How Is Huntingtons Disease Diagnosed
Scientists were able to identify the affected gene as a marker for Huntingtons Disease in 1993. A diagnostic test is now available that can identify the presence of the protein huntingtin before symptoms appear. In most cases, genetic counseling is recommended after a positive diagnosis for Huntingtons Disease, as the defective chromosome is indiscriminately passed on to future generations.
What Makes Them Different
MS and Parkinsons have different causes. They usually start to affect you at different ages, too.
MS often affects people between ages 20 and 50, but children get it, too. Parkinsons usually starts at age 60 or older, but some younger adults get it.
MS is an autoimmune disease. That means your bodys immune system goes haywire for some reason. It attacks and destroys myelin. As myelin breaks down, your nerves and nerve fibers get frayed.
In Parkinsons, certain cells start to die off. Your makes less and less of a chemical called dopamine that helps control your movement. As your levels dip, you lose more of this control.
Some genes may put you at risk for Parkinsons, especially as you age. Theres a small chance that people who are exposed to toxic chemicals like pesticides or weed killers can get it, too.
These symptoms are more common if you have MS. They not usually found in Parkinsons:
- or , where you feel like the room spins around and you lose your balance
Cerebral Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor And Mesencephalic Astrocyte
In 2003, a protein called mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor was characterized and demonstrated to promote survival of embryonic dopaminergic neurons in vitro . Then, a homologous protein called CDNF was discovered with a protective role for dopaminergic neurons. Several studies evidence the protective role of CDNF and MANF in dopaminergic neurons against the injury caused by -syn oligomers . The intrastriatal injection of CDNF prevents the loss of TH-positive neurons in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD , and protected dopaminergic neurons in 6-OHDA and MPTP mouse models of PD . MANF has been tested in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model showing beneficial effects . CDNF and MANF diffuse to the brain significantly better than GDNF, and CDNF was more efficient in reducing amphetamine-induced ipsilateral rotations in the 6-OHDA rat PD model in comparison with GDNF treatment . In 6-OHDA-lesioned monkeys, PET imaging showed a significant increase of DA transporter ligand-binding activity in lesioned animals treated with CDNF .
The first phase III clinical trial using CDNF in PD patients is being conducted since 2017. In this study, an implanted drug delivery system for Ipu of recombinant human CDNF is used in patients with idiopathic mild-advanced PD . Additionally, another phase III clinical trial to evaluate the beneficial effects of CDNF in PD patients is still on course . Currently, the delivery of CDNF for HD treatment has not been described.
Psychotic Symptoms And Others
In addition to the symptoms we already mentioned, other symptoms may appear in both diseases. For example, in Alzheimers disease, delirium appears occasionally, while it rarely ever does in Parkinsons. Its vital to remember that delirium is an organic disorder that mainly affects consciousness and attention.
Regarding psychotic symptoms, visual hallucinations can appear in both diseases, more or less in the same proportion. Delusions may also arise. They occur often in Alzheimers and occasionally in Parkinsons.
What Is The Most Common Cause Of Death In This Condition
The most common cause of death in Huntingtons disease is and suffocation. Motor symptoms cause both problems.
When the condition is in its later stages, the person has poor muscle control, including those in the throat. This causes the main problem that leads to the patients death, which is not swallowing most foods adequately.
When the HD patient is being fed the food, whether it is liquid or not, it can go to the lungs. This small portion of food in the lungs carries anaerobic bacteria that cause pneumonia, which leads to the patients death.
Aspiration pneumonia can be more severe than common infections, especially if doctors do not identify quicky that its this type of infection, the one causing trouble and treat it as ordinary pneumonia. Suffocation happens when solid foods obstruct the upper airways in its totality because of the patients lack of muscle control.
Other causes of death are common such as:
- Heart disease: People with this disease suffer from nerve conduction in the heart that can cause low heart rate and arrhythmia. It also generates heart failure.
- Suicide: Usually in early or mid-stages of the disease because of the depression proper of the gene mutation that affects the brain.
- Cachexia: Is a state in which the body deteriorates through the loss of muscle mass and fat. It happens mostly in chronic diseases and is not because of less food ingestion.
How Can Speech Therapy Help
Huntingtons Disease affects each person differently, so the course of treatment with a speech and language pathologist will vary from patient to patient as well. To begin, the speech therapist will work to establish the areas of communication and speech that pose the greatest challenge. From there they will develop a plan to help support their client and improve not only their communication but their quality of life as a whole.
Whether it is swallowing problems or more frequent coughing and choking due to poor muscle tone or communication problems related to cognitive and thinking skills, a highly qualified speech therapist can provide an ample amount of support and guidance.
Some people whose communication is affected by Huntingtons Disease may attempt to withdraw or avoid social interaction simply because it is too difficult or painful. It is widely agreed upon that the earlier that intervention and support are introduced, the better the chance is of therapy being successful. This disease is degenerative and can change over time, so frequent and consistent time with a speech therapist can be very important.
If you or someone you love is struggling with communication due to Huntingtons Disease, there is help available. Let us help to connect you with one of our highly specialized and qualified speech therapists and schedule your free introductory call today!
There Are Stark Differences Between Cerebral Palsy And Parkinsons Disease
While some of the symptoms of cerebral palsy are also associated with Parkinsons disease, there are stark differences between the two conditions.
Parkinsons Disease vs. CP
Parkinsons disease is a neurological disorder which usually affects certain individuals over the age of 60. This condition is characterized by movement difficulties such as a shuffling gait, memory problems, tremors and stiffness. Despite the advances made in medicine, there is no definitive test for Parkinsons, and most individuals who suffer from it may not get a cure.
Parkinsons is mostly seen in the elderly; however, its not unheard of the condition affecting people who are as young as 20. Genetics, environment and stress all play a part in the development of the disorder.
How Are They Alike
and Parkinsons both affect your central nervous system, which includes your and spinal cord. Thats why they both can affect how you move, , feel, and talk.
These diseases both affect your nerves. MS can break down the coating, called myelin, that surrounds and protects your nerves. In Parkinsons, nerve cells in a part of your slowly die off.
Both can start out with mild symptoms, but they get worse over time.
Common symptoms of both diseases include:
- Shaky fingers, hands, lips, or limbs
- Slurred speech thats hard for others to understand
- Numb or weak limbs that make your walk unsteady
- Loss of muscle control that often affects one side of your body at first, then later both
- Spastic limb movements that are hard to control
- Loss of or bowel control
- Poor balance
is another symptom common to both conditions.
What Is The Life Expectancy For People With Huntingtons Disease
The life expectancy of a person that has Huntington disease will depend on when do the symptoms start. Doctors estimate that it takes approximately 15 to 20 years for the persons death when they develop symptoms. It is important to note that the estimation does not take into account that the patient commits suicide before they suffer from a fatal condition.
Studies have also shown that patients that inherit the disease from their father have an earlier onset of symptoms. This would mean that those who got the gene from their fathers will probably have a lower life expectancy.
Professionals define another form of juvenile Huntingtons disease, which happens to people younger than 20 years old. This particular form has a shorter disease duration since the symptoms appear as early as eight years old or less. It also has a different progression of symptoms comparing it to the regular disease. Rigidity is the main symptom, instead of chorea, and seizures are another common thing for these patients. Besides, there is cognitive decline and dementia, sadly, at this very early age, showing the worse of the disease progression.
Are You Having Symptoms Of It
This tool is a Huntington disease symptoms checker. It gathers the most important signs, symptoms, and risk factors for this condition. Therefore, it will aid anybody who uses it to determine the likelihood of having Huntington disease or developing it in the future. Besides, this tool is free and would only take you a few minutes to use it.
Gene Therapies For Pd And Hd
For the development of new therapies for PD and HD, it is important to include, especially for HD and genetic forms of PD, genetic correction/editing of the mutated gene. Nowadays, there are several gene silencing/editing technologies, including RNA interference , antisense oligonucleotides , and clustered interspaced short palindromic repeats , which can be used as therapies for the treatment of PD and HD. For a more in-depth knowledge of gene therapy delivery systems and other cellular targets, reviews are published elsewhere .
As previously stated, PD is characterized by the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the SN, thus approaches aiming to revert this loss based on the delivery of genes encoding for enzymes required for DA synthesis could be useful. The first enzyme for DA synthesis is TH, which requires the enzyme GTP-cyclohydrolase-1 to synthesize a cofactor for DA biosynthesis . TH converts tyrosine into L-dopa, which finally is converted into DA by the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase . Therapies to deliver enzymes involved in DA synthesis have been proved in preclinical and clinical studies showing its benefits.
Parkinson’s & Huntington’s: What’s The Difference
December 9, 2020
- Demystifying Medicine
Many individuals are either indirectly or directly affected by Parkinson’s Disease and Huntington’s Disease. However, most people do not know what causes their loved ones to develop these diseases. This video will explain the motor circuit in the brain that is responsible for Parkinson’s and Huntington’s Disease and how they differ from each other. Furthermore, patients Sarah and Jade describe their daily lives as well as how they manage the symptoms of their disease.
The Differences Between Alzheimer’s And Parkinson’s
Do you know the differences between Alzheimers and Parkinsons? First of all, we must say that both diseases constitute two of the causes of dementia. Now, lets be a bit more specific. According to data from the WHO , dementia due to Alzheimers disease represents 60-70% of all cases of dementia in the world.
However, its important to keep in mind that theyre very different diseases. Additionally, we must make clear that having either condition doesnt always lead to the development of dementia . In this sense, we know that between 20-60% of people with Parkinsons disease end up developing dementia.
Buter et al. conducted a study that was published in the journal Neurology. It was conducted with 233 patients with Parkinsons disease. The researchers were able to observe that about 60% of them developed Parkinsons dementia in a period of 12 years.
So whats dementia? It refers to the set of symptoms that arise as a consequence of neurological damage or disease. These symptoms involve the loss or weakening of the mental faculties and mainly affect three different areas: cognitive , behavioral , and personality .
Whats The Difference Between Parkinsons And Huntingtons
Although and Huntingtons disease are very similar, they also have some marked differences that can help in the diagnosis.
First of all, the diseases onset is quite different since Parkinsons patients do not suffer from chorea. Instead, they begin with small tremors in their fingers that look as if they were rubbing coins.
It continues as rigidity and very slow movements, small steps as they walk and not balancing their arms. Their facial expression also disappears, giving them a permanent poker face.
In this disease, there is a direct link to the loss of neurons that produce dopamine, which causes these particular symptoms. It isnt well known the precise cause of this disease, although its most likely genetics, some patients dont show precise mutations.
What is certain is the presence of Lewy Bodies in the brain cells, which this disease affects. Lewy bodies are inclusions in brain cells with a-synuclein; protein cells cannot get rid of, causing their death.
Parkinsons patients also suffer from psychiatric symptoms such as dementia and depression, making it even more similar to Huntingtons.
What differentiates both diseases without a doubt is the presence of mutant huntingtin in Huntingtons patients. A gene test confirms its existence and excludes Parkinsons diseases from being a potential diagnosis.
Can Huntingtons Disease Be Treated
Currently, there is no known cure for Huntingtons disease or any treatment that can slow down the disease. The available treatments are only for symptoms in order to give the patient a better lifestyle.
For decreasing chorea, the patient is given medication that reduces the brains molecules that cause the erratic movements. These can be risperidone, olanzapine, tetrabenazine, pimozide, and many others, depending on their needs and the drugs availability.
In recent studies, tetrabenazine has proven to be the most effective against these symptoms, but the FDA hasnt approved it.
For psychiatric symptoms, there is a whole other spectrum of drugs that diminish these types of symptoms. Doctors treat irritability and depression with the same type of drugs, such as; serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, and carbamazepine.
For psychotic symptoms like hallucinations, other drugs function for treatment like; olanzapine, risperidone, clozapine, and quetiapine.
A new surgical study was recently born that consists of the transplant of neural cells with special fetal cells. It has shown improvement in some of the patients that applied to the research, but it is still too early to have precise results.
How Do People Cope With Huntingtons Disease
There are several measures that people can take to deal with the disease on a daily basis. It is important to remember that Huntingtons disease affects not only the person who has the symptoms. This disease affects the whole family in various ways, and all of them should find ways to cope.
Therapy is a big help for people who personally suffer from the disease, their caregivers, and their descendant. It is a grim outlook to feel your life decline and for your loved ones to see. Support groups and organizations also provide orientation and help to people who need it.
Another big problem, besides the psychological ones, is the mobility issues the patient faces. They may have to also go to a physiotherapist, a dietician, and even a speech therapist to deal with the progressive motor difficulties.
When the disease progresses, it may become harder for family members to take care of the patient on their own. They might have to consider additional help at home from a nurse or take them to a care facility. Specialized social agencies exist to orientate the families in those difficult processes and decisions they have to make.
Activation Pattern In Control Subjects
The pattern of brain activation induced by unilateral high-frequency passive vibratory stimulation in our control cohort is in keeping with previous PET data on elementary somatosensory function, as reviewed recently by Paulesu and colleagues . Our study confirms that this rather crude sensory stimulus produces strong activation in cortical areas S1 and S2. The pattern of normalized group rCBF increases in our study was markedly lateralized to the contralateral hemisphere, similar to previous reports . Transcallosal connections have, nevertheless, been demonstrated in posterior S1 , adjoining parietal cortex and secondary sensory cortical areas and, likewise, previous PET and functional MRI experiments have provided evidence for bilateral sensory cortical processing in humans. However, it remains an issue of further inquiry with higher temporal resolution imaging modalities, how ipsilateral sensory area recruitment is affected by habituation and/or other task-related issues. For instance, evoked potential recordings in cats indicate that habituation occurs more rapidly in S2 compared with S1 areas .
Differences Between Alzheimers And Parkinsons
Were going to group the differences between both illnesses into different blocks and explain what each of them consists of. All of them have been extracted from two reference psychopathology manuals: Belloch, Sandn, and Ramos and the DSM-5 .
The first block of differences between Alzheimers and Parkinsons refers to their type of symptoms. Lets see what they are.
Cellular Replacement Therapies For Pd And Hd
In 1967, in an important breakthrough, Cotzias et al. demonstrated that the administration of a precursor of DA, L-dopa, improved motor function in PD patients, leading to the thought that the cure for PD was discovered. Also in the 1960s, tetrabenazine was introduced as an antipsychotic but also showed beneficial effects for the treatment of hyperkinetic motor symptoms, like chorea in HD patients . To date, it is known that these drugs do not reverse disease progression and in many cases do not have the desired effects. This has brought the idea that local production of DA and GABA, and therefore the replacement of the neurons that produce it, would be the ideal treatment for these diseases. The fact that the major symptoms present in PD and HD patients are due to the loss of dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons in specific brain regions, respectively, means that replacing these specific cell types could help relieve some of the symptoms present in patients. This has given rise to different branches of investigations seeking cellular replacement-based therapies, which have shown promising results in animal models for these diseases as well as in affected patients .
What Is The Difference Between Huntingtons Disease And Parkinsons
Unfortunately, many people know someone who is affected by Huntingtons Disease or Parkinsons disease. The key difference between these two degenerative brain disorders is that while Huntingtons Disease causes emotional difficulties, cognitive abilities, and abnormal repetitive movements, Parkinsons causes a slowing of movements and affects mobility and muscle control due to rapid brain degeneration.
Some of the other significant differences between the two are:
Stage of Life When Symptoms Appear: While Huntingtons Disease symptoms can begin to appear in early adulthood, Parkinsons Disease more commonly affects those who are 70 or older.
Cause: Huntingtons Disease is caused by a defective gene, whereas Parkinsons is caused by the degeneration of neurons in the center of the brain.
Life Expectancy Sadly, those affected by Huntingtons Disease are expected to live only 15-20 years after the first onset of symptoms. Conversely, Parkinsons has no effect on life expectancy but can dramatically reduce the quality of life for those affected.
Understanding The Differences Between Parkinsons And Lou Gehrigs Disease
As Parkinsons disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are both progressive neurodegenerative diseases, many people confuse the terms. Below, senior care experts at Home Care Assistance of Mississauga provide information on the basic differences between Parkinsons and ALS to help you better understand the two diseases.
What Is The Cause Of Huntingtons Disease
Huntingtons disease happens because of a genetic disorder that causes brain cells death that has the defective gene. The huntingtin gene carries the genetic information that leads to producing a protein of the same name.When the HD gene is present, huntingtin is abnormally made by the cells, causing issues in neurons normal metabolism.
Research has shown there is a CAG repeat in the mutant HTT gene of people with Huntingtons. CAG is one of the many sequences of molecules that build the DNA, which makes the bodys proteins. For huntingtin, there is a particular number of sequences that need to happen in order to produce the protein correctly. So when there is a CAG repeat, more of these sequences lead to abnormally made huntingtin protein. The amount of CAG repeats is proportional to the severity of the disease. If its low, there is a reduced penetrance of the disease.
HD patients get the HTT gene through one of their parents, which gives them the gene plus another mutant allele. This means the person has a 50% chance of developing the disease, and if both parents have it, they have a 75% chance.
Electrical Neuromodulation Therapies For Pd And Hd
The cardinal motor symptoms of PD and chorea in HD are caused by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc and the loss of MSNs in the striatum , respectively. In both cases, the motor impairment is attributed to alteration of functional connectivity of the striatum, a principal input of the basal ganglia .
Hyperkinetic movement disorders are characterized by uncontrollable and excessive motor activity, as chorea in HD. Reports published between 1987 and 1989 showed that blocking the activity of the STN produces hyperkinetic motor symptoms. Similar results are observed when the GABAergic inputs from the striatum are blocked, favoring the inhibitory modulation of the GPe over the STN . On the other hand, hypokinetic disorders like akinesia and bradykinesia have been described in PD. In this case, the decrease in striatal DA levels, as a result of the decrease in its synthesis, release, and reuptake alter the corticostriatal balance causing an increase in the activity of the indirect pathway and reducing the activity of the direct pathway, that leads to a breakdown of the internal balance of the basal ganglia, and consequently the loss of movement control . These symptoms, unlike hyperkinetic movements, are treated with DA agonists as L-dopa . However, as stated in previous sections, the chronic use of this pharmacological therapy has a limited effect, which in the case of PD can induce a motor complication known as LID and on-off phenomenon .
How Do Treatments Differ
MS treatments can ease your symptoms during an attack or slow down the diseases effects on your body.
Steroids like calm the that damages your nerves.
Plasma exchange is another therapy if dont work. Your doctor will use a machine to remove the portion of your . The plasma gets mixed with a protein solution and put back into your body.
Some people with both diseases who take anti-inflammatory medicines like steroids see their Parkinsons symptoms get better.
Disease-modifying treatments slow down MS nerve damage and disability. They include:
National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Tremor Fact Sheet.?
Neurology: Parkinsons Disease in Multiple Sclerosis – A Population-Based, Nationwide Study in Denmark .?
Mayo Clinic: Multiple Sclerosis: Overview,? Multiple Sclerosis: Symptoms and Causes,? Multiple Sclerosis: Treatment,? Parkinsons Disease: Causes,? Parkinsons Disease: Definition,? Parkinsons Disease: Risk Factors,? Parkinsons Disease: Symptoms.?
Christopher Reeve Foundation: How the spinal cord works.?
National Association for Continence: Parkinsons Disease.?
National Multiple Sclerosis Society: MS Symptoms,? Who Gets MS? .?
National Parkinson Foundation: Non-Motor Symptoms.?
Multiple Sclerosis Trust: Lhermittes sign.?
Iranian Journal of Neurology: Parkinsonism associated with multiple sclerosis: A report of eight new cases and a review on the literature.?
Johns Hopkins Medicine: Plasmapheresis.?
How Is Huntingtons Disease Treated
At this point in time, there is no cure for Huntingtons Disease. There is also no known way to slow or prevent the disease from progressing. For now, treatment focuses on the management of symptoms and optimizing the quality of life for those affected. Each person affected by Huntingtons Disease will experience their symptoms uniquely. Meaning no two patients are the same, and no two patients exhibit identical symptoms.
There are a wide variety of medications and therapies that are available to help people with Huntingtons Disease. It is important to practice patience and perseverance when beginning a new medication as it takes time to figure out how these medications interact with your body and with each other. It may take weeks or months to figure out the correct combination and dosage of medications.
Speech therapy is also a very important part of a treatment plan for Huntingtons Disease. One of our highly specialized virtual speech therapists can offer support and guidance on the road to managing symptoms. Connect with one of our speech therapists by scheduling your free introductory calltoday!