What Are Pd Dementia Safety Concerns
Safety issues should be considered and monitored from the time of diagnosis. As PDD progresses, ensure that your loved one is not left alone.
- Evaluate driving privileges before safety is a concern. Your doctor can make a driving evaluation referral.
- Work out legal and financial issues and safeguard finances. People with dementia are at greater risk of falling victim to scams and fraud.
- Minimize prescription risks. Confirm with the doctor the medication names and doses of the person with PD. If the person is in dementias early stages and capable, fill up their weekly pill box together and monitor use.
- Medical alert systems can be critical in case your loved one falls or wanders outside of the home. Many types of systems are available, from bracelets and pendants to smart watches with fall detection and one-button connections to 911.
- Evaluate gun safety. If your loved one owns a firearm or has one in the home, consider speaking with their doctor about the subject and taking appropriate safety precautions.
How Is Parkinsons Disease Treated
There is no cure for Parkinsons disease. However, medications and other treatments can help relieve some of your symptoms. Exercise can help your Parkinsons symptoms significantly. In addition, physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech-language therapy can help with walking and balance problems, eating and swallowing challenges and speech problems. Surgery is an option for some patients.
What Is The Best Way To Communicate With A Person With Pdd
PD-related mood and motor changes can impact communication cognitive changes and Parkinsons disease dementia can further these difficulties.
- It is not usually helpful to try to reason or argue with someone experiencing a hallucination or delusion. Stay calm and be patient. If the person is frightened by the hallucination or delusion, try to redirect their attention to something else.
- You may find acknowledging what the person is seeing, even if you do not see it, can reduce stress.
- Speak slowly and at eye level. Communicate in simple sentences.
- Ask one question at a time and wait for an answer.
- Limit distractions. Turn off the TV or radio before asking a person with PDD to do something.
- Consider causes behind disruptive behavior: the person may be hungry, thirsty, tired, in pain, frustrated, lonely or bored.
- If the person is stuck on an idea, try agreeing with them, then changing the subject.
- Its OK to use humor to diffuse stressful situations but avoid negative humor or sarcasm these can be misunderstood.
Page reviewed by Dr. Jori Fleisher, MSCE, Assistant Professor, Department of Neurological Sciences at Rush University Medical Center, a Parkinsons Foundation Center of Excellence.
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How Is Parkinsons Dementia Different From Alzheimers Disease
The advanced cognitive changes that impact daily living in Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease are both types of dementia.
Parkinsons disease dementia can occur as Parkinsons advances, after several years of motor symptoms. Dementia with Lewy Bodies is diagnosed when cognitive decline happens first, or when Parkinsons motor symptoms and cognitive decline occur and progress closely together. Cognitive impairments in PDD, combined with the movement symptoms of the disease, produce a greater impact on social and occupational functioning than Alzheimers.
Alzheimers, a fatal brain disease, causes declines in memory, thinking and reasoning skills. Physicians can diagnose Alzheimers. Visit the Alzheimers Association to learn the 10 signs Alzheimers disease.
Fortunately for people with PD, Parkinsons disease dementia is less disabling than Alzheimers disease. People with Alzheimers have language difficulties earlier than people with Parkinsons, and no new memories are formed. People with PD also have more ability to compensate and adjust based on cues.
What To Expect From Parkinsons Disease
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How to Spot the Early Signs of Parkinsons in Your Loved One
Parkinsons is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects everyone differently symptoms generally develop slowly over years, manifesting themselves differently from one person to the next. No two people experience Parkinsons the same way so expectations will vary, but there are many commonalities that people with the disease share.
What are the Early Symptoms of Parkinsons?
It is important to pay attention to the early signs and symptoms of Parkinsons. Following are the ten most common signs of Parkinsons disease . Its important to note that many of these symptoms can be caused by other common health issues. No single symptom should be cause for concern, but if you or a loved one are experiencing many of these symptoms it is best to consult a medical professional.
Again, one of these symptoms alone is not enough to prompt concern about Parkinsons, but put them together and it warrants a visit to the doctor.
Understanding the Five Stages of Parkinsons
In Stage One, a persons symptoms are mild and do not interfere dramatically with daily activities. Tremor and movement symptoms tend to occur on just one side of the body. Changes in posture, walking and facial expressions will begin to be noticed.
How to Treat Parkinsons Disease
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The Role Of Dementia And Age
Dementia also plays an important role in survival with Parkinson’s. By the end of the above study, nearly 70% of the population with Parkinson’s had been diagnosed with dementia, and those with dementia had a lower survival rate as compared to those without.
This means that those with dementia were more likely to die during the six-year period than those without dementia. In addition, scientific studies have shown that increasing age is linked to an increased risk of death.
It’s important to remember that how a person’s Parkinson’s disease manifests and progresses is variable, and a person’s neurologist cannot accurately predict individual life expectancy.
There are simply no key signs or symptoms that allow a doctor to perfectly predict longevity. An older age and the presence of dementia are simply associated with an increased risk of dying.
Parkinsons Disease: Living With The Early Stages Of Parkinson’s Disease
In the early stages of Parkinson’s disease, many people lead an independent and active life. The symptoms and worries about the future can still be hard to cope with, though. But there are various ways to deal with the psychological burden and the restrictions in everyday life.
Parkinson’s affects many areas of life be it work, relationships, family or leisure activities. Even if everyday life only changes slightly in the early stages of the disease, many people are worried about losing their independence and needing nursing care. But it’s often possible to lead a life that’s not restricted too much by the disease for a long time. It’s still a good idea to be prepared for a time when you will need more help, though.
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How Do I Prevent Falls From Common Hazards
- Floors: Remove all loose wires, cords, and throw rugs. Minimize clutter. Make sure rugs are anchored and smooth. Keep furniture in its usual place.
- Bathroom: Install grab bars and non-skid tape in the tub or shower. Use non-skid bath mats on the floor or install wall-to-wall carpeting.
- Lighting: Make sure halls, stairways, and entrances are well-lit. Install a night light in your bathroom or hallway and staircase. Turn lights on if you get up in the middle of the night. Make sure lamps or light switches are within reach of the bed if you have to get up during the night.
- Kitchen: Install non-skid rubber mats near the sink and stove. Clean spills immediately.
- Stairs: Make sure treads, rails, and rugs are secure. Install a rail on both sides of the stairs. If stairs are a threat, it might be helpful to arrange most of your activities on the lower level to reduce the number of times you must climb the stairs.
- Entrances and doorways: Install metal handles on the walls adjacent to the doorknobs of all doors to make it more secure as you travel through the doorway.
Newly Diagnosed: Living Your Best Life With Parkinsons
A Parkinsons disease diagnosis is life-changing, but it doesnt have to keep you from living your best life. If you are newly diagnosed, you are not alone. The Parkinsons Foundation is here to assist and empower you at every stage to ensure you continue living well.
This article is based on a Parkinsons Foundation Expert Briefings webinar Newly Diagnosed: Living Your Best Life with Parkinsons” by Jenna Iseringhausen BSN, RN, Marlene and Paolo Fresco Institute for Parkinson’s and Movement Disorders, NYU Langone Medical Center, a Parkinsons Foundation Center of Excellence.
How Parkinsons is Diagnosed
There is no specific test for Parkinsons disease. Doctors look at a persons symptoms and history, and may use various tests to make a diagnosis. A person must have two of these main movement or motor symptoms to be considered for a PD diagnosis:
- Slowness of movement, known as bradykinesia
- Stiffness, or rigidity
- Tremor or shaking
Just as each person with PD is unique, so is each persons Parkinsons disease experience. Possible non-movement symptoms can include:
- Speech and memory changes
The Weight of Change
For some, a PD diagnosis is a relief an explanation for ongoing changes or symptoms. For others, it can take an emotional toll, both on the person with Parkinsons and their loved ones.
When youre ready, the Parkinsons Foundation recommends 5 steps you can take throughout your journey to support optimal living.
1. Set and Prioritize Goals
2. Talk About It
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What Causes Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons disease occurs when nerve cells in an area of the brain called the substantia nigra become impaired or die. These cells normally produce dopamine, a chemical that helps the cells of the brain communicate . When these nerve cells become impaired or die, they produce less dopamine. Dopamine is especially important for the operation of another area of the brain called the basal ganglia. This area of the brain is responsible for organizing the brains commands for body movement. The loss of dopamine causes the movement symptoms seen in people with Parkinsons disease.
People with Parkinsons disease also lose another neurotransmitter called norepinephrine. This chemical is needed for proper functioning of the sympathetic nervous system. This system controls some of the bodys autonomic functions such as digestion, heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. Loss of norepinephrine causes some of the non-movement-related symptoms of Parkinsons disease.
Scientists arent sure what causes the neurons that produce these neurotransmitter chemicals to die.
Power Of Attorney And Advance Health Care Directive
It might be possible to make your own decisions until the end of your life despite having Parkinson’s. But its possible that the effects of the disease will keep you from doing so, partially or entirely. That’s why its usually a good idea to already draw up a power of attorney or advance health care directive in the early stages.
An advance health care directive determines what medical care you want to be given in the event that youre no longer able to make your opinion known. In Germany, you can appoint someone to take care of important matters if youre no longer capable of doing so yourself . Your doctor can give you advice on this. The German-language topic website of the German Federal Ministry of Justice provides basic information on these issues in Germany. This website also links to free downloads of templates and brochures.
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Parkinson’s Disease Diet And Nutrition
Maintaining Your Weight With Parkinson’s Disease
Malnutrition and weight maintenance is often an issue for people with Parkinson’s disease. Here are some tips to help you maintain a healthy weight.
- Weigh yourself once or twice a week, unless your doctor recommends weighing yourself often. If you are taking diuretics or steroids, such as prednisone, you should weigh yourself daily.
- If you have an unexplained weight gain or loss , contact your doctor. He or she may want to modify your food or fluid intake to help manage your condition.
- Avoid low-fat or low-calorie products. . Use whole milk, whole milk cheese, and yogurt.
How Is Age Related To Pdd
Both PD and PDD are more common with increasing age. Most people with PD start having movement symptoms between ages 50 and 85, although some people have shown signs earlier. Up to 80% of people with PD eventually develop dementia. The average time from onset of movement problems to the development of dementia is about 10 years.
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How Is Parkinson Disease Treated
Parkinson disease can’t be cured. But there are different therapies that can help control symptoms. Many of the medicines used to treat Parkinson disease help to offset the loss of the chemical dopamine in the brain. Most of these medicines help manage symptoms quite successfully.
A procedure called deep brain stimulation may also be used to treat Parkinson disease. It sends electrical impulses into the brain to help control tremors and twitching movements. Some people may need surgery to manage Parkinson disease symptoms. Surgery may involve destroying small areas of brain tissue responsible for the symptoms. However, these surgeries are rarely done since deep brain stimulation is now available.
Are There Medicines To Treat Pdd
Though there is no cure for PDD yet, there are medications that help manage the symptoms. These medications are called cholinesterase inhibitors, and they can help if a person with PDD is having memory problems. Some examples of these medicines are donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine. Sleep problems may be managed by sleep medications such as melatonin.
Because people with PDD are usually very sensitive to medications, any new medication, even one that is not being used for the brain, needs to be reviewed with the persons provider to avoid potential contraindication.
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Dealing With The Diagnosis
Parkinson’s only becomes noticeable gradually. Many people don’t notice any symptoms for a long time or put them down to other things, like the normal aging process. Sometimes friends or relatives are the first to realize that something is not right. Several years can pass before Parkinson’s is diagnosed, and people already live with the symptoms and restrictions during that time.
Like with many other serious illnesses, the often comes as a shock at first. It can also be a relief to finally have an explanation of the symptoms and to be able to start treatment. It’s usually possible to treat the symptoms effectively in the early stages. There is generally enough time to mentally prepare for how the disease will develop and think about how to deal with the later consequences of Parkinson’s. It usually takes years until people’s independence is severely restricted.
Fears about the future are completely normal but you should still try to not let them overwhelm you. It’s important to take everything one step at a time. That includes making sure you’re well informed about the disease and have good doctors. The latter is particularly important. Treatment is generally provided by a neurologist.
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Average Life Expectancy For Seniors With Parkinsons
On average, a person with Parkinsons disease dies at the age of 81, which is equal to national life expectancy rates. Depending on age and location, overall life expectancy is somewhere between the ages of 78 and 81. However, overall life expectancy rates are skewed a little by the fact that more young people engage in risky behavior that can cause earlier death. Those who manage to survive to the age of 65 actually have a longer life expectancy84 to 86 yearswhich means seniors with Parkinsons have a slightly shorter life span than other seniors, but they still have a fairly normal life span when compared to the general population.
How Can We Manage Hallucinations
It may not be necessary to treat all hallucinations of a person with PDD. Hallucinations are often harmless, and it is okay to allow them to happen, as long as they are not disruptive or upsetting to the person or surroundings. Sometimes, recognizing the hallucination and then switching the topic might be an efficient way of handling frustrations that occur because of a hallucination. If hallucinations need medical treatment, your provider may be able to discuss and suggest some options. However, many of the medications used to treat hallucinations may make movement symptoms worse.
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Parkinsons Disease Is A Progressive Disorder
Parkinsons Disease is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects movement and, in some cases, cognition. Individuals with PD may have a slightly shorter life span compared to healthy individuals of the same age group. According to the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research, patients usually begin developing Parkinsons symptoms around age 60. Many people with PD live between 10 and 20 years after being diagnosed. However, a patients age and general health status factor into the accuracy of this estimate.
While there is no cure for Parkinsons disease, many patients are only mildly affected and need no treatment for several years after their initial diagnosis. However, PD is both chronic, meaning it persists over a long period of time, and progressive, meaning its symptoms grow worse over time. This progression occurs more quickly in some people than in others.
Pharmaceutical and surgical interventions can help manage some of the symptoms, like bradykinesia , rigidity or tremor , but not much can be done to slow the overall progression of the disease. Over time, shaking, which affects most PD patients, may begin to interfere with daily activities and ones quality of life.