A Simple Skin Test That Could Diagnose Parkinsons Disease
Research2013-2015 Research ProjectsDr. Drew Kern
Alpha-synuclein deposition in skin of patients with Parkinsons disease, multiple systems atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy
Identifying patients with Parkinsons disease early is important because we hope to develop therapies in the future that will halt the progressive cell loss, says Kern.
Currently, the only way to diagnose Parkinsons is through a clinical evaluation by a doctor experienced in treating movement disorders. But even experienced clinicians cant distinguish between Parkinsons and other diseases that share similar symptoms. A definitive test would prevent misdiagnoses that sometimes occur, such as when people with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy are told they have Parkinsons. Although the symptoms are initially similar, people with PSP typically die seven years into the disease. Parkinsons disease progresses much more slowly.
Kern, who is a neurologist as well as a neuroscientist, is spending two years seeing patients as a clinical fellow at Toronto Western Hospitals Movement Disorders Program under the mentorship of Dr. Anthony Lang. Hes also researching skin biopsies as a potential biomarker to identify misshapen proteins associated with Parkinsons disease, such as alpha-synuclein and tau.
The emotional component of this is very satisfying, when you can help, says Kern.
Referral To A Specialist
If your GP suspects Parkinson’s disease, you’ll be referred to a specialist.
This will usually be:
- a neurologist, a specialist in conditions affecting the brain and nervous system
- a geriatrician, a specialist in problems affecting elderly people
The specialist will most likely ask you to perform a number of physical exercises so they can assess whether you have any problems with movement.
A diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease is likely if you have at least 2 of the 3 following symptoms:
- shaking or tremor in a part of your body that usually only occurs at rest
- slowness of movement
- muscle stiffness
If your symptoms improve after taking a medication called levodopa, it’s more likely you have Parkinson’s disease.
Special brain scans, such as a single photon emission computed tomography scan, may also be carried out in some cases to try to rule out other causes of your symptoms.
What Do You Call A Person With Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsonism is a term used to describe symptoms or signs that are found in Parkinsons, but which can also be found in other conditions that cause slowness of movement, stiffness and tremor. Most people with a form of parkinsonism have idiopathic Parkinsons disease, also known as Parkinsons. Idiopathic means the cause is unknown.
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How Is Parkinsons Disease Tested And Diagnosed
At Banner Health, our neurologists have years of experience in testing and diagnosing Parkinson’s disease. Our team of compassionate experts knows that each patient is different, so we work with you to quickly find the right diagnosis to begin building your treatment plan.
Parkinsons is not simple to diagnose. No test exists to diagnose Parkinsons disease. Doctors test and diagnose Parkinsons based on your medical history, symptoms and neurological and physical exams.
Many times a primary care provider is the first to suspect a Parkinsons diagnosis. If youre experiencing symptoms such as tremors, shaking, slow movement, stiffness and/or trouble with balance, talk to your doctor or seek the opinion of a neurologist. Banner Health neurologists are movement disorder specialists, who have experience and specific training to assess and treat Parkinsons.
Eat A Healthy Balanced Diet
Theres no one specific diet for Parkinsons. But a nutritious diet thats high in fruits, vegetables and whole, unprocessed foods is good for your body and brain. Talk to your doctor or a dietitian to craft a diet that helps you manage your Parkinsons symptoms and feel energized and healthy.
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Assessing Level Of Rigidity
Doctors also look for rigidity by moving the joints in your elbows, wrists, knees, and ankles to see if there’s resistance. The resistance may be smooth or may appear as slight hesitations in movements, known as cogwheeling. This is sometimes made more obvious by the patient actively moving the opposite limb.
What Tests Might I Have
Your doctor may want to start by testing your blood or doing a brain scan to rule out other conditions.
People who have Parkinsonâs disease donât make enough of a brain chemical called dopamine, which helps you move. If those first tests donât show a reason for your symptoms, your doctor may ask you to try a medication called carbidopa-levodopa, which your brain can turn into dopamine. If your symptoms get much better after you start the drug, your doctor probably will tell you that you have Parkinsonâs disease.
If the medication doesnât work for you and thereâs no other explanation for your issues, your doctor might suggest an imaging test called a DaTscan. This uses a small amount of a radioactive drug and a special scanner, called a single photon emission computed tomography scanner, to see how much dopamine is in your brain. This test can’t tell you for sure that you have Parkinson’s disease, but it can give your doctor more information to work with.
It can take a long time for some people to get a diagnosis. You may need to see your neurologist regularly so they can keep an eye on your symptoms and eventually figure out whatâs behind them.
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How Parkinson’s Disease Is Diagnosed
Claudia Chaves, MD, is board-certified in cerebrovascular disease and neurology with a subspecialty certification in vascular neurology.
There’s no “gold standard” test that will diagnose Parkinson’s disease . Instead, a physician relies on their own clinical observations and judgment, along with a patient’s description of possible signs and symptoms, to make the diagnosis. That, of course, makes a physical examination very important in this process. Much of your doctor’s exam will be aimed at assessing whether you have the so-called cardinal signs of Parkinson’s: resting tremor, rigidity , bradykinesia and postural instability .
Blood Tests And Spinal Fluid Tests
A blood test or spinal fluid test cant be used to diagnose Parkinsons. But they can be used to search for certain proteins that indicate you may have another neurodegenerative condition with similar symptoms.
The presence of elevated levels of a nerve protein called neurofilament light chain protein may indicate that you have another movement disorder, such as:
- multiple system atrophy
- corticobasal degeneration
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Medical History And Physical Exam
The process of diagnosing Parkinsons usually begins with the neurologist evaluating your medical history and performing a physical exam. For a formal diagnosis to be made, you need to have a general slowness of movement with either a resting tremor or rigidity.
During the physical exam, your doctor will have you perform a series of tests to monitor your movement. An example of a test they might use is a finger tap, where they measure how many times you can tap your finger in 10 to 15 seconds.
They will also look for signs that you may have another condition. A group of movement disorders collectively called parkinsonisms can produce symptoms that are indistinguishable from those of Parkinsons but are not the same. Usually, additional tests are needed to rule out these conditions as well.
New Diagnostic Standards For Parkinsons
Until recently, the gold-standard checklist for diagnosis came from the U.K.s Parkinsons Disease Society Brain Bank. It was a checklist that doctors followed to determine if the symptoms they saw fit the disease. But thats now considered outdated. Recently, new criteria from the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society have come into use. This list reflects the most current understanding of the condition. It allows doctors to reach a more accurate diagnosis so patients can begin treatment at earlier stages.
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Mri In Parkinson’s Testing
One of the more common tests done during a neurologic workup is an MRI scan and one may think that in the investigation of a disease that affects the brain such as Parkinsons, this imaging test would be a necessity. In the context of Parkinsons disease, however, an MRI is not particularly helpful. It looks at the structure of the brain which, for all intents and purposes, appears normal in this disease. An MRI may, however, be indicated when symptoms appear in younger people or if the clinical picture or the progression of symptoms is not typical for Parkinsons. In these situations, MRI can be used to rule out other disorders such as stroke, tumors, hydrocephalus , and Wilsons Disease .
How Do I Prevent Falls From Common Hazards
- Floors: Remove all loose wires, cords, and throw rugs. Minimize clutter. Make sure rugs are anchored and smooth. Keep furniture in its usual place.
- Bathroom: Install grab bars and non-skid tape in the tub or shower. Use non-skid bath mats on the floor or install wall-to-wall carpeting.
- Lighting: Make sure halls, stairways, and entrances are well-lit. Install a night light in your bathroom or hallway and staircase. Turn lights on if you get up in the middle of the night. Make sure lamps or light switches are within reach of the bed if you have to get up during the night.
- Kitchen: Install non-skid rubber mats near the sink and stove. Clean spills immediately.
- Stairs: Make sure treads, rails, and rugs are secure. Install a rail on both sides of the stairs. If stairs are a threat, it might be helpful to arrange most of your activities on the lower level to reduce the number of times you must climb the stairs.
- Entrances and doorways: Install metal handles on the walls adjacent to the doorknobs of all doors to make it more secure as you travel through the doorway.
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Obtaining A Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosis
During the exam, the neurologist will look for cardinal symptoms of the disease. Facial expressions and features will be assessed. The doctor will look for signs of tremor while the patient is at rest. The doctor may watch how easily the patient stands up from sitting in a chair. The doctor may also stand behind the patient and gently pull back on the patients shoulders and look for how easily the patient can regain balance. Good responsiveness to levodopa also helps support the diagnosis of PD. However, taking levodopa may exclude patients from clinical studies that need to recruit recently diagnosed patients who have not yet had treatment . Participation in a clinical trial should be discussed with the doctor.
PD can be challenging to accurately diagnose, particularly in early stages of the disease, which is why a neurologist trained in movement disorders is critical. Approximately 5-10% of patients with PD are misdiagnosed, as many of the symptoms of PD are similar to other diseases. If the patient thinks that he or she has been misdiagnosed, a second opinion may help.1,2
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Parkinsons
Parkinsons disease is a progressive condition, and symptoms tend to get worse over time. The rate of progression varies between people.
At first, symptoms tend to be mild enough that they likely wont interfere with your daily life. But people who regularly spend time with you may notice changes in your gait, posture, or facial expressions.
Parkinsons symptoms usually start on
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Brain Imaging And Other Tools To Aid Diagnosis Of Parkinsons
In addition to taking a history and performing a detailed neurologic examination, physicians sometimes use brain imaging to help support a particular diagnosis. However, these studies have their limitations in the diagnosis of Parkinsons disease and are typically used only in select patients. Brain imaging is not routinely performed by neurologists or movement disorder specialists when they are considering a diagnosis, especially if the persons symptoms strongly suggest to the physician that idiopathic Parkinsons disease is the correct diagnosis.
Helping diagnose Parkinsons with DaTscan and other tests
Rather, use of imaging is most helpful when the diagnosis is uncertain, or when physicians are looking for changes in the brain that are more typical of one of several Parkinsonian syndromes and other conditions that can mimic Parkinsons. Imaging studies to evaluate Parkinsons disease and Parkinsonian syndromes include magnetic resonance imaging , which examines the structure of the brain, and DaTscan, an imaging test approved by the Food and Drug Administration to detect the dopamine function in the brain. A DaTscan may help differentiate idiopathic Parkinsons disease from certain other neurologic disorders. Most physicians offices will have access to MRI however, DaTscan imaging may only be available at larger hospitals or medical centers.
Passive Manipulation Of Limbs
To test for the presence of rigidity, we need to passively manipulate the limbs of the patient. However, If the disease is in its early stage or the symptoms are well controlled with medications, we may not be able to see rigidity. We will need to use some activation maneuvers, that basically consist in performing repetitive movements with the limb contralateral to the one that is being tested.
Also, there are two types of rigidity:
– Lead-pipe rigidity: where the tone is uniformly and smoothly increased throughout the entire range of movement
– Cogwheel rigidity: where a tremor is superimposed on the hypertonia, making the movement irregular due to intermittent increase and reduction of tone
Upper Extremity Testing
For the upper extremity the most sensitive joint where to check for rigidity is the wrist. To uncover rigidity, passively rotate the wrist and feel for a resistance to the movement. It is very important that the arm of the patient is fully relaxed when rotating the wrist. To do this, place your proximal hand under the patients forearm, while your distal hand grabs and rotates the wrist of the patient. When rigidity is present, the range of motion will be preserved but you will feel a resistance in performing the movement.
Wrist rotation with activation maneuver.
It is also possible to test for rigidity in the elbow by passively flexing and extending the forearm.
Elbow flexion-extension with activation maneuver.
Lower Extremity Testing
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Simple Skin Test Can Confirm Parkinsons Diagnosis
This post is available in: Spanish
Patients suspected of having Parkinsons disease can now have their diagnosis confirmed with a simple skin test available at Marcus Neuroscience Institute in Boca Raton. The test identifies abnormal alpha-synuclein proteins in nerve fibers of the skin, which experts say are linked to Parkinsons and a variety of other movement disorders.
Sameea Husain Wilson, D.O., director of Movement Disorder Neurology for at Boca Raton Regional Hospital, says the Syn-One Test gives movement disorder specialists like herself the ability to confirm a clinical diagnosis with up to 99 percent accuracy.
Diagnosing a neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinsons disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, or multiple system atrophy can be challenging, saysDr. Husain. While patients with advanced disease have symptoms that are fairly obvious, thats not always the case for those with early-stage disease.
Studies show that a misdiagnosis can occur 30 to 50 percent of the time in earlier stages of a neurodegenerative disease. This, Dr. Husain says, is why you want to see a fellowship-trained neurologist who is specially trained to spot the differences between Parkinsons disease and other movement disorders. Its also why you want to go to a specialized center such as Marcus Neuroscience Institute that offers the Syn-One test.
- Tremor, mainly at rest
- Limb rigidity
- Gait and balance problems
Physical Examination And Tests
A trip to the neurologists office often includes what seems like dozens of questions, along with multiple tests.
There currently are no diagnostic blood tests for Parkinson’s disease, but your doctor may do some routine blood and urine tests to assess your overall health. Your blood pressure will be taken sitting and standing to look for orthostatic hypotension.
A movement disorder specialist will do a variety of physical tests to assess you as well.
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Physical And Neurological Examination
Your doctor will conduct a physical and neurological examination. This can involve observing your behavior, movements, and mental state and conducting tests or asking you to perform certain exercises.
These are some of the symptoms of Parkinsons your doctor can determine visually:
- Fewer spontaneous movements or hand gestures
- Reduced frequency of blinking
- Tremors in your hands while they are at rest, often only in one hand
- Hunched posture or forward lean while walking
- Stiff movements
These are some of the exercises your doctor may ask you to do to evaluate your movements, balance, and coordination:
- Opening and closing your fist
- Tapping your fingers, toes, and heels
- Holding your arms out in front of you
- Moving your finger from one point to another
- Rotating your wrists or ankles
- Standing from a chair
What Are The Diagnostic Criteria For Parkinsons
Doctors diagnose Parkinsons clinically based on your symptoms and medical history.
No individual test can be used to diagnose Parkinsons. Many other neurogenerative conditions can lead to similar symptoms, so your doctor may use a blood test, brain scans, or other tests to rule out other conditions.
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How Is Parkinsons Disease Diagnosed
Diagnosing Parkinsons disease is sometimes difficult, since early symptoms can mimic other disorders and there are no specific blood or other laboratory tests to diagnose the disease. Imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to rule out other disorders that cause similar symptoms.
To diagnose Parkinsons disease, you will be asked about your medical history and family history of neurologic disorders as well as your current symptoms, medications and possible exposure to toxins. Your doctor will look for signs of tremor and muscle rigidity, watch you walk, check your posture and coordination and look for slowness of movement.
If you think you may have Parkinsons disease, you should probably see a neurologist, preferably a movement disorders-trained neurologist. The treatment decisions made early in the illness can affect the long-term success of the treatment.