What Is The Connection
Would you like to;really understand;how vitamin B12 benefits your body? Instead of the usual laundry list of assorted benefits listed without explanation typical of many websites, this information will educate and make sense to you. Information is power empower yourself now with the knowledge you need to achieve your best natural health.
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Vitamin B12 is fundamental to;protein metabolism;and;DNA biosynthesis;major metabolic pathways dramatically affecting your health.
Consequently, vitamin B12 benefits are far-reaching ranging from the formation of healthy red blood cells, generation of energy, control of mood, focus and concentration, protection from degenerative nerve damage that may lead to dementia and Alzheimers even potential protection from athersclerosis and cancer
First, lets highlight vitamin B12 benefits and then we will take a closer look at how vitamin B12 works in your body. As a result, you will take away a high level of knowledge that you can actually apply to improve your health! Its all under your control.
Relationship Of Vitamin B12 Status And Parkinson’s Disease
Objective/Rationale: ; ; ; ; ; ;;Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause a number of neurological symptoms, including instability, neuropathy and cognitive defects. Recent studies in Parkinsons disease patients with neuropathy have shown that B12 deficiency is common. Also, we have recently observed that B12 levels decline over the course of PD. These observations have led us to hypothesize that concurrent B12 deficiency may contribute to overall decline in some patients.
Project Description: ; ; ; ; ; ;;The DATATOP study was a large study of patients with early PD conducted more than 20 years ago. As part of this study, standardized measurements of cognitive function and mobility were obtained over the course of the two-year study.; Blood samples were also collected and stored. In our study, we will measure blood levels of vitamin B12 and other markers of B12 deficiency in the DATATOP subjects to determine how common B12 deficiency is in early PD and if there is a relationship between low B12 levels and early cognitive or mobility problems. Since a number of patients underwent blood testing nine or more months after study entry, we also will measure B12 levels at study completion to determine whether B12 levels decline.
What Can I Do To Help With Swallowing
Make sure you are comfortable at meal times. The following suggestions may help make it easier to eat:
- Take your time and eat in a comfortable, quiet place.
- If you feel you are taking too long and food is getting cold, consider eating smaller, more frequent meals and snacks, or food that is easier to eat.
- You can buy heated plates to keep food warm for longer or consider serving smaller portions so that a second portion can be kept warm or reheated if its safe to do so.
- Posture is important to trigger a good swallow. Try eating sitting upright in your chair.
- Try planning your meals for when your medication is working. Avoid trying to eat large meals when you are ‘off’.
- If you wear dentures try to ensure they fit comfortably. Ask for a review by your dentist if you are concerned.
- Try to eat when you are less tired, this may mean moving your main meal to lunchtime rather than in the evening.
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Higher B12 Translates To Less Disability
Using patient data and archived blood samples from a prior study, known as DATATOP, the researchers divided three groups of 200-plus patients according to their levels of vitamin B12 at the beginning of the study. They found that over time, symptoms in those from the lower-level group developed more rapidly than in those in the higher bracket. Average annualized changes from preliminary testing for walking capacity were ranked at 1.53 for the group with lowest B12 levels, 0.83 for the middle group and 0.77 for the higher cohort, demonstrating twice the rate of progression between the groups with the lowest and highest B12 levels.
Additionally, researchers tested patients blood levels of homocysteine, an amino acid that may be elevated in people with lower B12, and compared the levels to patients results from the Mini Mental State Examination, a test that measures cognitive skills. The group with higher homocysteine levels, and thus lower B12, was found to decline by an annualized average of 1.96 points, versus a modest improvement in those with lower homocysteine.
Folic Acid And Vitamin B12 Level
Fasting venous blood was obtained from all subjects in the morning. The serum was then separated by centrifugation in the Hospital’s biochemistry laboratory to allow vitamin B12 and folic acid levels to be assessed. Specifically, vitamin B12 was measured using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay performed using the AxSYM automatic immune analyzer . In contrast, serum folic acid levels were measured using an ELISA kit . Absorbances were read using a microplate reader . In accordance with Nanjing Brain Hospital’s standards, normal range of vitamin B12 was defined as being between 189 and 883 pg/ml, whereas the normal range of folic acid was defined as being between 1.1 and 20.5 ng/ml.
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Mayo Clinic Report On Low Vitamin B
Mayo Clinic has published a research commentary that analyzes the relationship between low levels of Vitamin B-12 and Parkinsons Disease.
While the paper does not prove causality, it does propose that vitamin B12 supplementation could be considered as an adjuvant approach to improve cholinergic transmission and, potentially, motor and cognitive function in patients with PD. And it makes a case for future clinical trials of high-dose vitamin B12 supplementation as a well-tolerated symptomatic adjunctive therapy for posture and gait instability and cognitive impairment in;PD.
Mayo Clinic Video:
The paper analyzes the potential relationship between vitamin B12 and acetylcholine metabolism. Dysfunction of the cholinergic systems in PD is thought to possibly play a contributory role in postural instability and cognitive impairment.
This paper also highlights the findings of other studies that have shown:
Note that these lower vitamin B12 are still in the normal reference range for B12 tests, and even patients with normal vitamin B12 levels have faster motor progression if in the low-normal quartile.
This raises questions as to whether the PD disease state may have higher needs for vitamin B12.
Of additional concern, levodopa treatment increases homocysteine levels, requiring increased vitamin B12 and choline to methylate higher amounts of homocysteine.
So What Does Nutrition Have To Do With Parkinsons
1. The neurotransmitter dopamine is made in the body from amino acids which are the building blocks of protein. Every time we eat a protein rich food we take in protein, which the body breaks down into its component amino acids. Two amino acids are converted in the body into L-Dopa, which is then converted into dopamine in the brain.
2. Nutrient co-factors are required for each stage of this conversion process, so deficiencies of these may reduce dopamine production.
3. L-dopa medication competes for absorption with dietary amino acids, therefore the timing of taking L-dopa and the eating of protein needs to be managed for optimal absorption and effectiveness of the drug and the reduction of side-effects.
Therefore, the nutritional therapy approach to Parkinsons includes:
1. Supporting dopamine production by ensuring adequate precursors and co-factors
2. Considering drug-nutrient interactions to enhance effectiveness and reduce side-effects
3. Optimising nutritional status and addressing co-morbidities . These co-morbidities include constipation, depression, fatigue, and insomnia.
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When Should I Take My Parkinsons Medication
When you take your Parkinson’s medication should always be discussed with your GP, specialist or Parkinsons nurse.
Some people with Parkinsons may feel sick after taking medication, especially if they take it on an empty stomach.
Having a snack, such as a plain cracker or biscuit, at the same time as taking your medication can help ease this side effect. Or you may find taking medication with plenty of water can help to reduce nausea.
Your GP can also prescribe anti-sickness tablets if you do feel sick after taking your medication.
Talk to your GP, specialist or Parkinson’s nurse if you have difficulty swallowing your medication. It may help to take your medication with a cold drink, such as water, squash or fruit juice, or with yoghurt.
You may also benefit from a referral to a speech and language therapist.
Activated Forms Of Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 is essential for nerve function, cell metabolism, the formation of red blood cells, and DNA health.5-7
Vitamin B12 is found in animal sources, including meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Because of this, vegans and some vegetarians are at higher than average risk of developing vitamin B12 deficiency.8
B12 becomes more difficult to absorb as we age.This is one reason older people often have lower levels in the body.9,10
Vitamin B12 exists in various forms called cobalamins. The two active forms of cobalamins used by enzymes in the body are:11
- Methylcobalamin, which is active in the cytosol inside the body’s cells, and
- Adenosylcobalamin, which is active in the mitochondria, the fuel plants within each cell.
Adenosylcobalamin is the most prevalent form of vitamin B12 in human tissues, making up as much as 70% of all forms of this vitamin in the body.11 But it is missing from most B12 formulas and multivitamins.
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What You Need To Know
Active Forms of Vitamin B12 Protect the Brain
- Vitamin B12 is critical for nerve function, cell metabolism, the formation of red blood cells, DNA production, and more.
- Aging, and vegan or vegetarian people often suffer from vitamin B12 deficiency. Oral supplementation can correct this.
- There are two active forms of vitamin B12adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. The body needs both forms.
- The better-known form of the two, methylcobalamin, is used to reduce stress, lower dangerously elevated levels of homocysteine, and treat conditions including nerve damage.
- Animal data now show that adenosylcobalamin uniquely protects brain neurons, prevents a decline in dopamine levels, and may block neurodegeneration.
- Initial findings suggest that adenosylcobalamin inhibits overactivity of an enzyme linked with Parkinson’s disease.
- Daily oral intake of 500 mcg of adenosylcobalamin and 500 mcg of methylcobalamin is a great choice for whole-body health and potential defense against neurodegeneration.
I Am Underweight Or Losing Too Much Weight What Should I Do
Weight loss is caused by your body using more calories than youre consuming. This may be due to increased movement caused by tremors or dyskinesia. It may also be due to practical problems, such as food shopping, preparation or keeping your food hot while youre eating.;
You may find the following tips useful:
- Make the most of adding extras to foods, such as extra cream, butter, oil;or honey where you can. These will make the food more energy-dense and tasty.
- Try to have 3 meals a day and 2 to 3 snacks between your meals. Its important to try to eat every 2 to 3 hours during the day.
- Instead of snacks, try having a milkshake, malted drink or smoothie. These may be used to supplement your usual diet. But, if you find you are replacing your meals with these, it is important to seek help from a dietitian.
If you are finding it difficult to maintain your weight or reach a healthy weight, your GP, specialist or Parkinsons nurse can refer you to a dietitian.
They may recommend tailored changes to your diet and special high-calorie products that are available on prescription.
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Benefits Of Vitamins In The Treatment Of Parkinsons Disease
1Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, First Hospital of Jilin University, Xinmin Street No. 71, Changchun 130000, China
2Department of Pharmacology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, 126 Xin Min Street, Changchun, Jilin 130021, China
3Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266000, China
Vitamins are natural bioactive products with antioxidant properties, which are necessities for maintaining the normal functions of human organisms. Essential vitamins cannot be endogenously synthesized in the organism and therefore must be obtained through the diet. Clinically, vitamin deficiency is quite common, especially in infants and elderly. Vitamins are generally divided into fat-soluble variants and water-soluble variants . The former mainly bind to cellular nuclear receptors and affect the expression of specific genes . The latter mainly constitute a cofactor for the enzyme, affecting the enzymatic activity .
2. The Pathogenesis of Oxidative Stress in PD
3. Vitamin B and PD
3.1. Vitamin B3
3.2. Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Vitamin B3 in PD
3.3. Clinical Studies regarding Vitamin B3 in PD
4. Vitamin C and PD
4.1. Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Vitamin C in PD
4.2. Clinical Studies regarding Vitamin C in PD
5. Vitamin E and PD
5.1. Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Vitamin E in PD
6. Vitamin D and PD
What Is Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons Disease is a progressive neurological disorder which affects around 120,000 people in the UK. Progressive means that it typically worsens over time and neurological means that it affects the nervous system . The main symptoms of Parkinsons are slowness of movement , rigidity, tremor and postural instability . While Parkinsons is typically described as a movement disorder, a person with Parkinsons may experience a range of other symptoms including constipation, low mood, fatigue, sleep and memory problems. Symptoms of Parkinsons can be grouped into two major categories motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms .
Parkinsons typically strikes in middle age, with around 80% of cases presenting between ages of 40 and 70, and progression of symptoms is generally slow and continuous. Younger people who develop Parkinsons are more likely to have a relative with the illness suggesting a stronger genetic component. Symptoms usually begin gradually and motor symptoms are often preceded by non-motor symptoms such as fatigue, loss of smell, depression, constipation and sweating abnormalities.
If you are concerned that you or a friend or family member has symptoms of Parkinsons, you or they should see a GP immediately.
Supplement Intake Parkinsons Meds Ruled Out Eligibility
Patients were eligible for the study if they had not started treatment for Parkinsons and if they had not been taking a vitamin supplement of greater strength than a standard daily multivitamin , in the month before the start of the study. The study endpoint was disease progression to a degree indicating readiness for levodopa, standard Parkinsons therapy that over time becomes less effective.
After preliminary testing, patients were offered the option of taking a daily multivitamin. Close to 50 percent of participants were found to have higher B12 on subsequent testing, suggesting that many took the supplement or improved their diets. For those patients who remained in a lower B12 level suggesting they may not have started supplements their annualized average increase of disability was 14.4 on the Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale , a test that assesses activities of daily life, motor skills, behavior and mood. In contrast, for the group whose B12 levels began low but improved during the study, their average increase in the UPDRS score was 10, showing less disability.
The study was supported by funding from the Michael J. Fox Foundation and from gifts from the Ko and Tsu family, and William and Mary Ann S. Margaretten.
An Analysis Of The Datatop Study
Because little is known about B12s role in early disease, the investigators analyzed data from patients with early, untreated Parkinsons disease who participated in the DATATOP study, a double-blind, randomized trial designed to test whether treatment with selegiline, the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol, or both slowed disease progression.
They measured serum methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, and holotranscobalamin in addition to B12 because of the limited sensitivity of serum B12testing alone to detect B12 deficiency. At baseline, 13% of 680 patients had borderline-low B12 levels , and 5% had deficient B12 levels . Homocysteine was moderately elevated in 7% of subjects, and 14% of patients with borderline-low B12 also had elevated homocysteine.
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Which Symptoms Can Be Treated With Vitamin D Supplementation What Do Clinical Trials Suggest
Research studies are in the exploratory phase of finding out how vitamin D can help people with Parkinsons disease. The evidence collected so far indicates that its consumption may potentially help to control the non-motor symptoms.
A study included 182 Parkinsons patients and 185 healthy individuals found that patients with Parkinsons had significantly lower levels of vitamin D and these patients were experiencing more falls and sleep problems. They were also suffering from depression and anxiety. The study suggested that vitamin D supplementation could be a potential therapeutic option for non-motor symptoms of Parkinsons disease.
In another study, higher levels of vitamin D was associated with better cognition and better mood.
Similarly, one study involving 114 Parkinsons patients showed that vitamin D supplementation for 12 months inhibit the disease progression for a short period. But this effect was seen in patients that were carrying a certain genotype linked to vitamin D receptor gene.
Low Levels Of Vitamin B12 May Worsen Walking Cognition In Parkinsons Patients
Supplement May Boost Balance, Memory, But Impact on Disease Trajectory Unknown
A study of patients with early Parkinsons disease found that groups with lower levels of vitamin B12 faced on average a more rapid acceleration of both motor and cognitive symptoms, which slowed in some cases after taking a daily multivitamin.;
In the two-year study, blood levels of vitamin B12 were tested in 680 patients who had recently been diagnosed with Parkinsons. Researchers led by first author Chadwick Christine, MD, a;neurologist with;the UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, also assessed patients gait and mobility, ability to perform activities of daily living, cognition and symptoms of depression.
Our findings demonstrate that low B12 levels are associated with greater walking and balance problems, possibly due to the known effect of B12 deficiency on the central and peripheral nervous systems, said Christine. Alternatively, low B12 may have a direct effect on the progression of Parkinsons disease, or it may be a marker of an unknown associated factor, perhaps correlating with another aspect of the disease or nutritional status.
The study was published March 6, 2018, in the early view version of the journal Movement Disorders.
Deficiencies of B12, which are more common in people with Parkinsons than the age-matched general population, are associated with weakness, tiredness, numbness, tingling and walking difficulties symptoms that are found in Parkinsons disease.
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