Thursday, June 16, 2022
Thursday, June 16, 2022
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Do Females Get Parkinson’s Disease

Mood And Mental Problems

Does Parkinsons disease affect women differently than men? (Karen Blindauer, MD)
  • Deal with depression. If you are feeling sad or depressed, ask a friend or family member for help. If these feelings don’t go away, or if they get worse, talk to your doctor. He or she may be able to suggest someone for you to talk to. Or your doctor may give you medicine that will help.
  • Deal with dementia. Dementia is common late in Parkinson’s disease. Symptoms may include confusion and memory loss. If you notice that you are confused a lot or have trouble thinking clearly, talk to your doctor. There are medicines that can help dementia in people with Parkinson’s disease.

Symptoms Of Parkinson’s Disease

The symptoms and rate of progression of Parkinsons are different among individuals. Effects of normal aging are sometimes confused for Parkinsons. It is difficult to accurately diagnose this disease because there is not a test that can accurately do it.

There are physical and non-physical symptoms that could indicate someone has Parkinsons disease:

Physical symptoms

Early stage symptoms

Parkinson’s disease occurs gradually. At first, the symptoms might not even be noticeable. Early symptoms can include feeling mild tremors or having difficulty getting out of bed or a chair. The person might start to notice that they are speaking softer than usual, or that their handwriting looks different.

Usually, it is friends or family members who are the first to notice changes in someone with early Parkinson’s. For example, they may notice that the person’s face lacks expression and animation, or that the person does not move an arm or leg normally.

Trouble Moving Or Walking

Do you feel stiff in your body, arms or legs? Have others noticed that your arms dont swing like they used to when you walk? Sometimes stiffness goes away as you move. If it does not, it can be a sign of Parkinson’s disease. An early sign might be stiffness or pain in your shoulder or hips. People sometimes say their feet seem stuck to the floor.

What is normal?If you have injured your arm or shoulder, you may not be able to use it as well until it is healed, or another illness like arthritis might cause the same symptom.

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Parkinsons Strikes More Men Than Women Researchers Have Worked For Decades To Learn Why

J. William Langston, who has been studying and treating Parkinsons disease for nearly 40 years, always has found it striking that so many more men than women show up in his clinic. His observation is not anecdotal. It is grounded in science and shared by many physicians: Men are roughly 1.5 times more likely than women to develop Parkinsons, a progressive disorder of the nervous system that impairs movement and can erode mental acuity.

Its a big difference that is quite real, says Langston, clinical professor of neurology, neuroscience and of pathology at the Stanford University School of Medicine and associate director of the Stanford Udall Center. Its pretty dramatic. I think anyone who sees a lot of Parkinsons will tell you that.

While the disproportionate impact is clear, the reasons for it are not. Its a great mystery, Langston says. Researchers still dont know what it is that makes men more susceptible to Parkinsons, or what it is about women that may protect them or both. But they are trying to find out.

Parkinsons results from the death of key neurons in the substantia nigra region of the brain that produce the chemical messenger dopamine. Over time, the loss of these nerve cells disrupts movement, diminishes cognition, and can cause other symptoms, such as slurred speech and depression.

Such a Parkinsons study could do the same, she says.

Men More Likely To Get Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson

Men May Face Greater Risk of Parkinson’s Disease Than Women

Researchers analyzed several studies on the incidence of Parkinson’s disease in the population and found that men were 1.5 times more likely to develop the disease than women.

The cause of Parkinson’s disease is unknown, but symptoms of the disease, such as slow movements, tremors, and stiff muscles are caused by low levels of a chemical in the brain called dopamine.

About 1 million people in the U.S. have Parkinson’s disease, and the risk of developing the disease increases with age.

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Surgery For People With Parkinsons Disease

Deep brain stimulation surgery is an option to treat Parkinsons disease symptoms, but it is not suitable for everyone. There are strict criteria and guidelines on who can be a candidate for surgery, and this is something that only your doctor and you can decide. Surgery may be considered early or late in the progression of Parkinsons. When performing deep-brain stimulation surgery, the surgeon places an electrode in the part of the brain most effected by Parkinsons disease. Electrical impulses are introduced to the brain, which has the effect of normalising the brains electrical activity reducing the symptoms of Parkinsons disease. The electrical impulse is introduced using a pacemaker-like device called a stimulator. Thalamotomy and pallidotomy are operations where the surgeon makes an incision on part of the brain. These surgeries aim to alleviate some forms of tremor or unusual movement, but they are rarely performed now.

What Are The Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease

Symptoms of Parkinsons disease and the rate of decline vary widely from person to person. The most common symptoms include:

Other symptoms include:

  • Speech/vocal changes: Speech may be quick, become slurred or be soft in tone. You may hesitate before speaking. The pitch of your voice may become unchanged .
  • Handwriting changes: You handwriting may become smaller and more difficult to read.
  • Depression and anxiety.
  • Sleeping disturbances including disrupted sleep, acting out your dreams, and restless leg syndrome.
  • Pain, lack of interest , fatigue, change in weight, vision changes.
  • Low blood pressure.

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Medications For People With Parkinsons Disease

Symptoms of Parkinsons disease result from the progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the brain and other organs such as the gut, which produce a neurotransmitter called dopamine. This causes a deficiency in the availability of dopamine, which is necessary for smooth and controlled movements. Medication therapy focuses on maximising the availability of dopamine in the brain. Medication regimes are individually tailored to your specific need. Parkinsons medications fit into one of the following broad categories:

  • levodopa dopamine replacement therapy
  • dopamine agonists mimic the action of dopamine
  • COMT inhibitors used along with levodopa. This medication blocks an enzyme known as COMT to prevent levodopa breaking down in the intestine, allowing more of it to reach the brain
  • anticholinergics block the effect of another brain chemical to rebalance its levels with dopamine
  • amantadine has anticholinergic properties and improves dopamine transmission
  • MAO type B inhibitors prevent the metabolism of dopamine within the brain.

Pharmacological Therapy Of Non

Parkinson’s Disease Overview

Antipsychotic are an important drug class for the treatment of patients with PD or dementia with Lewy bodies in cases where hallucinations and psychosis can be disabling. However, these drugs have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity in this population, especially in older PD patients. Two independent studies on Canadian cohorts of PD patients under treatment with antipsychotic drugs showed that older age and male sex were significantly associated with an increased rate of antipsychotic prescriptions during follow-up . As reported in another study, male PD patients more often receive a prescription of antipsychotic drugs in the absence of a clear psychosis diagnosis, with respect to female patients. This, as suggested by the authors, may be related to the fact that male patients are more prone to become aggressive and difficult to assist than women, when the disease is complicated by psychosis .

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How Do I Prevent Falls From Common Hazards

  • Floors: Remove all loose wires, cords, and throw rugs. Minimize clutter. Make sure rugs are anchored and smooth. Keep furniture in its usual place.
  • Bathroom: Install grab bars and non-skid tape in the tub or shower. Use non-skid bath mats on the floor or install wall-to-wall carpeting.
  • Lighting: Make sure halls, stairways, and entrances are well-lit. Install a night light in your bathroom or hallway and staircase. Turn lights on if you get up in the middle of the night. Make sure lamps or light switches are within reach of the bed if you have to get up during the night.
  • Kitchen: Install non-skid rubber mats near the sink and stove. Clean spills immediately.
  • Stairs: Make sure treads, rails, and rugs are secure. Install a rail on both sides of the stairs. If stairs are a threat, it might be helpful to arrange most of your activities on the lower level to reduce the number of times you must climb the stairs.
  • Entrances and doorways: Install metal handles on the walls adjacent to the doorknobs of all doors to make it more secure as you travel through the doorway.

Incidence Of Parkinsons Disease

Its estimated that approximately four people per 1,000 in Australia have Parkinsons disease, with the incidence increasing to one in 100 over the age of 60. In Australia, there are approximately 80,000 people living with Parkinsons disease, with one in five of these people being diagnosed before the age of 50. In Victoria, more than 2,225 people are newly diagnosed with Parkinsons every year.

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If You Have Parkinson’s Disease

If you have been diagnosed with Parkinson’s, call your doctor if:

  • You notice any significant change in your symptoms, such as severe episodes of freezingâa sudden loss of mobilityâwhich may affect walking.
  • Your response to your medicine changes.
  • Any other symptoms occur, such as constipation, sexual problems, or incontinence.
  • You have symptoms of depression, such as feeling sad or losing interest in daily activities.
  • You or your family notice that you have problems with memory and thinking ability.

Parkinsons Disease Younger Than Or Equal To 50 Years Age

FAQS on Parkinson

As mentioned before, YOPD i.e. Young Onset Parkinsons disease takes place in individuals equal to or younger than 50 years age. Most of the people dealing with typical Parkinsons disease or idiopathic Parkinsons disease problem develops symptoms during 50 years age or older than that.

YOPD affects about 2% to 10% of the total one million Parkinsons disease patients in different areas of the United States. Symptoms are almost similar to late onset problem however, it is very much essential to understand various challenges faced by YOPD patients in their families, financial and employment levels.

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What Causes Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease occurs when nerve cells in an area of the brain called the substantia nigra become impaired or die. These cells normally produce dopamine, a chemical that helps the cells of the brain communicate . When these nerve cells become impaired or die, they produce less dopamine. Dopamine is especially important for the operation of another area of the brain called the basal ganglia. This area of the brain is responsible for organizing the brains commands for body movement. The loss of dopamine causes the movement symptoms seen in people with Parkinsons disease.

People with Parkinsons disease also lose another neurotransmitter called norepinephrine. This chemical is needed for proper functioning of the sympathetic nervous system. This system controls some of the bodys autonomic functions such as digestion, heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. Loss of norepinephrine causes some of the non-movement-related symptoms of Parkinsons disease.

Scientists arent sure what causes the neurons that produce these neurotransmitter chemicals to die.

Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease

The type, number, severity and progression of Parkinsons disease symptoms vary greatly. Every person is affected differently they may not get every symptom.

Some of the more common symptoms are:

  • resting tremor
  • rigidity
  • blood pressure fluctuation
  • constipation.

People living with Parkinsons for some time may experience hallucinations , paranoia and delusions . These symptoms are able to be treated so have a talk with your doctor.

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Men Face Higher Risk Of Parkinson’s

Researchers say previous studies on death rates from Parkinson’s disease have shown that men might suffer disproportionately from the condition. But they say death rates aren’t an accurate indicator of the disease because they don’t include the number of new cases and the cause of death isn’t always confirmed.

In this study, researchers analyzed studies on the incidence of Parkinson’s disease among populations in the U.S., China, Poland, Italy, Spain, and Finland. The incidence of a disease reflects the number of new cases developed or diagnosed during a specific time period within a certain population.

After adjusting for age, the analysis showed that men were 1.5 times more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than women.

The results appear in the April issue of the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry.

Researchers say the male gender itself may be a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease, or it may just be a marker for other risk factors that men are exposed to more than women, such as working with toxic chemicals or head injuries, which have been associated with higher risks of the disease.

Another explanation may be that estrogen may have a protective effect on the female nervous system.

Whatever the reasons behind the increased risk of Parkinson’s disease among men, researchers say learning more about them may yield new clues about how the mysterious disease develops.

Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

What Is The Outlook For Persons With Parkinsons Disease

Women and Parkinson’s Disease: HOPE

Although there is no cure or absolute evidence of ways to prevent Parkinsons disease, scientists are working hard to learn more about the disease and find innovative ways to better manage it, prevent it from progressing and ultimately curing it.

Currently, you and your healthcare teams efforts are focused on medical management of your symptoms along with general health and lifestyle improvement recommendations . By identifying individual symptoms and adjusting the course of action based on changes in symptoms, most people with Parkinsons disease can live fulfilling lives.

The future is hopeful. Some of the research underway includes:

  • Using stem cells to produce new neurons, which would produce dopamine.
  • Producing a dopamine-producing enzyme that is delivered to a gene in the brain that controls movement.
  • Using a naturally occurring human protein glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, GDNF to protect dopamine-releasing nerve cells.

Many other investigations are underway too. Much has been learned, much progress has been made and additional discoveries are likely to come.

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Causes Of Parkinsons Disease

At present, we do not know the cause of Parkinsons disease. In most people there is no family history of Parkinsons Researchers worldwide are investigating possible causes, including:

  • environmental triggers, pesticides, toxins, chemicals
  • genetic factors
  • combinations of environment and genetic factors
  • head trauma.

What Are The Symptoms

The four main symptoms of Parkinson’s are:

  • Tremor, which means shaking or trembling. Tremor may affect your hands, arms, or legs.
  • Stiff muscles.
  • Slow movement.
  • Problems with balance or walking.

Tremor may be the first symptom you notice. It’s one of the most common signs of the disease, although not everyone has it.

More importantly, not everyone with a tremor has Parkinson’s disease.

Tremor often starts in just one arm or leg or on only one side of the body. It may be worse when you are awake but not moving the affected arm or leg. It may get better when you move the limb or you are asleep.

In time, Parkinson’s affects muscles all through your body, so it can lead to problems like trouble swallowing or constipation.

In the later stages of the disease, a person with Parkinson’s may have a fixed or blank expression, trouble speaking, and other problems. Some people also lose mental skills .

People usually start to have symptoms between the ages of 50 and 60. But sometimes symptoms start earlier.

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How Is Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosed

Your doctor will ask questions about your symptoms and your past health and will do a neurological exam. This exam includes questions and tests that show how well your nerves are working. For example, your doctor will watch how you move, check your muscle strength and reflexes, and check your vision.

Your doctor will also ask questions about your mood.

In some cases, your doctor may have you try a medicine. How this medicine works may help your doctor know if you have Parkinson’s disease.

There are no lab or blood tests that can help your doctor know whether you have Parkinson’s. But you may have tests to help your doctor rule out other diseases that could be causing your symptoms. For example, you might have an MRI to look for signs of a stroke or brain tumor.

What Are The Ways To Prevent Parkinsons Disease In A Patient

How singing helps people with Parkinsonâs disease â All 4 ...

According to the research done so far, doctors and scientists believe that Parkinsons disease is triggered through a combination of genetic factors and exposure to factors like trauma and certain kinds of toxins and illness. Thus, the Parkinsons disease cannot be prevented as of now since proper etiology is yet to be discovered.

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Black Americans And Parkinsons Disease

Most research suggests that Parkinsons disease is more likely to affect whites and Hispanics.

But, some studies have shown that Black patients may be less likely to receive proper care for the disease.

A review published in 2018 in Neurology found there are racial disparities when it comes to managing Parkinsons disease.

Researchers identified one study that showed Black patients were 4 times less likely than whites to be started on treatment for Parkinsons.

Another study found an average seven-year delay in diagnosis among Black patients.

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