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Wednesday, June 19, 2024
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Who Discovered Parkinson’s Disease

Michael J Fox Underwent Brain Surgery

New drug target for Parkinson’s

After deciding to go public, Fox had brain surgery to treat his Parkinson’s disease. According to Brain & Life;magazine, he underwent a procedure called thalamotomy in an;attempt to control his tremors. This called for making a small hole in Fox’s thalamus . Is that risky? No, it’s very risky! Dr. Jason M. Schwalb told Brain & Life, “If the targeting is inaccurate by 3 mm, the patient can have permanent neurologic injury.”

However, Parkinson’s patients may opt for a different type of brain surgery called DBS or deep brain stimulation . Similar to pacemaker surgery for a heart condition, DBS involves implanting electrodes in the brain, which are connected to a stimulation device in the person’s chest . While a thalamotomy is considered an unconventional approach,;DBS is “the most commonly performed surgical treatment for Parkinson’s,” per the;Michael J. Fox Foundation.

Lawyer Jim McNasby found the information about DBS particularly useful . Like Fox, McNasby was diagnosed with early-onset Parkinson’s and remembers when Fox went public about his condition. “Michael J. Fox had just come out with the early onset Parkinson’s idea and so it was just coming into the public domain,” he told Healthline. Because of his pro bono work with the Foundation, McNasby learned about DBS and found it greatly reduced his symptoms.

Chemical That Triggers Parkinsons Disease Discovered

Saint Louis University
The key brain chemical that causes Parkinsons disease has been discovered. This is a breakthrough finding that could pave the way for new, far more effective therapies to treat one of the most common and debilitating neurological disorders.

Researchers at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine have discovered the key brain chemical that causes Parkinsons disease a breakthrough finding that could pave the way for new, far more effective therapies to treat one of the most common and debilitating neurological disorders.

Currently, the main approach for treating Parkinsons disease, which afflicts more than 1.5 million Americans, is to replace dopamine thats lost when the cells that produce it die off and cause the disorder. With this new research, however, scientists can better work toward neuroprotective therapies those that actually block dopamine cells from dying off in the first place.

We believe this work represents a very significant breakthrough in understanding the complicated chemical process that results in Parkinsons disease, said William J. Burke, M.D., Ph.D., professor of neurology at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine and the studys lead author.

For the first time, weve identified the chemical that triggers the events in the brain that cause this disorder, Burke added. We believe these findings can be used to develop therapies that can actually stop or slow this process.

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The First Description Of Parkinsons Disease

During his years as an operating physician, Parkinson was interested in very different subjects: he wrote one of the earliest writings found in the English medical literature on appendicitis and how peritonitis can cause death. But the main work of the British physician was an essay on what he called trembling paralysis. In this paper, Parkinson establishes the disease as a clinical entity.

Involuntary tremulous motion, with lessened muscular power, in parts not in action and even when supported; with a propensity to bend the trunk forwards, and to pass from a walking to a running pace: the senses and intellects being uninjured, Parkinson described in 1817 . This description was the first and the most classic recorded about the disease, although in current terms it is considered limited. He wrongly predicted that these tremors could be due to damage to the cervical spinal cord; it is now known to be a chronic neurodegenerative disorder.

The doctor had observed throughout his career certain determinants for the paralysis. However, it was due to the observation of three of his patients and three of his neighbours, especially in their hands and arms, that Parkinson would derive the description. It would be almost half a century before the French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcon added robustness to Parkinsons description and used his name to classify this disease.

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What Research Is Being Done

The mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use the knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease. NINDS is a component of the National Institutes of Health , the leading supporter of biomedical research in the world. NINDS conducts and supports three types of research: basicscientific discoveries in the lab, clinicaldeveloping and studying therapeutic approaches to Parkinsons disease, and translationalfocused on tools and resources that speed the development of therapeutics into practice. The goals of NINDS-supported research on Parkinsons disease are to better understand and diagnose PD, develop new treatments, and ultimately, prevent PD. NINDS also supports training for the next generation of PD researchers and clinicians and serves as an important source of information for people with PD and their families.

Who Is At The Highest Risk Of Developing Parkinsons Disease As A Result Of Paraquat Exposure

World Parkinsons Disease Day: The life of the man who ...

Everyone who worked with or was frequently around paraquat is at risk of developing Parkinsons disease, as this herbicide is very toxic. The majority of people who use paraquat are agricultural workers. However, there are some categories of people who have the highest risk of developing Parkinsons disease as a consequence of prolonged exposure to paraquat, which refers to the following:

Consequently, agricultural workers are not the only category of people who are at risk of developing Parkinsons disease following paraquat exposure. If you notice the symptoms of this condition in a family member with a history of paraquat exposure, we strongly advise you to encourage them to seek medical attention. Because Parkinsons disease is often misdiagnosed, your family member may need to look for a second and even a third opinion from medical specialists if they do not receive a diagnosis of Parkinsons disease after their initial appointment. It is important to keep in mind that only individuals who struggle with Parkinsons disease are eligible for compensation if they were exposed to paraquat.

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Is Parkinsons Disease Hereditary

PD can strike one or more family members, but it is rarely inherited directly. Only about 2% of PD cases appear to be related toan inherited mutation. However, people of specific ethnic backgrounds Ashkenazi Jews, North Africans, and Basques are more likely to suffer from PD.

Changes in the LRRK2 gene account for 15-20% of cases in Ashkenazi Jews and 40% of cases in North African Arab-Berbers. Other changes in LRRK2 that raise the risk of PD have been found in people of Chinese descent.

From The Outset It Is Clear That He Was Well Aware Of How Devastating The Disease Could Be

The major difference between Parkinsons definition and the modern understanding of Parkinsons disease is with regard to his final observation, the importance of non-motor symptoms, as there is an increasing realisation that dementia is an important part of the symptomatic spectrum of Parkinsonism.

The centrepiece of the essay is Parkinsons report of a typical history for the Shaking Palsy, illustrated with a series of six cases from in and around Hoxton, sharing a number of characteristic symptoms. Although varying in detail , these contain a wealth of information that neurologists today would recognise from their own interaction with Parkinsons disease patients.

The contents and first page of An essay on the Shaking Palsy, written by James Parkinson in 1817

Much is made in the essay of the inadequacy of the treatments available to sufferers. The optimism of Parkinsons humanist tendencies prompted him to suggest that: there appears to be sufficient reason for hoping that some remedial process may ere long be discovered, by which, at least, the progress of the disease may be stopped. Sadly it was to be 140 years before the work of Arvid Carlsson and others eventually led to the development of levodopa as a symptomatic treatment for the Shaking Palsy, and we still await an intervention that actually retards the progress of the disease.

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Q: I Have Parkinsons Disease Should I Receive A Covid

A: For information about the COVID-19 vaccines how they work, safety, and more please visit our updated;COVID-19 information section.; In general, your age alone increases your risk of complications from COVID-19 infection. Depending on what PD symptoms you have, PD can also increase the risk of complications from the virus. For these reasons, it would be wise to protect yourself as much as possible from COVID-19, which would include getting vaccinated. As always, speak to your doctor about your individual clinical situation and to find out when and where you will be able to get the vaccine.

Diagnosis And Clinical Assessment Devices

Eye Test May Reveal Parkinsons Disease Earlier

The use of new technology-based tools allows quantitative assessment of the motor function of PD patients. Sensors, video-assessment methods or mobile phone applications are some of the techniques that improve the sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility of the evaluation of PD patients . Portable devices that include inertial measurement units measure the orientation, amplitude and frequency of movement, as well as the speed of the part of the body where they are located. IMUs are usually made up of accelerometers and gyroscopes, and occasionally magnetometers. IMUs situated in different parts of the patients body make a precise record of tremor, bradykinesia, dyskinesias and even gait patterns . On the other hand, continual monitoring of the motor status in the domestic environment is also possible by using these technology-based tools . These new technology-based systems open up an unexpected range of specific and real-time data, thereby resulting in the prospect of better diagnostic accuracy, more sensitive monitoring of the motor and non-motor symptoms, and more precise adjustments of medical therapies. However, their use is limited in routine clinical practice due to the heterogeneity of the studies, which limit the extrapolation of results, and the high cost of the devices .

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Michael J Fox Underwent Spinal Surgery In 2018

While Parkinson’s disease can affect how someone walks, Michael J. Fox found he was having difficulty with his leg movements for a different reason in 2018 . The culprit causing him difficulty was actually a benign tumor on his spine. Despite not being cancerous, the growth would eventually leave him paralyzed unless he underwent a very risky spinal surgery to have it removed . How risky? Well, as Fox said in a telephone interview with the medical institution, the surgery was “not one that a lot of doctors were eager to tackle.”

Fortunately for Fox, Dr. Nicholas Theodore agreed to perform the surgery and immediately put the actor at ease not only with his credentials but also his sense of humor. Fox recalled that when the subject of other medical experts not wanting to try this surgery came up, he responded with, “Who wants to be the guy who paralyzes Michael J. Fox?” Fox continued, saying,;”That was a really great icebreaker.” In the end, the surgery took five hours but was a complete success.

Of course, any major surgery requires recovery time, and Fox discovered he had to relearn how to take steps and properly distribute and redistribute his weight, per the CBC. He described the process as “quite painstaking,” and after months of therapy, he was experiencing “a suffocating loss of privacy” because of the number of people needed to help him.;

Who Is Most Affected By Parkinsons Disease

However, the disease affects about 50 percent more men than women. One clear risk factor for Parkinsons is age. Although most people with Parkinsons first develop the disease at about age 60, about 5 to 10 percent of people with Parkinsons have early-onset disease, which begins before the age of 50.

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What Is Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease is a condition that affects the brain, resulting in a progressive loss of coordination and movement. It is the most common form of parkinsonism disorders and is sometimes called idiopathic or primary parkinsonism.

The disease is named after a British physician,;James Parkinson, who first described it in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy in 1817.

In Parkinsons disease, nerve cells, also called neurons, in a region of the brain called the substantia nigra begin to malfunction or die, a process called neurodegeneration. Some of the neurons are responsible for producing a chemical called . Dopamine acts as a neurotransmitter, which is passes signals between neurons. It is essential in sending messages from the brain to direct muscle movement and coordination.

Parkinsons is a progressive disease, which means symptoms get worse over time. As more dopamine-producing neurons die, the levels of dopamine in the brain decrease until patients are unable to control normal movements. This progression is very slow, and symptoms usually are visible after about 70 to 80 percent of the nerve cells have been lost.

Michael J Fox Broke His Arm And Lost His Optimism

08 Parkinsons Disease

It was the summer of 2018 and the year had already been rough for Michael J. Fox. Now, in addition to managing a progressive disease, he was recovering from spinal surgery and starving for a little time to himself, according to the CBC. But no sooner did he get his wish when he slipped on a tile in his kitchen and fell on his arm, shattering it. Alone and unable to get help, Fox remembered at that moment, he was tired of his “when life hands you lemons, make lemonade” attitude about his condition. “That was the point where I went ‘I’m out of the freakin’ lemonade business,'” he told the CBC. “‘I can’t put a shiny face on this. This sucks, and who am I to tell people to be optimistic?'”

Fractures are not uncommon among people with Parkinson’s. According to the Parkinson’s Foundation, the disease can cause changes to a person’s skeleton, including lower bone density. In fact, if a person with Parkinson’s does less walking and other exercises in which their skeleton needs to support their weight, they run the risk of weaker bones, increasing their chances of bone fractures if they fall. In Fox’s case, as he detailed to the CBC. his arm was so badly broken that it needed to be rebuilt. And what about his optimism? That too would need some rebuilding.

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Accidental Discovery Eliminates Parkinsons Disease In Mice What About Humans

When researchers at the University of California in San Diego began studying the specific roles of proteins in connective cells, they never could have predicted where they would end up.

From their studys findings, they potentially found a new groundbreaking therapeutic approach for Parkinsons disease and other neurodegenerative conditions.

For decades, Xiang-Dong Fu, the lead author of this particular study that was , and his team studied a protein called PTB, which is known for binding RNA and influencing which genes are turned on or off.

Several years ago, one researcher working in Fus lab utilized a technique called siRNA to silence the PTB gene in connective tissue cells, known as fibroblasts. This, however, is a painstakingly long process, and the researcher convinced Fu that they should use a different approach.

Then after a couple of weeks, the team noticed something very oddonly a few fibroblasts were left. Almost the entire dish was instead filled with neurons. The researchers eventually discovered that inhibiting or deleting just a single gene that encodes PTB, transforms several types of cells in mice into neurons.

Just a single treatment to inhibit PTB in mice converted native astrocytes, star-shaped support cells of the brain, into neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. Because of this, symptoms of Parkinsons disease in the mice fully disappeared.

Drug Delivery Systems For Neurotrophic Factor Therapy

Besides GDNF, other neurotrophic factor such as basic fibroblast growth factor have been evaluated. One example involves gelatin nanostructured lipid carriers encapsulating bFGF that can be targeted to the brain via nasal administration . Overall, the nanoformulation stimulated dopaminergic function in surviving synapses and played a neuroprotective role in 6-OHDA hemiparkinsonian rats. A very recent study took advantage of the neuroprotective properties of Activin B, which was administered in a parkinsonian mice using a thermosensitive injectable HG . The biomaterial allowed a sustained protein release over 5 weeks and contributed to substantial cellular protection and behavioral improvement.

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Parkinsons Disease Risk Factors

Although a primary cause for Parkinsons disease is yet to be identified, a number of risk factors are clearly evident.

Advancing age Although there is the occasional case of the disease being developed as a young adult, it generally manifests itself in the middle to late years of life. The risk continues to increase the older one gets. Some researchers assume that people with Parkinsons have neural damage from genetic or environmental factors that get worse as they age.

Sex- Males are more likely to get Parkinsons than females. Possible reasons for this may be that males have greater exposure to other risk factors such as toxin exposure or head trauma. It has been theorised that oestrogen may have neuro-protective effects. Or, in the case of genetic predisposition, a gene predisposing someone to Parkinsons may be linked to the X chromosome.

Family history Having one or more close relatives with the disease increases the likelihood that you will get it, but to a minimal degree. This lends support to the idea that there is a genetic link in developing Parkinsons.

Post menopausal who do not use hormone replacement therapy are at greater risk, as are those who have had hysterectomies.

Low levels of B vitamin folate Researchers discovered that mice with a deficiency of this vitamin developed severe Parkinsons symptoms, while those with normal levels did not.



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