Existing Literature On Nutritional Ketosis As Clinical Therapy In Parkinsons Disease
Phillips et al. addressed some of these knowledge gaps by comparing two randomized groups using a comparatively less stringent ketogenic diet vs. a low-fat diet. The diets were prescribed by meal plans, each by kilocalories approximately 18% protein and either 79% lipid/3.7% net carb or 23% lipid/59% net carb , the latter also with greater dietary fiber, stratified by estimated daily energy expenditure. The 8-week study involved daily participant ketosis monitoring by AM fasting beta-OHB levels using a validated fingerstick ketone meter. Dietary monitoring relied on participants to check off each meal from the plan outlined for the study period. Investigators reported reduced MDS-UPDRS-I scores , particularly urinary, pain/sensory disturbance, fatigue, daytime sleepiness, and cognitive impairment subscores. However, this study also had some limitations including infrequent data capture and diet monitoring relying upon self-report, which precludes correlative analysis between ketosis value and clinical rating scale that was performed only pre- vs. post-intervention. Another possible weakness was the relatively low mean beta OHB level in the KD group. It is probable that greater benefit could be seen with a greater degree of ketosis.
Table 1 Improvements in non-motor symptoms found in studies of ketogenic diet in Parkinsons disease
Ketogenic Diet For Als
Here is some of the information I sent to Dr. Yerbury, explaining my work as a nutritionist working with women with anxiety using nutritional psychiatry approaches. Many of these nutritional psychiatry approaches such as the SMILES study have been spear-headed in Australia by Professor Felice Jacka.
Ive recently being looking at the growing research base on the ketogenic diet and mental health and when I saw his story on ABC my first thought was I wonder if there is research on ketogenic diets and ALS/MND? After a very quick search I found these papers:
Metabolism-based therapy has been used successfully in the treatment of seizures but study of its use in other neurodegenerative disorders is growing.
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Study Tests Ketogenic Diet For Parkinsons
Can a special high-fat diet help people with Parkinsons disease?
Although researchers havent found a cure for the degenerative disease, theyve found ways to slow its progression from medication to exercise such as boxing.
This year, scientists at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke are studying the effects of a specific diet on Parkinsons patients.
Its called a ketogenic diet a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet in which the body, deprived of carbohydrates, is forced to burn fat. While people on the diet must avoid pasta, bread and sugar, they can eat plenty of butter, cream and nuts.
Its a diet that has less carbohydrates and greater fats than a typical American diet, said Dr. Debra Ehrlich, Chief, NIH Parkinsons Disease Clinic and the studys principal investigator.
Were trying to look at using the ketogenic diet in a population of patients with Parkinsons disease, Ehrlich said. Several previous studies of the ketogenic diet in Parkinsons patients have shown either improved motor functioning or improved memory or cognition.
Our first objective is to see if its feasible and well tolerated in patients with Parkinsons. Our second objective is to see if theres any improvement in Parkinsons symptoms, such as cognition, mobility and motor function.
Includes one-week hospital stay
Theyll receive coaching from our nutrition team, Ehrlich said, and nutritionists will try to work own dietary preferences into the diet.
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Ketogenic Diet And Parkinsons Disease
In recent years, the Ketogenic diet has gained a lot of interest for its positive effects across a variety of conditions. The Ketogenic diet was first used as a treatment for epilepsy in the 1920s. Over the past two decades, there has been a burst in research and in the use of the Ketogenic diet for many conditions.
There is supportive evidence from research studies that the Ketogenic diet can offer symptom relief, and also protect the nerves in neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinsons disease.
Study Selection And Features
We identified 63 publications in the bibliographical search that met the criteria inclusion for the present review . Scientific studies included in the systematic review were also included and described .
The aim of the 25 scientific studies was to ascertain the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet or low-carbohydrate diet in refractory epilepsy, GLUT1-DS, AD, and PD, although 6 experimental studies on new methods parallel to ketone-state induction were included the methods were triheptanoin therapy, the AAV-hSLC2A1 compound, the AC-1202 oral ketogenic compound, the oral administration of ketone monoester, diet with enantiomeric precursor of ketone bodies, and carbohydrate isocaloric diet and drink with emulsified MCT.,,,,,
Overall, 5 studies focused on refractory epilepsy, 8 focused on GLUT1-DS, 9 on AD, and 3 on PD. The studies selected included between 1 and 152 participants, which, although making it difficult to generalize the results, once again highlights that this is an emerging field of research that might perhaps provide major benefits.
The systematic reviews we used also ruled out the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in the aforementioned diseases owing to the underlying neurophysiological processes that appear to be linked to mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and inflammation. They also highlighted the need for more in-depth research into the subject.,,,
Evidence For Beneficial Effects Of Kd In Neurological Diseases
Many claims have been made about the benefits of the KD for overall health. However, the only well-established use of the KD for managing a neurological disease is for seizure reduction in pediatric epilepsy . Intriguingly, evidence for neuroprotection in other neurologic diseases from the classic and modified KD has been reported in pilot clinical studies and in pre-clinical laboratory models, as described below and summarized in Tables 1, 2. Note that studies using ketogenic-like diets that deviated from high fat/low protein/low carbohydrate content ratio, such as diets with excess fat but with normal carbohydrate levels, are not included in the summary below.
Table 1. Beneficial effects of the KD or ketone bodies in animal models.
Table 2. Summary of key published clinical studies examining the beneficial effects of the KD in neurological diseases.
Carbohydrate Restriction As A Protective Mechanism
A key aspect of the ketogenic diet is carbohydrate restriction. The role of decreased carbohydrates in neuroprotection has been investigated through the use of 2-deoxy-d-glucose , a glucose analog that is not metabolized by glycolysis. found that administration of 2-DG to adult rats at a nontoxic dose for 7 consecutive days produced dramatic protection against hippocampal damage and functional neurological deficits induced by the seizure-inducing excitotoxin kainate. In addition, 2-DG was protective against glutamate-induced and oxidative stress-induced neuronal death in cell culture. The authors also found that reduced glucose availability induces stress proteins, including GRP78 and HSP70, which they proposed act to suppress ROS production, stabilize intracellular calcium, and maintain mitochondrial function.
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What About Side Effects On The Keto Diet
Its important to note that the keto diet can have side effects. The most common include nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia, difficulty in exercise tolerance and constipation. These side effects usually resolve in a few days to a few weeks. Ensuring adequate fluid and electrolyte intake can help counter some of these side effects.
Nutritional ketosis is considered quite safe as ketones are produced in small concentrations. It greatly differs from ketoacidosis which is a life-threatening condition resulting from dangerously high levels of ketones and blood sugars. Ketoacidosis mostly occurs in people with type 1 diabetes whose bodies do not produce any insulin. It can also occur in individuals with type 2 diabetes who have little or no insulin production. Several things can lead to ketoacidosis including illness, improper diet or not taking an adequate dose of insulin.
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Where To From Here
If you have done your research and want to commence the keto diet, check with your doctor first as this dietary pattern may not be suitable for you. If you have diabetes and take insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents, you may need your medications adjusted before initiating this diet. With diabetes, you should regularly monitor your blood glucose and blood ketone levels and liaise regularly with your doctor.
If you do decide to start the keto diet, trial it for a few months and closely observe your symptoms. Your doctor can monitor blood-work, including your blood lipid profile, and potential side effects.
You should also work with a Dietitian to ensure you follow a well-formulated keto diet containing nutrient dense foods. In addition, be sure to reduce your carbohydrate intake gradually and increase your fat intake gradually over several weeks. You can test your blood ketone levels using a device, such as this one, available online or from a pharmacy. Alternatively, urine testing strips can also indicate ketone levels.
If after giving it a go, you decide the keto diet is not right for you, transition back to your usual diet gradually and stay in contact with you doctor.
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The Ketogenic Diet For Bipolar And Other Psychiatric Disorders: The Science
The ketogenic diet has been used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy for over 100 years. The effectiveness of keto for treating neurological disorders has led dieters and researchers alike to explore the effectiveness of a ketogenic diet for other psychiatric and mood disorders linked to brain function.
In this article, well explore the science supporting the use of a ketogenic diet for bipolar disorder and other mental health issues.
The Takeaway Should You Use Ketone Boosting Supplements Or Ketogenic Diet For Parkinsons Disease
The current evidence suggests that the ketogenic diet will provide the best results for general health and Parkinsons disease symptom relief. If a strict ketogenic diet is too much for the Parkinsons patient, then try increasing carbohydrates little by little to help them find a keto carb limit that allows them to produce ketones while making it feasible for them to stick to the diet for the long term.
However, just because the diet is more effective doesnt mean you should ignore ketone boosting supplements like MCTs and coconut oil. Adding ketone boosting supplements to your daily routine will only boost your results, so feel free to include them in your ketogenic diet.
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Side Effects Of The Kd
Keto-Adaptation and the Keto-Flu Phenomenon
When inducing a state of ketosis, a number of side effects can occur due to changes in metabolic levels, which appear a few days after the diet is first introduced. The phenomenon is commonly referred to as keto flu and passes spontaneously after a few days. The timing of adverse reactions is individual . The most commonly cited side effects include nervous system disorders such as trouble concentrating, as well as muscle pain, feelings of weakness and lack of energy, and bloating or constipation .
Side effects of MCTs can include gastrointestinal ailments, such as diarrhea or abdominal pain which, like the other symptoms, pass after a few days. The addition of MCT oil to the diet accelerates the efficient use of ketone bodies by the body, so that the discomfort associated with keto-adaptation lasts shorter .
Is The Keto Diet Right For Me
The keto diet can cause appetite suppression and as seen in all 3 studies weight loss. For some people with Parkinsons who are carrying extra weight this may be appropriate but for many struggling with poor appetite and unplanned loss of weight this dietary pattern may not be suitable.
If not well formulated the keto diet can lack fibre. A lack of dietary fibre can lead to or exacerbate constipation. to learn how to get an adequate amount of fibre on a keto diet.
The keto diet is very high in fat. If you suffer from gastroparesis or slow stomach emptying consuming very high-fat meals can cause symptoms such as nausea, stomach pain and bloating. As fat empties more slowly from the stomach this dietary pattern may not be suitable.
Putting It All Together
Many aspects of Parkinsons disease are still a mystery. The motor and non-motor symptoms make it a difficult disease to cope with, prevent, and reverse, but there are some ways to help.
For example, the use of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of Parkinsons disease appears to be very promising. There is a lack of clinical data, however, on the practical application of using the diet and ketone supplements for Parkinsons disease. That being said, there is now a lot of lab and animal work as well as case studies of people implementing the diet for themselves and experiencing powerful effects.
Because of the current state of the evidence, it is best to look at the ketogenic diet as an effective supplementary treatment for Parkinsons disease, used to complement current medications. The strictness of the diet doesnt seem to matter as much as getting into ketosis does. To find out how to follow the diet and get into ketosis within the next week, read through our comprehensive beginners guide to the ketogenic diet.
Once you are following the ketogenic diet in a way that works for you and your lifestyle, feel free to improve the results of your treatment even further by:
P.S. Have a look at the Keto Academy, our foolproof 30-day keto meal planner. It has all the tools, information, and recipes needed for you to succeed.
+ The food will always fit to your macros and cooking preferences!
Clarify Your Goal: Lose Weight Or Keep Ketosis
Ketogenesis can really help you control your appetite and achieve weight loss and health. But don’t lose sight of your goals – why do you want to lose weight or get healthy?
If you need to lose weight for a wedding in a few months, you need to severely restrict your carb intake. If you want to lose fat at a moderate rate or maintain a state of ketosis, then you should adapt to a high-fat diet as the initial goal and gradually reduce your carbohydrate intake, for example, only eat carbs at noon in the first week.
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Ketogenic Diet Dramatically Improves Parkinsons Disease
Ask any neurologist how Parkinsons disease is treated, and youre sure to get a long list of medications. Truth is, none of the medications actually treats the disease. The medications that are used are clearly effective, but only focus on the management of symptoms, not the underlying disease.
It turns out that Parkinsons disease is characterized by failure of the mitochondria to make energy, and this occurs in a very specific part of the brain. That said, researchers decided way back in 2005 to explore the possibility of improving mitochondrial function by placing patients on the ketogenic diet.
Their results were phenomenal, to say the least. The study only included five individuals and doesnt appear to have gained much traction in the world of neurology. Im hoping this changes moving forward.
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Ketone Supplements And Parkinsons Disease
Ketones have powerful effects in the brain, and they seem to be the main reason for the benefits that many people with Parkinsons, Alzheimers, and epilepsy have experienced while following the ketogenic diet.
Although it is best to follow the ketogenic diet, you dont have to restrict your carbs to raise your ketone levels. Coconut oil, MCT oil, ketone salts and ketone esters can all be used to reliably increase ketones and potentially improve the condition of Parkinsons patients. The reason why I say potentially is because there is not enough clinical evidence to support ketone supplements as a treatment for Parkinsons disease. However, the existing evidence is promising.
For example, one particular study on mice that were administered the exogenous ketone, beta-hydroxybutyrate , for 7 days found that BHB protected against the structural and functional effects that occur in Parkinsons Disease. What is also interesting to note is that the animals presented with improvements of the disease even with ketone levels as low as 0.9 mmol/L. Many other lab-based studies also have demonstrated that BHB administration protects neurons and helps to correct the defects seen in the mitochondria that are thought to increase the progression of Parkinsons disease.
A recent case study report looked at the use of ketone salts that were given to an individual who has had Parkinsons Disease for the past 20 years.
Can A High Fat Diet Be Healthy
According to David Diamond PhD, Saturated fat does not clog the arteries: Coronary heart disease is a chronic condition, the risk of which can be effectively reduced from healthy lifestyle interventions. We have known for 150 years that a high carbohydrate diet contributes to fat in the blood and contributes to obesity. He goes on to say, the poor science that was used to support the idea that increased fat intake increases cholesterol and damages arteries was authored by Ancel Keys who had no background in nutrition, but did have a BA in Economics and a PhD in Fish Physiology. Keys theory that fat in diet causes increased risk for high cholesterol and heart attack was based on extremely flawed science and became dogma without ever being rigorously assessed. A generation of citizens has grown up since the Diet/Heart Hypothesis was launched as official dogma. They have been led by the greatest scientific deception of our times: the notion that consumption of animal fat causes heart disease. George Mann MD, Nutrition Today, 1985. The belief that atherosclerosis is due to high cholesterol has been perpetuated by powerful forces using tactics to preserve the profits and reputations of those who promote them. Paul Rosch M.D, Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, 2008. The diet heart hypothesis is sustained by social, political and financial institutions which have little to do with science and established success in public health. Uffe Ravnskov MD PhD, 2008.