Difference Between Parkinsons Disease And Parkinsonism
Parkinsonism is an umbrella term used to describe a group of movement disorders that share similar symptoms.
The signs of parkinsonism include:
- Resting tremors
- Difficulty with balancing and walking
Parkinsonism can also cause people to perform uncontrolled, repetitive movements, known as tics.
PD is the most common type of parkinsonism, but there are other types that have more specific causes, such as:
- Drug-induced parkinsonism. This occurs when a person takes a medication that lowers dopamine levels. Symptoms usually disappear once the medicine is stopped.
- Vascular parkinsonism. Stroke can cause certain parts of the brain that control movement to die, leading to Parkinson-like symptoms.
- Post-traumatic parkinsonism. Brain damage to the cerebellum or basal ganglia can also cause movement disorders that look a lot like Parkinsons Disease.
Whether you have PD or some other form of parkinsonism, treatment will mostly be identical.
Atypical Parkinsonism Or ‘parkinson’s Plus Syndromes’
“Parkinson’s Plus Syndromes” are less common than Parkinson’s disease.
Some atypical parkinsonism syndromes include:
Multiple system atrophy This is a category of several disorders in which one or more body systems deteriorate.
Your doctor may classify you as having MSA-P, in which parkinsonian symptoms are dominant or MSA-C, in which dysfunction of the cerebellum is dominant.
The names of some of these syndromes include olivopontocerebellar atrophy , Shy-Drager syndrome , and striatonigral degeneration .
Progressive supranuclear palsy Symptoms of this condition usually begin after age 50 and proceed more rapidly than Parkinson’s disease.
In people with PSP, problems with eye movement can lead to blurry vision. Falls tend to occur early in the course of the disease, and dementia may occur later in the disease.
Corticobasal degeneration This condition may cause jerking and loss of control in a limb, often without weakness in that limb.
If you have this disorder, you may be given Botox to help your limb relax.
In this condition, the same Lewy bodies occur in the brain as in Parkinson’s disease, but in multiple areas of the brain.
If you have LBD, you may experience speech problems, hallucinations, and gradual cognitive decline.
What Causes Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons disease occurs when nerve cells in an area of the brain called the substantia nigra become impaired or die. These cells normally produce dopamine, a chemical that helps the cells of the brain communicate . When these nerve cells become impaired or die, they produce less dopamine. Dopamine is especially important for the operation of another area of the brain called the basal ganglia. This area of the brain is responsible for organizing the brains commands for body movement. The loss of dopamine causes the movement symptoms seen in people with Parkinsons disease.
People with Parkinsons disease also lose another neurotransmitter called norepinephrine. This chemical is needed for proper functioning of the sympathetic nervous system. This system controls some of the bodys autonomic functions such as digestion, heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. Loss of norepinephrine causes some of the non-movement-related symptoms of Parkinsons disease.
Scientists arent sure what causes the neurons that produce these neurotransmitter chemicals to die.
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Dementia With Lewy Bodies
- Dementia with Lewy bodies is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder in which abnormal deposits of a protein called alpha-synuclein build up in multiple areas of the brain.
- DLB first causes progressive problems with memory and fluctuations in thinking, as well as hallucinations. These symptoms are joined later in the course of the disease by parkinsonism with slowness, stiffness and other symptoms similar to PD.
- While the same abnormal protein is found in the brains of those with PD, when individuals with PD develop memory and thinking problems it tends to occur later in the course of their disease.
- There are no specific treatments for DLB. Treatment focuses on symptoms.
Two Areas In Which Parkinsons Disease May Bring About Death
PD patients are at an increased risk of falling and bad falls can lead to death. This usually occurs as a complication of a fall that requires hospitalization, particularly if it involves surgery. While most people do not fracture their hips when they fall, some do, and hip surgery, while routine, is still major surgery. It carries the risk of infection, delirium related to pain medications and anesthesia, heart failure, pneumonia, blood clots in the legs that then go to the lungs, and general weakness from immobility. Hip fractures are probably the main cause for death for those who fall, but people can fracture other bones and require surgery. They may fracture their ribs, which leads to reduced coughing, because of the pain, and an increased risk of lung infections . It is surprisingly uncommon for Parkinsons Disease patients to die from brain injuries related to falls, but it still may occur.
PD patients also may develop pneumonias completely unrelated to difficulties with swallowing, just like their non-PD friends and relatives.
What Is Parkinsons Paralysis
Parkinsons paralysis is a common term used by patients of Parkinsons disease and is generally referred as a result of loss of muscle function in the person who is suffering from Parkinsons disease. Paralysis is basically of two types i.e. complete or partial and can occur on either sides of the body.
Paralysis attack on the body can be widespread or can just occur in one area of the body. In many cases, Parkinsons disease leads to paralysis agitans, meaning complete weakness.
Is Parkinsons Disease Inherited
Scientists have discovered gene mutations that are associated with Parkinsons disease.
There is some belief that some cases of early-onset Parkinsons disease disease starting before age 50 may be inherited. Scientists identified a gene mutation in people with Parkinsons disease whose brains contain Lewy bodies, which are clumps of the protein alpha-synuclein. Scientists are trying to understand the function of this protein and its relationship to genetic mutations that are sometimes seen in Parkinsons disease and in people with a type of dementia called Lewy body dementia.
Several other gene mutations have been found to play a role in Parkinsons disease. Mutations in these genes cause abnormal cell functioning, which affects the nerve cells ability to release dopamine and causes nerve cell death. Researchers are still trying to discover what causes these genes to mutate in order to understand how gene mutations influence the development of Parkinsons disease.
Scientists think that about 10% to 15% of persons with Parkinsons disease may have a genetic mutation that predisposes them to development of the disease. There are also environmental factors involved that are not fully understood.
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What Are The Surgical Treatments For Parkinsons Disease
Most patients with Parkinsons disease can maintain a good quality of life with medications. However, as the disease worsens, medications may no longer be effective in some patients. In these patients, the effectiveness of medications becomes unpredictable reducing symptoms during on periods and no longer controlling symptoms during off periods, which usually occur when the medication is wearing off and just before the next dose is to be taken. Sometimes these variations can be managed with changes in medications. However, sometimes they cant. Based on the type and severity of your symptoms, the failure of adjustments in your medications, the decline in your quality of life and your overall health, your doctor may discuss some of the available surgical options.
Study Population And Pd Ascertainment
This two-step door-to-door study was conducted in two communities: Malu rural community from April to October 2013 and Wuliqiao urban community in 2014. The Malu rural community of Jiading district is located in the north-west rural area of Shanghai. The target population was 24,464 residents aged 50 years or older living in this area from community registry offices.Reference Ma, Hou and Tang13 The Wuliqiao urban community of Luwan district is located downtown, and the target population was 3970 permanent residents who were recruited in our sleep and dementia cohort established in 2009 and followed up in 2011 and 2014.Reference Zhuang, Wang and Cheng14,Reference Ma, Qiao and Gao15
Figure 1 Flowchart of the Malu rural study.
Figure 2 Flowchart of the Wuliqiao urban study.
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How Do I Prevent Falls From Common Hazards
- Floors: Remove all loose wires, cords, and throw rugs. Minimize clutter. Make sure rugs are anchored and smooth. Keep furniture in its usual place.
- Bathroom: Install grab bars and non-skid tape in the tub or shower. Use non-skid bath mats on the floor or install wall-to-wall carpeting.
- Lighting: Make sure halls, stairways, and entrances are well-lit. Install a night light in your bathroom or hallway and staircase. Turn lights on if you get up in the middle of the night. Make sure lamps or light switches are within reach of the bed if you have to get up during the night.
- Kitchen: Install non-skid rubber mats near the sink and stove. Clean spills immediately.
- Stairs: Make sure treads, rails, and rugs are secure. Install a rail on both sides of the stairs. If stairs are a threat, it might be helpful to arrange most of your activities on the lower level to reduce the number of times you must climb the stairs.
- Entrances and doorways: Install metal handles on the walls adjacent to the doorknobs of all doors to make it more secure as you travel through the doorway.
Whats The Difference Between Vascular Parkinsonism And Parkinsons
As the name implies, vascular parkinsonism is caused by cerebrovascular disease which affects the blood supply to the brain. Vascular parkinsonism is caused by one or more small strokes, while Parkinsons is caused by a gradual loss of nerve cells. One major difference from Parkinsons is that its not progressive, while Parkinsons becomes worse with time. Another difference is that there are no tremors in vascular parkinsonism.
For more information on vascular parkinsonism, read this journal article.
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Poststroke Parkinsonism Associates With An Increased Mortality Risk In Patients
Dorji Harnod1,2, Tomor Harnod3,4, Cheng-Li Lin5,6, Chung Y. Hsu7, Chia-Hung Kao7,8,9,10
1Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University Hospital, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 2School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 3Department of Neurosurgery, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation , 5Management Office for Health Data, China Medical University Hospital Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, China Medical University Center of Augmented Intelligence in Healthcare, 9 Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, and Center of Augmented Intelligence in Healthcare, China Medical University Hospital 10Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University , Taichung
Contributions: Conception and design: D Harnod, T Harnod, CH Kao Administrative support: None Provision of study materials or patients: CH Kao Collection and assembly of data: All authors Data analysis and interpretation: All authors Manuscript writing: All authors Final approval of manuscript: All authors.
Background: To determine whether poststroke Parkinsonism increases mortality risk in poststroke patients by using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database .
Keywords: Cohort study mortality National Health Insurance Parkinsonism stroke
Submitted Dec 02, 2019. Accepted for publication Jan 10, 2020.
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Parkinson’s Disease Caused By Stroke: Vascular Parkinsonism
A stroke involving the substantia nigra or basal ganglia is called vascular Parkinsonism. Similar to other strokes, damage is caused primarily by a lack of blood supply to these regions of the brain. Generally, the strokes associated with Parkinsonism are termed small vessel strokes as they aren’t normally catastrophic. Diagnosis of small vessel strokes can be confirmed with diagnostic tests such as CT or MRI of the brain.
It typically takes several small strokes to produce the symptoms of vascular Parkinsonism. In some cases, small vessel strokes can also produce a type of dementia called vascular dementia. As such, it is not unusual for people who have vascular Parkinsonism to also have vascular dementia.
No One Definitive Cause Of Parkinsons
There are no biomarkers or objective screening tests that indicate one has Parkinsons. That said, medical experts have shown that a constellation of factors are linked to it.
Parkinsons causes are likely a blend of genetics and environmental or other unknown factors. About 10 to 20 percent of Parkinsons disease cases are linked to a genetic cause, says Ted Dawson, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Institute for Cell Engineering at Johns Hopkins. The types are either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive .
But that leaves the majority of Parkinsons cases as idiopathic, which means unknown. We think its probably a combination of environmental exposure to toxins or pesticides and your genetic makeup, says Dawson.
Age. The biggest risk factor for developing Parkinsons is advancing age. The average age of onset is 60.
Gender. Men are more likely to develop Parkinsons disease than women.
Genetics. Individuals with a parent or sibling who is affected have approximately two times the chance of developing Parkinsons. Theres been an enormous amount of new information about genetics and new genes identified over the past 10 or 15 years that have opened up a greater understanding of the disease, says Dawson.
As An Intervention Tool In Stroke Rehab Or Management Of Parkinson’s Disease The Miracolt Improves Core Strength Posture Balance Gait Stability And Control
The MiraColt is a therapeutic medical device designed to realistically reproduce the complex and natural three-dimensional motion patterns experienced when walking or riding a horse. This simulated movement, during therapy, stimulates neural pathways and the muscular system by delivering carefully graded motor and sensory inputs. These inputs promote neuromuscular , sensory and cognitive outcomes.
In studies involving the use of the MiraColt as a horse-riding simulator for therapy in management of Parkinsons, B. Rhett Rigby, Ph.D.,CSPS, NSCA-CPT, said he saw improved gait and balance in Parkinsons patients. In a separate study, 12 participants with Parkinsons who rode the MiraColt for six weeks similarly reported improved standing ability, less cognitive impairment, improved balance, better sleep, increased mobility, improved emotional state, and increased social interaction. Similar results have been reported by people undergoing Stroke rehabilitation therapy with the MiraColt.
Whats The Difference Between Dementia With Lewy Bodies And Parkinsons
In dementia with Lewy bodies, dementia always appears first. There can also be changes in alertness as well as visual hallucinations. However, because of the presence of Lewy bodies throughout the entire brain, characteristics of this disease not only include cognitive characteristics, but also physical, sleep, and behavioral changes. As the disease progresses, the motor symptoms common to Parkinsons such as tremor, slowness, stiffness, and walking and balance problems will appear.
For more information on dementia with Lewy bodies, visit www.lbda.org.
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Assessment Of Coronary Artery Disease And Other Potential Cofounders
Parkinsons disease patients and non-PD individuals willing to enter our study in the same suburb completed a questionnaire including the following information: history of CAD , gender , age , weight , height , diabetes mellitus , hypertension , history of stroke , hypercholesterolemia , tea consumption , smoking status and alcohol consumption . Body mass index was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared and grouped into four categories in the analysis .
History of stroke and CAD was obtained by self-reporting. To increase the accuracy of diagnosis, we also recorded the hospital where the diagnosis of stroke and CAD was made and whether they saw a specialist for the diagnosis of stroke and CAD in hospitals. In the Wuliqiao community, 175 cases of CAD and 120 cases of stroke were diagnosed in third-grade class-A hospital , and 302 cases of CAD and 220 cases of stroke were diagnosed in second-grade class-A hospitals . In the Malu community, more than 50% of CAD and stroke cases were diagnosed by specialists: 23 cases of CAD and 24 cases of stroke were diagnosed in third-grade class-A hospitals, and 38 cases of CAD and 30 cases of stroke were diagnosed in second-grade class-A hospitals.
Whats The Outlook For People With Vascular Parkinsonism
Vascular Parkinsonism is a chronic condition, meaning it will always be with you. But unlike PD, it doesnt necessarily have to progress or worsen over time.
Symptoms of vascular Parkinsonism can remain steady for years if an individual maintains a healthy lifestyle and works closely with a healthcare professional to manage key risk factors. Still, because the condition is caused by vascular disease, those with vascular Parkinsonism are more likely to have cardiovascular issues, such as heart disease, that can reduce life expectancy.
While the life expectancy for someone with PD may be as long as for someone without the condition, the outlook for a person with Parkinsonism in any form isnt as encouraging. Compared to the general population, those with Parkinsonism tend to have a somewhat reduced life expectancy, especially if the condition sets in prior to age 70.
Does Head Injury Lead To Parkinsons Disease
According to a study published in the journal Neurology, a head injury, specifically a mild traumatic brain injury , does in fact lead to an increased risk of PD. The study was conducted using the VAs databases and identified all patients treated by the VA with TBI. The results found that:
- Patients with mild TBI and brief loss of consciousness had a 56% increased risk of developing PD compared to patients without any history of head injury.
- Patients with severe TBI were at an 80% higher risk of PD compared to healthy subjects.
- A single mild TBI with no loss of consciousness did not lead to a significant risk increase for PD.
Although head injury does increase a persons risk of PD, it should be noted that the likelihood of developing the full disease is still relatively low. In fact, in the study, only about 1% of patients were diagnosed with PD.
What is more likely, however, is that a person might develop a form of parkinsonism.