Models Of Tbi And Their Application In Pd Research
While no single animal model of TBI will ever recapitulate all features of human TBI, each of the models discussed below can answer specific questions about aspects of human TBI.
Certain mechanistic questions can be best addressed with primary or model neurons in culture. One such method involves growing neuronal cells on a silastic membrane that is then stretched using compressed gas mimicking torsional stress experience by neurons during TBI. This biaxial stretch injury model has been adopted for use in a variety of immortalized and primary cells and has led to a better understanding of primary astrocyte and immortalize neuron cell specific responses to injury . In both studies, cell injury controllers were used to deliver a stretch injury to a monoculture of cells on a silastic membrane. The in vitro studies show that cellular responses are quantifiable and track with severity of injury in both astrocytes and immortalized neuronal cells.
Table 1 Rodent TBI injury models. Controlled cortical impact , Fluid percussion injury , Penetrating ballistic brain injury , and closed head injury weight drop are the most commonly used injury methods
Tbi And Alzheimers Disease
The relationship between traumatic brain injury and Alzheimers continues to be studied. To date, studies indicate that moderate to severe traumatic brain injury shortens the period before the disease would have otherwise developed in patients who are predisposed to this condition. Some studies also show that there might be a link between TBI and the development of Alzheimers in general.
Symptoms Of Parkinson’s Disease
These common symptoms of Parkinson’s disease often begin gradually and progress over time:
- Shaking or tremor
- Poor posture
- Slowing of body movements
As the disease continues to progress, additional symptoms can occur such as slurred or soft speech, trouble chewing and/or swallowing, memory loss, constipation, trouble sleeping, loss of bladder control, anxiety, depression, inability to regulate body temperature, sexual dysfunction, decreased ability to smell, restless legs and muscle cramps.
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What Is Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s is a neurodegenerative disease in which your brain cells that produce dopamine start to die, which causes you to gradually lose muscle control. No matter your age, Parkinsons can seem like a scary thing, but thankfully, with the right care, the symptoms of Parkinsons can be manageable.
How Can Serious Head Trauma Affect The Brain Development
Children who suffer a severe brain injury may lose some function in muscle, speech, vision, hearing, or taste. This depends on the area where the brain is damaged. Long- or short-term changes in personality or behavior may also occur. These children need lifelong medical and rehabilitative treatment.
When To Seek Medical Care For Dementia
Any of the symptoms and signs described in the symptoms section warrants a visit to the personâs health care provider. This is true regardless of whether the person has a known head injury. Be sure the health care provider knows about any falls or accidents that could have involved even a mild head injury.
Other Therapy For Dementia After A Head Injury
Persons who are unable to prepare food or feed themselves are in danger of becoming malnourished. Their diets must be monitored to be sure that they are getting proper nutrition. Dementia patients who may have a poor gag reflex or difficulty swallowing may need special medical assistance for obtaining nutrition. Otherwise, no special dietary prescriptions or restrictions apply.
In general, the person should be as active as possible. In the early phases of rehabilitation, simple physical exercises and games may improve endurance and self-confidence. These activities should gradually increase in difficulty.
It may be necessary to change the surroundings to prevent falls and accidents that could cause repeat injuries. Often, guidance from an occupational therapist and physical therapist can be helpful for maintaining a safe and appropriate environment and level of activity.
People who play contact sports should not return to play until cleared by their health care provider. Even a mild head injury makes the brain more fragile. A second blow to the head, even a very slight one, could cause a person with a recent head injury to die of sudden brain swelling. This is called second injury syndrome.
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Knockout Head Injuries Linked To Parkinsons But Not Alzheimers
Massive new study turns up surprises on the long-term fallout of unconsciousness-causing brain injuries that occur early in life
There has long been debate about a link between serious blows to the head and the development of neurodegenerative diseases later in life. Research has made cases for and against a relationship between traumatic brain injuries and neurological ailments such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons and general dementia. Now the question is drawing ever more scrutiny as the alarming extent of these injuries becomes better knownand new research is finally casting some light on this murky and often quietly terrifying topic.
A large-scale analysis of three separate studies published this week in JAMA Neurology found no association between unconsciousness-causing traumatic brain injuries and Alzheimers disease or general dementiabut it did find a strong association between TBI and Parkinsons disease. I cant decide if the positive or negative findings are more surprising, says one of the studys investigators, physician and Alzheimers researcher Paul Crane at the University of Washington. The positive association his team found between Parkinsons and TBI was not entirely novel, but Crane says the magnitude of the link was unexpected. The researchers found the risk of Parkinsons rose threefold for people whose head injuries had caused them to go unconscious for more than an hour.
About Dr Dan Sperling
Dan Sperling, MD, DABR, is a board certified radiologist who is globally recognized as a leader in multiparametric MRI for the detection and diagnosis of a range of disease conditions. As Medical Director of the Sperling Prostate Center, Sperling Medical Group and Sperling Neurosurgery Associates, he and his team are on the leading edge of significant change in medical practice. He is the co-author of the new patient book Redefining Prostate Cancer, and is a contributing author on over 25 published studies. For more information, contact the Sperling Neurosurgery Associates.
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Physical And Mental Rest
After you address any build up of spinal fluid, doctors will suggest physical and mental rest after a concussion.
For several days, avoid unnecessary physical activities. After that, avoid any activities that exacerbate your symptoms.
For a few days, avoid any activities that involve a lot of thinking or concentration:
- Watching TV
How Common Are Concussions
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that almost three million adults and children in the United States suffer a concussion each year. Each day, an average of 150 Americans die of traumatic brain injury.
How does a concussion happen? The main causes of a concussion are head injuries from car accidents, falls, and sports-related concussions.
There are long-term effects of concussions in football. Football players are especially vulnerable to severe or mild traumatic brain injury.
Since it is a contact sport, football is a risk factor for long-term concussion symptoms. The NFL has been slow to admit the link between playing football and sports concussions. However, researchers have concluded there is indeed a link.
But American football is not the only dangerous sport. There are a few sports where a higher percentage of athletes suffer concussions:
- Mens ice hockey
- Womens ice hockey
- Womens soccer
The long-term effects of multiple concussions can be even worse. The more often you are concussed, the more likely these symptoms of concussions will occur.
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Exams And Tests For Dementia After A Head Injury
In most cases, the appearance of dementia symptoms is clearly linked to a known head injury. The health care provider will ask for a detailed account of the onset of symptoms. This account should include the following:
- The exact nature of any injury and how it happened, if known
- Medical attention received in the period immediately after the injury
- The personâs state since the injury
- Any prescription or over-the-counter medications, or illicit drugs, the person may be taking
- A description of all symptoms and their timing and severity
- An account of all treatment undergone since the injury
- Whether any legal action is pending or under consideration
The medical interview will ask for details of all medical problems now and in the past, all medications and other therapies, family medical history, work history, and habits and lifestyle. In most cases, a parent, spouse, adult child, or other close relative or friend should be available to provide information that the injured person cannot provide.At any time in this evaluation process, the primary health care provider may refer the injured person to a neurologist .
A thorough physical exam will be done to identify neurological and cognitive problems, problems in mental or social function, and unusual appearance, behavior, or mood.Many health care providers refer head-injured persons for neuropsychological testing. This is the most reliable way to document cognitive impairments following a head injury.
Other tests for head injury
Parkinsonian Syndrome Or Secondary Parkinsons
Parkinsonian syndrome occurs secondary to some other disease or disorder, including brain tumors, drugs, toxins, encephalitis or head trauma. For example, brain damage sustained from repeated blows to the head or from certain drugs can damage the dopaminergic cells and lead to the symptoms of primary Parkinsons disease.
In particular, drugs that act on the dopamine system within the brain, including anti-psychotics, some antidepressants, calcium channel blockers, the anti-arrhythmic drug amiodarone as well as many illicit drugs can all induce Parkinsonism over time.
The good news is that no matter the cause of Parkinsons disease and symptoms, the underlying neurotransmitter deficit can be overcome using the proper blend of amino acids and co-factors to restore optimal neurotransmitter function utilizing the neurons that have not yet been destroyed.
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Blunt Force Trauma To The Head
Any blow to the head inflicted with a blunt object or surface that does not penetrate the skull can cause blunt force head trauma. A blunt object is anything that does not have sharp ages. For example, hammers, fists, steering wheel, flashlights, batons, walls and so on can be considered as blunt objects. The opposite of blunt force head trauma is penetrating trauma which is an injury caused by abrupt and direct force with a sharp object that pierces and enters the tissue.
People usually suffer blunt force head trauma because of sports injuries, physical assaults and falls. But motor vehicle accidents are the most common cause according to the National Institutes of Health.
Symptoms Of Dementia In Head Injury
Dementia-related symptoms in head injury include those that affect thinking and concentration, memory, communication, personality, interactions with others, mood, and behavior.Individuals experience different combinations of these symptoms depending on the part of the head injured, the force of the blow, the damage caused, and the personâs personality before the injury. Some symptoms appear rapidly, while others develop more slowly. In most cases, symptoms have at least started to appear in the first month after the injury.
Symptoms of dementia in people with head injuries include:
- Vague, nonspecific physical symptoms
Some people develop seizures after a head injury. These are not part of the dementia, but they can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of dementia.
Major mental disorders may develop after head injury. Two or more of these may appear together in the same person:
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Medications For Dementia After A Head Injury
There are no medications formally approved by the FDA specifically to treat dementia in people who have sustained a traumatic brain injury. Persons with a head injury may require medication to treat symptoms such as depression, mania, psychosis, impulsivity-aggression, irritability, mood swings, insomnia, apathy, or impaired concentration. Headaches may also get better with drug treatment.
Drugs used to treat such symptoms are called psychotropic or psychoactive drugs. Doctors do not fully understand how exactly they work, but it is thought that they help to dampen down the activity of brain areas where there is too much excitation and help regulate the activity of brain regions involved in thinking, behavior, mood regulation and impulse control. Head-injured persons are more sensitive to drug side effects. Doses and schedules may require frequent adjustment until the best regimen is found.
Most people with dementia due to head injury are treated with the same drugs used to treat dementia caused by other diseases. In many cases, these drugs have not been specifically tested in persons with head injury. There are no established guidelines on psychotropic drug treatment after head injury.
Antidepressants after a head injury
These drugs are used to treat depressive symptoms due to head injury.
Dopamine enhancers may interact with antidepressants to improve mood swings.
How The Brain Works
The brain is the powerhouse of the body, even though it only makes up two per cent of the bodys weight. This soft, jelly-like organ has countless billions of neural cross-connections. It functions using a combination of electrical and chemical means. The brain oversees the workings of the body, and gives us consciousness and personality. It is divided into two halves the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere. Each hemisphere is further subdivided into lobes. Different functions happen in different parts of the brain, which is suspended in a chemical soup called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid nourishes the brain and serves as a shock absorber. The brain is connected to the rest of the body through the spinal cord. Together, the brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system.
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Tbi And Parkinsons Disease
To date, research does not show a correlation between one single traumatic brain injury and the development of Parkinsons disease. However, there is a link between repeated blows to the head, such as those sustained in boxing and in other sports, and the risk of developing Parkinsons. In addition, patients with Parkinsons show an aggravation of symptoms following brain injury.
Effective Treatments For Concussions
Proven treatments for concussions include upper cervical care, mental/physical rest, exercise therapy, dietary changes, and all-natural painkillers.
Treating symptoms is a short-term solution to immediate pain, but it is important to correct any damage caused by your concussions to prevent lasting effects.
Well cover the most effective treatments for concussions, as well as some all-natural painkillers to relieve your pain in the moment.
Ali Was And Is An Inspiration For Those Dealing With Parkinsons Disease
Ali lived for almost half of his life with Parkinsons disease. He showed the millions of people who have this disease worldwide that there is life after a Parkinsons diagnosis. Not just life, but love.
Although Ali received an early diagnosis of Parkinsons disease at the age of 42, he didnt allow it to derail his life. He went on to marry his fourth and final wife, Lonnie, in 1986. Lonnie was his most ardent fan and faithful caregiver. The couple also adopted a son.
Ali continued to travel the world, this time as an ambassador of hope and human optimism.
Treatment For Dementia After A Head Injury
The head-injured person who has become demented will benefit from any of the following:
- Family or network intervention
- Social services
One goal of these interventions is to help the head-injured person adapt to their injury cognitively and emotionally. Another is to help the person master skills and behaviors that will help them reach personal goals. These interventions also help family members learn ways that they can help the head-injured person and themselves cope with the challenges a head injury poses.These interventions can be especially important in establishing realistic expectations for outcome and pace of improvement.
Behavior modification has been shown to be very helpful in rehabilitation of brain-injured persons. These techniques may be used to discourage impulsive, aggressive, or socially inappropriate behaviors. They also help counteract the apathy and withdrawal common in head-injured persons.
- Behavior modification rewards desired behaviors and discourages undesirable behaviors by withdrawing rewards. The goals and rewards are, of course, tailored to each individual. The family usually becomes involved to help reinforce the desired behaviors.
- Persons who have insomnia or other sleep disturbances are taught “sleep hygiene.” This instills daytime and bedtime habits that promote restful sleep. Sleeping pills are generally avoided in persons with head injury, who are more sensitive to the side effects of these drugs.
Parkinsons Disease Or Primary Parkinsons
This is the most common form of the disorder and what most people think about when they hear the term Parkinsons. Current medical practices typically classify Parkinsons disease as idiopathic, which means without a cause or something that arises spontaneously. However, there have been several genes that have been identified recently that has led to two distinct classifications of Parkinsons disease: that of genetic origin, known as familial Parkinsons disease, and that which rises independently of genetic predisposition, known as sporadic Parkinsons disease.
Contrary to the belief that Parkinsons disease has no identifiable cause, research indicates that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, pesticide exposure and improper detoxification are all linked with the death of dopaminergic neurons which can lead to Parkinsons disease.
Looking To The Future
A mild concussion can be treated with rest or exercise. All concussions should be followed up with chiropractic care and lifestyle changes.
If you or a loved one are experiencing these post-concussion symptoms, seek medical attention right away. The sooner your concussion is treated, the more likely you will avoid the long term effects of concussions.
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