Wednesday, December 7, 2022
Wednesday, December 7, 2022
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Parkinson’s And Multiple Sclerosis

How Do Treatments Differ

Multiple Scelerosis

MS treatments can ease your symptoms during an attack or slow down the diseaseâs effects on your body.

Steroids like prednisone calm the inflammation that damages your nerves.

Plasma exchange is another therapy if steroids donât work. Your doctor will use a machine to remove the plasma portion of your blood. The plasma gets mixed with a protein solution and put back into your body.

Some people with both diseases who take anti-inflammatory medicines like steroids see their Parkinsonâs symptoms get better.

Disease-modifying treatments slow down MS nerve damage and disability. They include:

Medications to treat Parkinsonâs either raise your dopamine levels or offer a substitute. They can ease Parkinsonâs symptoms like tremors. Over time, they may become less effective.

Medicines used to treat Parkinsonâs include:

Deep-brain stimulation is another treatment for Parkinsonâs. A doctor places electrodes into your brain. They send out electric pulses that ease symptoms in your body.

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What Is Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a progressive and debilitating disease of the central nervous system that disables the communication between the brain and other parts of the body. It involves an immune-mediated process in which an abnormal response of the bodys immune system is directed against the central nervous system.

Within the central nervous system , the immune system causes inflammation that damages myelinthe fatty substance that surrounds and insulates the nerve fibersas well as the nerve fibers themselves, and even the specialized cells that make myelin. When the nerve fibers are destroyed, messages within the CNS are altered or halted completely. Then, the damaged areas produce neurological symptoms that can vary among people in type and severity. These areas develop scar tissue, giving the disease its namemultiple areas of scarring or multiple sclerosis.

What Life Balance Classes Are

Life Balance is a specialist exercise scheme for people with multiple sclerosis and Parkinsons.

The sessions are run by qualified exercise referral instructors who have done specialist multiple sclerosis and Parkinsons disease training.

The group classes are every week and include circuit activity in a studio, adapted to each individuals needs. Doing the classes in a group means you share similar experiences with other participants and benefit from doing similar activities.

The scheme is in partnership with the MS Society, Parkinsons Society, Everyone Active Ltd and Parkwood Leisure.

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Group Characteristics And Adherence

Fifteen people with MS, 16 age-match MS-Ctl, 16 people with PD , III , and IV ), and 15 age-matched PD-Ctl participated in the study. Table shows the demographics and activity characteristics of subjects who participated in this study. Age, height, and weight were similar between the MS and MS-Ctl and between the PD and PD-Ctl groups. Adherence to the weekly recordings for each subject group was similar with 60.19±11.02 hours in MS, 64.15±9.59 h in MS-Ctl, 67.66±12.53 h in PD, and 64.67±10.13 h in PD-Ctl of daily life data. The histogram in Fig. illustrates the number of strides in each bout during daily life, and it is evident that the stride range in a bout considered for the analysis in this study captures the major portion of participants daily activity.

Table 1 Demographics, adherence, and weekly activity of each group

Common Misdiagnosis: Multiple Sclerosis

New technology to treat Parkinson

One of the most common answers to the question was multiple sclerosis . Both diagnoses have an effect on the central nervous system. These diagnoses also frequently cause muscle spasms, balance changes, tremor, and impaired memory. However, these are two separate diagnoses.

One difference is that MS is often diagnosed when someone is in their 20s, while most people receive a PD diagnosis in their 60s. Also, MS is an autoimmune disease that over time causes nerve damage. Parkinsons affects the brain. The brain starts producing less and less dopamine, which is responsible for controlling movement.

Yes, with MS which I was worried about for years, but right now I do not know which one is worse. However, my meds are helping a lot. My new saying is It is what it is, aka just live on. My neurologist says that I have stage one mild Parkinsons disease.

My husband was diagnosed with MS back in 1993 when he had a mini stroke. He was diagnosed with Parkinsons in 2014.

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Critical Appraisal Of Primary Studies

As presented in Additional file , a variety of different critical appraisal instruments were used to assess the methodological quality of included primary studies. The methodological quality of primary studies was varied and was noted as a limitation in the majority of included systematic reviews. A detailed summary of the critical appraisal of the primary studies is outlined in Additional file .

What Makes Them Different

MS and Parkinsonâs have different causes. They usually start to affect you at different ages, too.

MS often affects people between ages 20 and 50, but children get it, too. Parkinsonâs usually starts at age 60 or older, but some younger adults get it.

MS is an autoimmune disease. That means your bodyâs immune system goes haywire for some reason. It attacks and destroys myelin. As myelin breaks down, your nerves and nerve fibers get frayed.

In Parkinsonâs, certain brain cells start to die off. Your brain makes less and less of a chemical called dopamine that helps control your movement. As your levels dip, you lose more of this control.

Some genes may put you at risk for Parkinsonâs, especially as you age. Thereâs a small chance that people who are exposed to toxic chemicals like pesticides or weed killers can get it, too.

These symptoms are more common if you have MS. They are not usually found in Parkinsonâs:

  • Dizziness or vertigo, where you feel like the room spins around and you lose your balance

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Parkinson’s Disease And Multiple Sclerosis: Conditions And Differences

Its important to note that, while both Parkinsons and multiple sclerosis are diseases of the CNS, they dont originate in the same way. MS is an autoimmune disease, brought on by the immune system attacking myelin, the protective coating over the nerves in the CNS that also speeds up signals. This affects mainly the brain and spinal cord, though it can also affect the optic nerve as well. In Parkinsons disease, the neurons in the brain die off without any known attack, with the lack of dopamine they produce leading to the onset of the disease. This doesnt affect nerves in the spinal cord.

Other notable differences include:

Different Pathologies Are Associated With Different Postural Sway Behavior Under Increasingly Complex Conditions

Neurological Disorders: Parkinson’s, MS, MG, ALS

Our study shows clear differences in postural adaptation strategies between PD and MS patients. PD patients do not seem to adapt more to increasingly difficult static balance tasks than the healthy adults, although PD patients have lower postural stability and increased fall risk compared to age-matched healthy adults . It could be that the PD patients are not able to adapt their sway much because of their bradykinesia and rigidity. However, it is also known that rigidity can increase postural sway by preventing the use of flexible responses and thereby aggravating the deterioration of postural reflexes . MS patients increased their sway a lot, especially area, acceleration and jerk, when adapting to the most complex task. It is known that more than 80% of the MS patients have spasticity and that spasticity has a negative effect on postural stability . When we consider the results of our study and those of another study together, it seems likely that MS patients have substantial sway problems especially when the base of support is narrow , such as during the tandem stance. A timed 3 m tandem walk was also significantly better in separating asymptomatic and symptomatic MS patients compared to a timed 25-foot walk .

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Comparison Of Static Sway Adaptations With Increasing Task Complexity Between Pd And Ms Patients

Clear differences in adaptations to increasingly complex stance tasks between PD and MS patients were observed . PD patients showed gradual increases in sway parameters from the least to the most complex stance task. MS patients showed a tendency toward smaller values compared to the healthy adults in sway parameters from the side-by-side stance to the semi-tandem stance, except for velocity. Velocity in MS patients was relatively low during side-by-side stance, compared to the other groups and showed small increases from the side-by-side stance to the semi-tandem stance. MS patients showed large increases in sway between the semi-tandem and tandem stance. This increase was for the area and jerk in ML direction even more than two times the values of the side-by-side stance .

Figure 4. Visual presentation of the intra-group changes of respective static sway parameters. The left part of each graph shows the absolute values for side-by-side stance . The middle and right part of each graph show the age-corrected differences relative to the healthy adults between SbS and semi-tandem stance and between ST and tandem stance for the Parkinson patients and multiple sclerosis patients . The horizontal lines indicate the change in sway for the healthy adults between the tasks . sway area, velocity in antero-posterior direction, velocity in medio-lateral direction, acceleration in AP direction, acceleration in ML direction, jerk in AP direction and jerk in ML direction.

Causes And Risk Factors

The causes of Parkinsons disease are multifactorial and still not entirely agreed upon. Researchers now know that both genetic factors and certain environmental/lifestyle habits contribute to Parkinsons development. While the exact combination of factors causing Parkinsons disease have yet to be proved definitively, a few theories show strong validity.

Factors that contribute to Parkinsons disease include:

  • Genetics: Recently theres been some major advances in the field of cognitive disorders, including identifying several genes that put someone at a great risk for disorders like Parkinsons, as well as locating regions of the brain involved in age-related cognitive decline.
  • Brain cell deterioration and inflammation: The latest research suggests that deterioration of an area of the brain called the substantia nigra plays a role in cognitive disorders, including Parkinsons. The substantia nigra normally produces brain cells that are responsible for neurotransmitter production, including making the chemical dopamine, which is crucial for learning, muscle control, memory and behavior regulation.
  • Toxicity and exposure to chemicals
  • Poor diet and unhealthy lifestyle
  • Hormonal imbalances and other medical conditions

Research shows that risk factors for Parkinsons disease can include:

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Multicomponent And Multifactorial Interventions

Multicomponent interventions were investigated for people with MS and PD in one systematic review each . No significant effect of multicomponent interventions was identified for people with MS or PD on number of fallers. However, there was moderate evidence identified for the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention comprising of physiotherapy and falls-self management education at reducing falls rate among people with PD .

Two systematic reviews for people with stroke included a multifactorial intervention , however, this intervention was primarily comprised of exercises and so was included in the analyses for exercise-based interventions in these reviews.

How The Classes Can Help

Parkinson

The classes can

  • improve fitness and function in mild MS
  • maintain function for people with moderate to severe disability
  • help people with significant disability with walking and other mobility related activities

Youll get the most benefit from classes if you attend weekly. If you are ill you can make up a missed session.

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The Importance Of Establishing Parkinsons Prevalence Numbers

Parkinsons Prevalence estimates will help the Parkinsons Foundation attract the attention of federal and state government as well as the pharmaceutical industry to the growing need and urgency in addressing PD. This is an important first step to better understanding who develops PD and why.

The next phase of this study will be to determine the rate of PD diagnosis or incidence, how that has changed over time and what is the rate of mortality among those affected by PD. Determining the prevalence and incidence will allow the PD community to effectively advocate for additional money and resources necessary to support Parkinsons research.

Parkinsons Foundation Prevalence Project numbers highlight the growing importance of optimizing expert Parkinsons care and treatment for people with Parkinsons, which would help future caregivers and ease the strain on health and elder care systems.

By supporting this study, the Foundation works to better understand Parkinsons with the goal of solving this disease. Establishing these numbers and using them to educate PD communities and influence legislation will help the foundation provide tailored resources, outreach and advocacy to the underserved PD populations across the nation. The entire published study is available in the Parkinsons Foundation scientific journal, npj Parkinsons Disease.

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Summary Parkinsons Vs Myasthenia Gravis

Parkinsons and myasthenia gravis are neurological disorders that have a very deteriorating impact on the quality of life of the patient. The main difference between Parkinsons and myasthenia gravis is their autoimmune component.

Reference:

1. Kumar, Parveen J., and Michael L. Clark. Kumar & Clark clinical medicine. Edinburgh: W.B. Saunders, 2009.

Image courtesy:

1. Sir William Richard Gowers Parkinson Disease sketch 1886 2 By Sir_William_Richard_Gowers_Parkinson_Disease_sketch_1886.jpg:derivative work: Malyszkz Sir_William_Richard_Gowers_Parkinson_Disease_sketch_1886.jpg via Commons Wikimedia2. DiplopiaMG1 By James Heilman, MD Own work via Commons Wikimedia

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Iodine As An Alternative Treatment For Parkinsons And Lewy Body Dementia

A number of serious diseases tend to be more prevalent in certain geographical locations and many doctors believe that this is no coincidence. One of the main theories about why these diseases happen more frequently in certain areas of the United States than in others has to do with the lack of bulk and trace elements in the soil in those regions. This theory has led to the development of Disease Family Trees that have their roots in specific bulk or trace elements that are missing from the soils in certain areas of the world. One important Disease Family Tree has to do with iodine deficiency .

Iodine is an essential trace element that appears to be associated with many diseases and birth defects including:

Worldwide, iodine deficiency is the most common cause of goiter. This prevalent problem happens most often in people who live far inland, away from oceans which are the richest source of iodine . These areas of the world, where populations of people are living far away from oceans and iodine are called Goiter Belts because in these places, people tend to have a much higher than average rate of thyroid problems .

Studies on rats have demonstrated that iodine deficiencies can cause a reduction in brain weight, issues with myelin formation, neuronal maturation retardation, and diminished production of enzymes, proteins, and RNA .

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References:

Parkinsons Vs Multiple Sclerosis: How Are These Conditions Different

Neurological Disorders Quick Review, Parkinson’s, MS, MG, ALS NCLEX RN & LPN

Parkinson’s Disease and Multiple Sclerosis are two medical conditions that are frequently confused with each other since they are both progressive and have similar symptoms, but there are some significant differences between the two.

Here we will discuss the difference and similarities between the two.

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Instrumentation And Data Analysis

Postural sway was measured using an IMU worn on the lower back. The parameters were extracted from the acceleration data as described and validated in another study . An explanation of the parameters can be found in Table 1. The acceleration, velocity and jerk parameters were calculated in both AP and ML direction.

Table 1. Description of the parameters used in this study.

Loss Of Balance Trends In Patients With Multiple Sclerosis And Parkinson Disease

A loss of balance rating scale following manual perturbations was found to be reliable and reproducible among patients with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson disease, according to study findings published in NeuroRehabilitation.

Both multiple sclerosis and Parkinson disease are associated with balance dysfunction. However, it remains unclear whether these patients have similar or differential LOB reactions to everyday types of perturbations. To increase knowledge about LOB in the MS and PD context, researchers sought to systematically classify LOB trends among these populations.

Among a group of 10 healthy volunteers, physical therapists systematically applied manual perturbations in videotaped sessions and rated LOB using a Balance-Based Torso-Weighting assessment. Similar data collected for previous studies were rated using the same approach among healthy controls , patients with MS , and PD . LOB scores were between zero and three . LOB total scores were the sum of scores from 12 manual perturbations.

The reliability of scores across five to six reviewers had intra-class correlation coefficients between 0.56 and 0.77 and percent agreements between 81% and 94%.

For anterior versus posterior perturbations, the magnitude and prevalence were significant among groups and types of perturbations . Control individuals and patients with MS had more severe LOB when they were nudged backward. The patients with PD had more severe LOB when they were nudged forward.

Reference

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The Diseases And Your Nerve Cells

“Sclerosisâ comes from the Greek word for âscar.â Both ALS and MS cause scarring of the covering of nerve fibers. But the process of how that happens is different for each.

Nerve cells in your body are wrapped in thin coverings called myelin sheaths. They protect these cells, similar to how insulation protects electrical wires.

When you have MS, your body attacks the myelin sheaths in your brain and spinal cord.

When myelin sheaths are damaged, signals from your brain to other parts of your body get short-circuited.

ALS breaks down the actual nerve cells in your brain and spinal cord. These cells, called motor neurons, are in charge of the voluntary muscles in your arms, legs, face, and diaphragm for breathing.

You lose control of your motor functions, and as the motor neurons break down, the myelin sheaths harden.

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