Circumstances And Societal Engagement In Yopd And Implications For Management
In general, people with YOPD tend to have different family and societal engagements to those with late-onset PD. For example, most people diagnosed with YOPD will have a job, whereas some people with late-onset PD have already retired. Additionaly, it is not unusual that people with YOPD have young children , or may want to start a family.
Whats Different About Young
The age of diagnosis matters for a variety of reasons, from probable causes of early cases to symptoms and treatment:
- Genetics. As with any case of Parkinsons disease, the exact cause is usually unknown. That said, The young-onset cases of Parkinsons disease are, on average, a bit more likely to be familial or genetic, says Gregory Pontone, M.D., director of the Johns Hopkins Movement Disorders Psychiatry Clinic.
- Symptoms. In many patients with YOPD, dystonia is an early symptom. People with YOPD also report more dyskinesia . They also tend to exhibit cognitive problems, such as dementia and memory issues, less frequently.
- Progression. Patients with young-onset Parkinsons appear to have a slower progression of the disease over time, says Pontone. They tend to have a milder course, staying functional and cognitively intact for much longer.
- Treatment. Most patients with Parkinsons take the medication levodopa. However, other drugs, such as MAO-B inhibitors, anticholinergics, amantadine, and dopamine receptor agonists, may be used before levodopa.
The Plus Side Of An Early Diagnosis
The news is not nearly all bad for those with young-onset Parkinsons. For one thing, patients with YOPD are better candidates for surgical procedures and medical innovations being used or developed to treat Parkinsons disease. For another, younger patients are less likely to be coping with other health problems at the same time.
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Life Expectancy Of Parkinsonism Patients In The General Population
Absolute life expectancy estimates of parkinsonism are easy to translate to patients.
Patients with parkinsonism have a reduced life expectancy compared to matched controls.
The most prominent decrease in life expectancy is observed if parkinsonism is diagnosed before the age of 70.
The number of years lived with parkinsonism in the general population is relatively low.
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Is There A Cure For Parkinsons Disease
Although research is ongoing, to date there is no known cure or way to prevent Parkinsons disease. But, research has made remarkable progress. There is very real hope that the causes, whether genetic or environmental, will be identified and the precise effects of these causes on brain function will be understood. These remarkable achievements give real hope for the future.
Still, even though there is no cure for Parkinsons disease, by identifying individual symptoms and determining a proper course of treatment, most people with the disease can live enjoyable, fulfilling lives.
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What Is The Average Age To Get Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons disease indicates a neurodegenerative disorder affecting predominately various dopamine-producing neurons in particular brain areas known commonly as substantia nigra.
Symptoms in this case develop generally slow for many years. In addition, progression of various symptoms is slightly different among different persons because of the diversity prevails in the disease. People suffering from Parkinsons disease problem usually deal with-
Tremor usually while taking rest and pill rolling type of tremor in the hands. However, the patients may even deal with other tremor forms, which are-
- Slow body movements.
- Rigidity in limbs.
- Problems in balance of body and gait.
Main reason behind the Parkinsons disease problem is entirely unknown. Despite no cure is available until now, treatment options in case of Parkinsons disease may vary largely, which may include surgical procedures and medications. The problem itself is not a dreadful one its complications may sometimes become serious.
Juvenile Parkinsonism Or Parkinsons Disease In Teen Ages
In rare instances, Parkinsons disease symptoms may appear in teen-age people and in children. This type of disorder refers to Juvenile Parkinsonism and it has close association with high-risk and specific Parkinsons disease genetic mutations.
The onset Juvenile Parkinsonism before 21 years age is comparatively rare type of symptom, which takes place because of a group of various heterogeneous entities may present with clinical pictures containing similarity with the idiopathic Parkinsons disease or manifest Parkinsonism as spectrum containing different signs further.
Diagnostic testing is as per the present symptoms and aim to uncover potentially treatable or reversible causes. In case of finding any underlying condition, doctors tailor the treatment accordingly.
On the other hand, treatment is of symptomatic and it relies on common medications available for the treatment of idiopathic Parkinsons disease problem. Patients dealing with Juvenile Parkinsons disease tend to plague with treatment-induced diseases/complications, because of which patients should make sure to employ the necessary cautions beforehand.
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Who Gets Early Onset Parkinsons Disease
About 10%-20% of those diagnosed with Parkinsons disease are under age 50, and about half of those are diagnosed before age 40. Approximately 60,000 new cases of Parkinsons are diagnosed each year in the United States, meaning somewhere around 6,000 12,000 are young onset patients.
Is it genetic or hereditary?
The cause of Parkinsons disease is not yet known. However, Parkinsons disease has appeared across several generations of some families, which could indicate that certain forms of the disease are hereditary or genetic. Many researchers think that Parkinsons disease may be caused by genetic factors combined with other external factors. The field of genetics is playing an ever greater role in Parkinsons disease research, and scientists are continually working towards determining the cause or causes of PD.
Support For People Living With Parkinsons Disease
While the progression of Parkinsons is usually slow, eventually a persons daily routines may be affected. Activities such as working, taking care of a home, and participating in social activities with friends may become challenging. Experiencing these changes can be difficult, but support groups can help people cope. These groups can provide information, advice, and connections to resources for those living with Parkinsons disease, their families, and caregivers. The organizations listed below can help people find local support groups and other resources in their communities.
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How Is It Treated And Is There A Cure
For now, Parkinsons disease is not curable, but there are multiple ways to manage its symptoms. The treatments can also vary from person to person, depending on their specific symptoms and how well certain treatments work. Medications are the primary way to treat this condition.
A secondary treatment option is a surgery to implant a device that will deliver a mild electrical current to part of your brain . There are also some experimental options, such as stem cell-based treatments, but their availability often varies, and many aren’t an option for people with Parkinsons disease.
Changes In Cognition And Parkinsons Disease
Some people with Parkinsons may experience changes in their cognitive function, including problems with memory, attention, and the ability to plan and accomplish tasks. Stress, depression, and some medications may also contribute to these changes in cognition.
Over time, as the disease progresses, some people may develop dementia and be diagnosed with Parkinsons dementia, a type of Lewy body dementia. People with Parkinsons dementia may have severe memory and thinking problems that affect daily living.
Talk with your doctor if you or a loved one is diagnosed with Parkinsons disease and is experiencing problems with thinking or memory.
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Medicines For Parkinsons Disease
Medicines can help treat the symptoms of Parkinsons by:
- Increasing the level of dopamine in the brain
- Having an effect on other brain chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, which transfer information between brain cells
- Helping control non-movement symptoms
The main therapy for Parkinsons is levodopa. Nerve cells use levodopa to make dopamine to replenish the brains dwindling supply. Usually, people take levodopa along with another medication called carbidopa. Carbidopa prevents or reduces some of the side effects of levodopa therapy such as nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, and restlessness and reduces the amount of levodopa needed to improve symptoms.
People living with Parkinsons disease should never stop taking levodopa without telling their doctor. Suddenly stopping the drug may have serious side effects, like being unable to move or having difficulty breathing.
The doctor may prescribe other medicines to treat Parkinsons symptoms, including:
- Dopamine agonists to stimulate the production of dopamine in the brain
- Enzyme inhibitors to increase the amount of dopamine by slowing down the enzymes that break down dopamine in the brain
- Amantadine to help reduce involuntary movements
- Anticholinergic drugs to reduce tremors and muscle rigidity
Support For Young People With Parkinsons
We are stronger when fighting together, empowering people living with Parkinsons, to live full active lives. Fight Parkinsons recognises young peoples need for their own community and offers Young@Park peer support groups. Call the Fight Parkinsons Information Line on for details of local peer support groups, or to confidentially discuss the challenges you are facing. You can also speak to our health team for information on other Parkinsons support services in your area. You can email the team at and keep an eye out for information and education in our seminars and events calendar.
1. Living with Parkinson’s Disease – An updated economic analysis 2014, Deloitte Access Economics for Parkinson’s Australia Inc. August 2015
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Genetics In Yopd And Its Implications For Management
The genetic background of PD is gradually being revealed and consists of the spectrum from common variants that have small contributions to an increased vulnerability, to true monogenic forms . Some of the genes that previously received a PARK locus symbol are in fact unconfirmed, are risk alleles, or if mutated give rise to a more complex phenotype. A new nomenclature of genetic movement disorders, including PD, was recently proposed and has tried to deal with these complexities . Here, we focus on the confirmed genes that can be considered monogenic forms of PD. These mainly include the dominant genes SNCA, LRRK2, GBA, and VPS35, and the recessive genes Parkin, PINK1, DJ1. The common picture from the literature is that PD patients with a mutation in one of these genes present at an earlier age, particularly for the recessive genes and SNCA . So, vice versa, if a PD patient presents at a young age, the option of a genetic etiology is often considered. While next generation sequencing platforms have simplified screening the relevant genes, we have to critically address the question: what is the actual benefit of genetic testing in YOPD?
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History Of Parkinsons Disease
Symptoms and possible treatments for Parkinsons were discussed in texts related to Ayurveda, an ancient Indian medical practice thats been around since as early as 5,000 B.C. A Parkinsons-like condition was also mentioned in the first Chinese medical text, Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen, more than 2,500 years ago.
Parkinsons disease was formally recognized in an 1817 paper, An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, by James Parkinson, MD, a London doctor and member of the Royal College of Surgeons.
Dr. Parkinson observed what are now known as the classic symptoms of Parkinsons disease, including tremors, rigidity, and postural instability. He theorized that the disease developed because of a problem in the brains medulla region.
Parkinsons essay received little attention until 1861, when French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot and his colleagues distinguished the disease from other neurological conditions and termed it Parkinsons disease.
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What Are The Symptoms
The best-known symptoms of Parkinson’s disease involve loss of muscle control. However, experts now know that muscle control-related issues aren’t the only possible symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Motor symptoms which means movement-related symptoms of Parkinsons disease include the following:
Additional motor symptoms can include:
- Blinking less often than usual. This is also a symptom of reduced control of facial muscles.
- Cramped or small handwriting. Known as micrographia, this happens because of muscle control problems.
- Drooling. Another symptom that happens because of loss of facial muscle control.
- Mask-like facial expression. Known as hypomimia, this means facial expressions change very little or not at all.
- Trouble swallowing . This happens with reduced throat muscle control. It increases the risk of problems like pneumonia or choking.
- Unusually soft speaking voice . This happens because of reduced muscle control in the throat and chest.
Several symptoms are possible that aren’t connected to movement and muscle control. In years past, experts believed non-motor symptoms were risk factors for this disease when seen before motor symptoms. However, theres a growing amount of evidence that these symptoms can appear in the earliest stages of the disease. That means these symptoms might be warning signs that start years or even decades before motor symptoms.
Non-motor symptoms include:
Stages of Parkinsons disease
Identifying Risk Factors For Parkinson’s
The risk for early death increased by about 40% for every 10-year increase in age at diagnosis.
Parkinsonâs researcher Tobias Kurth, MD, agrees that identifying risk factors for early death could help clinicians better manage the disease.
Kurth is an adjunct associate professor of epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health.
âThis is important research that adds to our understanding of the impact of specific features of Parkinsonâs disease on outcomes,â he tells WebMD.
His own study of Parkinsonâs-associated death matched Parkinsonâs patients with people without the disease who had similar non-Parkinsonâs-related illnesses.
Like the newly reported study, patients who were older when their Parkinsonâs disease was diagnosed had a greater risk for early death.
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When Should I See My Healthcare Provider Or When Should I Seek Care
You should see your healthcare provider as recommended, or if you notice changes in your symptoms or the effectiveness of your medication. Adjustments to medications and dosages can make a huge difference in how Parkinsons affects your life.
When should I go to ER?
Your healthcare provider can give you guidance and information on signs or symptoms that mean you should go to the hospital or seek medical care. In general, you should seek care if you fall, especially when you lose consciousness or might have an injury to your head, neck, chest, back or abdomen.
Diagnosing Early Onset Parkinsons Disease
There is no single test to detect Parkinsons. A diagnosis may be difficult and take a while. The condition is usually diagnosed by a neurologist based on a review of your symptoms and a physical exam.
A DaTscan to visualize your brains dopamine system may help confirm diagnosis. Blood tests and other imaging tests, such as an MRI scan, dont diagnose Parkinsons. However, they may be used to rule out other conditions.
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What Medications And Treatments Are Used
Medication treatments for Parkinsons disease fall into two categories: Direct treatments and symptom treatments. Direct treatments target Parkinsons itself. Symptom treatments only treat certain effects of the disease.
Medications that treat Parkinsons disease do so in multiple ways. Because of that, drugs that do one or more of the following are most likely:
Several medications treat specific symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Symptoms treated often include the following:
- Erectile and sexual dysfunction.
- Hallucinations and other psychosis symptoms.
Deep brain stimulation
In years past, surgery was an option to intentionally damage and scar a part of your brain that was malfunctioning because of Parkinsons disease. Today, that same effect is possible using deep-brain stimulation, which uses an implanted device to deliver a mild electrical current to those same areas.
The major advantage is that deep-brain stimulation is reversible, while intentional scarring damage is not. This treatment approach is almost always an option in later stages of Parkinson’s disease when levodopa therapy becomes less effective, and in people who have tremor that doesnt seem to respond to the usual medications.
Researchers are exploring other possible treatments that could help with Parkinsons disease. While these arent widely available, they do offer hope to people with this condition. Some of the experimental treatment approaches include:
How Is Parkinsons Disease Treated
There is no cure for Parkinsons disease. However, medications and other treatments can help relieve some of your symptoms. Exercise can help your Parkinsons symptoms significantly. In addition, physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech-language therapy can help with walking and balance problems, eating and swallowing challenges and speech problems. Surgery is an option for some patients.
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World Menopause Day: What Are The Symptoms Of Menopause And How Can They Be Relieved
The menopause is a condition that the majority of women experience as part of the natural ageing process.
On 18 October, World Menopause Day is observed around the globe to raise awareness of the impact menopause can have on womens everyday lives.
Here is everything you need to know about the condition:
How Can Symptoms Be Relieved
If a woman who is experiencing the menopause is suffering from severe symptoms, then a GP may recommend they undergo hormone replacement therapy .
HRT can replace oestrogen in the form of tablets, skin patches, gels and implants, which may help to relieve symptoms.
In September 2019, it was reported that some women impacted by the shortage of HRT medication were suffering from profound mental health issues.
In May this year, it was reported that women going through the menopause could be left without HRT medication due to high demand during the coronavirus pandemic.
Those going through the menopause may also receive treatment in the form of cognitive behavioural therapy.
They may use vaginal oestrogen creams, lubricants or moisturisers if they are experiencing vaginal dryness.
GPs may also recommend patients follow a healthy lifestyle to relieve menopausal symptoms, such as by eating a balanced diet and exercising regularly, if they do not already.
If a womans menopausal symptoms do not improve, then their GP may refer them to a menopausal specialist for further guidance.
For more information about the menopause and organisations you can contact for information and support, visit the RCOG website here.
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