previous H215O-PET studies on motor processing, there was a considerable degree of congruency between activation patterns in Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease . Among distributed areas with relative rCBF reductions, basal ganglia activation was reduced in both patient groups. This is in keeping with findings in cats rendered parkinsonian with MPTP, where marked decreases of neuronal responses to tactile stimuli have been demonstrated in globus pallidus . Similar reductions of striatal responsiveness to sensory stimulation have been reported in MPTP treated monkeys, and were reversible after apomorphine .
You May Like: How Is The Family Of A Person With Parkinson’s Affected
Gene Therapies For Pd And Hd
For the development of new therapies for PD and HD, it is important to include, especially for HD and genetic forms of PD, genetic correction/editing of the mutated gene. Nowadays, there are several gene silencing/editing technologies, including RNA interference , antisense oligonucleotides , and clustered interspaced short palindromic repeats , which can be used as therapies for the treatment of PD and HD. For a more in-depth knowledge of gene therapy delivery systems and other cellular targets, reviews are published elsewhere .
As previously stated, PD is characterized by the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the SN, thus approaches aiming to revert this loss based on the delivery of genes encoding for enzymes required for DA synthesis could be useful. The first enzyme for DA synthesis is TH, which requires the enzyme GTP-cyclohydrolase-1 to synthesize a cofactor for DA biosynthesis . TH converts tyrosine into L-dopa, which finally is converted into DA by the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase . Therapies to deliver enzymes involved in DA synthesis have been proved in preclinical and clinical studies showing its benefits.
Parkinson Disease Case Study
Anaesthetic Management of a patient with Parkinsonism Posted for Wide Excision of Skin Adenexal Tumour in the Axilla: A Case ReportIntroduction Parkinsons disease has been known since biblical times but it was first formally described by James Parkinson in the 18th century and termed the shaking palsy. Although the aetiology of the disease is unknown, age has been identified as the most consistent risk factor. Parkinsons disease affects approximately 3% of the population over 66 years of age and with increasing age of the general surgical patients it is becoming an important cause of perioperative morbidity Parkinsonism is due to the imbalance of the mutually antagonistic dopaminergic and cholinergic systems of the basal ganglia. Pigmented
Don’t Miss: George Bush Parkinsons
How Is Chorea Treated
The treatment of chorea is first directed at treating the underlying cause of the movements if possible. This may include discontinuing a medication, correcting a metabolic abnormality, or medically treating an autoimmune, infectious, rheumatologic, or endocrinologic cause of chorea. In some cases in which chorea is due to prior damage to the brain or an ongoing degenerative process, there may not be a treatment available to influence the underlying disease process. The choreic movements themselves can be treated with medications that can help to suppress them. In very specific cases neurosurgical procedures can sometimes be considered.
Cerebral Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor And Mesencephalic Astrocyte
In 2003, a protein called mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor was characterized and demonstrated to promote survival of embryonic dopaminergic neurons in vitro . Then, a homologous protein called CDNF was discovered with a protective role for dopaminergic neurons. Several studies evidence the protective role of CDNF and MANF in dopaminergic neurons against the injury caused by -syn oligomers . The intrastriatal injection of CDNF prevents the loss of TH-positive neurons in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD , and protected dopaminergic neurons in 6-OHDA and MPTP mouse models of PD . MANF has been tested in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model showing beneficial effects . CDNF and MANF diffuse to the brain significantly better than GDNF, and CDNF was more efficient in reducing amphetamine-induced ipsilateral rotations in the 6-OHDA rat PD model in comparison with GDNF treatment . In 6-OHDA-lesioned monkeys, PET imaging showed a significant increase of DA transporter ligand-binding activity in lesioned animals treated with CDNF .
The first phase III clinical trial using CDNF in PD patients is being conducted since 2017. In this study, an implanted drug delivery system for Ipu of recombinant human CDNF is used in patients with idiopathic mild-advanced PD . Additionally, another phase III clinical trial to evaluate the beneficial effects of CDNF in PD patients is still on course . Currently, the delivery of CDNF for HD treatment has not been described.
Don’t Miss: Do People Die From Parkinsons
What Is Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s disease was named by James Parkinson nearly 100 years before Dr. Alois Alzheimer described the type of dementia called Alzheimer’s disease .
This disease was colloquially referred to as the “shaking palsy” by James Parkinson. It is diagnosed in people who exhibit at least two of these three symptoms: slowed movements , muscle rigidity, and tremor even at rest.
Other recognized associated signs of Parkinson’s Disease includes having an expressionless face, difficulty swallowing, cramped handwriting, trouble getting out of a chair, and a shuffling gait. Many of the symptoms are a result of nerve cell death in those that produce dopamine.
In addition to movement-related symptoms, Parkinson’s symptoms may be non-motor. Examples of non-motor symptoms include indifference, depression, constipation, sleep disorders, loss of the ability to smell, and cognitive impairment.
Genetic Testing For Huntington Disease
The genetic mutation that causes Huntington disease is located on chromosome 4. It involves repetition of a particular section of the genetic code in the DNA.
The gene for Huntington disease is dominant. Thus, having only one copy of the abnormal gene, inherited from one parent, is sufficient to cause the disease. Almost all people with the disease have only one copy of the abnormal gene. Children of such people have a 50% chance of inheriting the abnormal gene and thus the disease.
People who have a parent or grandparent with Huntington disease can find out whether they have inherited the gene for the disease by taking a genetic test. For the test, a blood sample is taken and analyzed. Such people may or may not want to know whether they have inherited the gene. This issue should be discussed with an expert in genetic counseling before genetic testing.
Also Check: Can Parkinson’s Cause Dementia
What Can You Not Eat With Huntingtons Disease
Difficult foods to swallow such as flaky puff pastry, raw vegetables, apples, pears and high-fiber white bread should be avoided. Eating small but frequent amounts of high-calorie, nutrient-dense foods such as avocados, smooth nut butters and hearty soups can prevent choking while ensuring adequate calorie intake.
What Is Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system. The motor symptoms of Parkinsons disease result from the degeneration of dopamine generating cells in the substantia nigra in the midbrain. The causes of this cell death are poorly understood. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty in walking and gait. Later, thinking and behavioral problems arise, with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Depression;is the most common psychiatric symptom. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep problems and emotionally related problems.
Parkinsons disease is more common in older people, and most cases occur after the age of 50; when it is seen in young, it is called young onset Parkinsons disease.Diagnosis is by medical history and physical examination. There is no cure for PD, but medications, surgery, and multidisciplinary management can provide relief from the disabling symptoms. The main classes of drugs useful for treating motor symptoms are levodopa, dopamine agonists, and MAO-B inhibitors. These drugs too can cause disabling side effects. Deep brain stimulation has been tried as a treatment modality with some success.
How Can Speech Therapy Help
Huntingtons Disease affects each person differently, so the course of treatment with a speech and language pathologist will vary from patient to patient as well. To begin, the speech therapist will work to establish the areas of communication and speech that pose the greatest challenge. From there they will develop a plan to help support their client and improve not only their communication but their quality of life as a whole.;
Whether it is swallowing problems or more frequent coughing and choking due to poor muscle tone or communication problems related to cognitive and thinking skills, a highly qualified speech therapist can provide an ample amount of support and guidance.;
Some people whose communication is affected by Huntingtons Disease may attempt to withdraw or avoid social interaction simply because it is too difficult or painful. It is widely agreed upon that the earlier that intervention and support are introduced, the better the chance is of therapy being successful. This disease is degenerative and can change over time, so frequent and consistent time with a speech therapist can be very important.;
If you or someone you love is struggling with communication due to Huntingtons Disease, there is help available. Let us help to connect you with one of our highly specialized and qualified speech therapists and schedule your free introductory call today!
Placebo Effect Research Paper
The same mind-body power that can heal you, can also harm you; this is where the Nocebo effect takes place. The basis behind these two events is called the meaning response and it alludes to the brains power to lead to effects in reaction to whatever it considers the truth or, positive or negative. If the substance is seen as beneficial it can heal, but if its considered as damaging, it is more likely to produce negative effects. For example, when patients in double-blinded clinical tests are warned about the side effects they may encounter if theyre given the real drug, approximately 25% experience sometimes severe reactions, even when theyre only taking a placebo, such as sugar pills. Some of these symptoms include weakness, puking, lack of muscular strength, colds, ringing in the ears, confusion with their taste recognition, memory loss or disorder, and other symptoms that should not result from these fake medications.
Pluripotent Stem Cells As A Source Of Differentiated Cell
Pluripotent stem cells are an unlimited source of cells with the potential to give rise to any type of cell of the body. Cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are widely used as in vitro models for many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, and also as a source of cell-replacement therapies. Initial studies demonstrated that, when midbrain-derived dopaminergic neurons where grafted in the striatum of rodent models of PD , long-term survival of these cells was observed, which were tyrosine hydroxylase -positive neurons, completely reversed amphetamine-induced rotational behavior and lacked neuronal overgrowth . Importantly, midbrain human dopaminergic neurons grafted in MPTP-lesioned non-human primates survived in the grafted area, expressed TH, extended fibers to the surrounding striatum, and did not present neuronal overgrowth .
As highlighted previously, since HD is caused by a genetic mutation, and differentiated MSNs progenitors come from HD patients, it is imperative to correct the mutation present in these cells, along with the replacement of the target neurons and other cell types, like interneurons and glial cells, as they may provide a healthy and functional environment for the new neurons to integrate to the local circuitry and survive. Currently, no clinical trials are assessing the use of PSCs in HD patients.
How Is Huntingtons Disease Diagnosed
Scientists were able to identify the affected gene as a marker for Huntingtons Disease in 1993. A diagnostic test is now available that can identify the presence of the protein huntingtin before symptoms appear. In most cases, genetic counseling is recommended after a positive diagnosis for Huntingtons Disease, as the defective chromosome is indiscriminately passed on to future generations.;
Questions To Ask Your Doctor
- To avoid passing Huntingtons disease onto your children, should every parent have a routine genetics test even if they dont have symptoms?
- What is the life expectancy for a person diagnosed with Huntingtons disease?
- How quickly do the symptoms progress once youve been diagnosed?
- Can most people with Huntingtons disease live at home with help?
Cause And Effect Of Autism Research Paper
Autism spectrum disorder is an amalgam of neurodevelopment disorders that are manifested as mild to severe deficiencies in social and communication interactions coupled with limited, repetitive and stereotypical behavioral patterns . This spectrum of disorders may occur independently or jointly in a patient. ASD being a behavior disorder requires a complex and comprehensive behavioral evaluation sometimes making it difficult to accurately
Read Also: Can You Die From Parkinson Disease
The Differences Between Alzheimers And Parkinsons
Do you know the differences between Alzheimers and Parkinsons? First of all, we must say that both diseases constitute two of the causes of dementia. Now, lets be a bit more specific. According to data from the WHO , dementia due to Alzheimers disease represents 60-70% of all cases of dementia in the world.
However, its important to keep in mind that theyre very different diseases. Additionally, we must make clear that having either condition doesnt always lead to the development of dementia . In this sense, we know that between 20-60% of people with Parkinsons disease end up developing dementia.
Buter et al. conducted a study that was published in the journal Neurology. It was conducted with 233 patients with Parkinsons disease. The researchers were able to observe that about 60% of them developed Parkinsons dementia in a period of 12 years.
So whats dementia? It refers to the set of symptoms that arise as a consequence of neurological damage or disease. These symptoms involve the loss or weakening of the mental faculties and mainly affect three different areas: cognitive , behavioral , and personality .
Symptoms Of Huntington Disease
Symptoms of Huntington disease usually develop subtly, typically beginning between the ages of 35 and 40 but sometimes before adulthood.
During the early stages of Huntington disease, the face, trunk, and limbs may move involuntarily and rapidly. At first, people can blend these abnormal involuntary movements into purposeful ones so that the abnormal movements are barely noticeable. However, with time, the movements become more obvious.
Muscles may contract briefly and rapidly, causing the arms or another body part to suddenly jerk, sometimes several times in a row.
People may walk in a lilting or exaggeratedly jaunty way, like a puppet. They may grimace, flick the limbs, and blink more often. Movements become uncoordinated and slow. Eventually, the entire body is affected, making walking, sitting still, eating, speaking, swallowing, and dressing extremely difficult.
Mental changes frequently occur before or as the abnormal movements develop. These changes are subtle at first. People may gradually become irritable, excitable, and agitated. They may lose interest in their usual activities. They may be unable to control their impulses, losing their temper, having fits of despondency, or becoming promiscuous.
As Huntington disease progresses, people may behave irresponsibly and often wander aimlessly. Over years, they lose their memory and their ability to think rationally. They may become severely depressed and attempt suicide.
Also Check: Is Parkinson’s Disease Fatal