Patient Selection And Diagnostic Criteria
We selected all PD patients registered in the RID program during the 6-year study period. The diagnostic criteria for PD established by the NHI in the RID program are similar to the UK PD society brain bank clinical diagnostic criteria, and are as follows: 1) diagnosis of Parkinsonian syndrome : mild or worse bradykinesia and at least one of the following: muscular rigidity, rest tremor, postural instability 2) the exclusion criteria for PD: history of strokes, head injury, definite encephalitis, drug side effects, and hypoxia 3) supportive prospective positive criteria for PD: three or more required for diagnosis of definite PD in combination with step one: unilateral onset, rest tremor present, progressive disorder, persistent asymmetry affecting the side of onset most, excellent response to levodopa, severe levodopa-induced chorea, levodopa response for 5years or more, clinical course of 10years or more.
The database did not contain any personal identifiers as all identifiable personal information in the database was removed to comply with the privacy rules of the health insurance portability and accountability act. Informed consent was not required for this study as all the data was obtained from medical records. This study was performed based on the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association. All procedural and ethical aspects of this study were approved by the Institutional Review Board of Korea University Ansan Hospital .
Causes Of Parkinsons Disease
At present, we do not know the cause of Parkinsons disease. In most people there is no family history of Parkinsons Researchers worldwide are investigating possible causes, including:
- environmental triggers, pesticides, toxins, chemicals
- genetic factors
- combinations of environment and genetic factors
- head trauma.
Parkinson’s Diagnoses Set To Increase By A Fifth By 2025
The number of people diagnosed and living with Parkinsons is increasing, according to our latest research.
We estimate that in 2018 around 145,000 people in the UK are diagnosed with the condition – thats around 1 in 350 adults in the UK. And Parkinsons diagnoses are set to rise by nearly a fifth by 2025.
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A Forecast Of Diagnosed Prevalent Cases
The horizontal bar chart below presents the diagnosed prevalent cases of PD in men and women ages 18 years and older in the 7MM in 2016 and 2026.
GlobalData epidemiologists forecast an increase in diagnosed prevalent cases of PD in the 7MM from approximately 2.3 million cases in 2016 to 2.9 million cases in 2026, with an approximate annual growth rate of 2.52% during the forecast period.
The US had the highest number of cases in 2016 with approximately 800,000 cases, while the UK had the lowest number of cases with approximately 100,000 cases.
Diagnosed prevalent cases of Parkinsons disease in 7MM countries, both sexes, ages 18 years and older, 2016 and 2026
Notes: 7MM = the US, 5EU and Japan. 5EU = France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK.
Number Of People With Parkinson’s
The number of people with Parkinson’s in New Zealand has been steadily increasing, from an estimated 7,000 in 2006 to 11,000 in 2020 . We project that the number of people in New Zealand with Parkinsons is expected to reach 22,000 by 2040. This is due to the ageing population, which puts more people into the highest risk age groups , and also due to people now living longer with the disease.
Figure 1: Number of people in New Zealand that have Parkinson’s.
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Rates Of Parkinsons Disease Are Exploding A Common Chemical May Be To Blame
Researchers believe a factor is a chemical used in drycleaning and household products such as shoe polishes and carpet cleaners in the US
Asked about the future of Parkinsons disease in the US, Dr Ray Dorsey says, Were on the tip of a very, very large iceberg.
Dorsey, a neurologist at the University of Rochester Medical Center and author of Ending Parkinsons Disease, believes a Parkinsons epidemic is on the horizon. Parkinsons is already the fastest-growing neurological disorder in the world in the US, the number of people with Parkinsons has increased 35% the last 10 years, says Dorsey, and We think over the next 25 years it will double again.
Most cases of Parkinsons disease are considered idiopathic they lack a clear cause. Yet researchers increasingly believe that one factor is environmental exposure to trichloroethylene , a chemical compound used in industrial degreasing, dry-cleaning and household products such as some shoe polishes and carpet cleaners.
To date, the clearest evidence around the risk of TCE to human health is derived from workers who are exposed to the chemical in the work-place. A 2008 peer-reviewed study in the Annals of Neurology, for example, found that TCE is a risk factor for parkinsonism. And a 2011 study echoed those results, finding a six-fold increase in the risk of developing Parkinsons in individuals exposed in the workplace to trichloroethylene .
Adrienne Matei is a freelance journalist
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The Importance Of Establishing Parkinsons Prevalence Numbers
Parkinsons Prevalence estimates will help the Parkinsons Foundation attract the attention of federal and state government as well as the pharmaceutical industry to the growing need and urgency in addressing PD. This is an important first step to better understanding who develops PD and why.
The next phase of this study will be to determine the rate of PD diagnosis or incidence, how that has changed over time and what is the rate of mortality among those affected by PD. Determining the prevalence and incidence will allow the PD community to effectively advocate for additional money and resources necessary to support Parkinsons research.
Parkinsons Foundation Prevalence Project numbers highlight the growing importance of optimizing expert Parkinsons care and treatment for people with Parkinsons, which would help future caregivers and ease the strain on health and elder care systems.
By supporting this study, the Foundation works to better understand Parkinsons with the goal of solving this disease. Establishing these numbers and using them to educate PD communities and influence legislation will help the foundation provide tailored resources, outreach and advocacy to the underserved PD populations across the nation. The entire published study is available in the Parkinsons Foundation scientific journal, npj Parkinsons Disease.
The Impact Of Parkinsons Disease On Overall Health
Based on the Blue Cross Blue Shield Health Index, the overall health of those affected by Parkinsons is significantly lower than the general population. In 2017, the average BCBS Health Index for someone aged 30-64 with Parkinsons was 57, compared to 88 for the entire commercially insured population in this age range. This translates to an average of 10.7 years of healthy life lost for those with the condition compared to 3.4 years for the 30-64 population as a whole.4
Caring for someone with Parkinsons Disease
The majority of Parkinsons patients are cared for by informal caregivers, such as a family member. The physical, mental and emotional work this requires can be significant. The Impact of Caregiving on Mental and Physical Health found that caregivers have 26% poorer health compared to a benchmark population, as measured by the BCBS Health Index. In addition, a national survey conducted by the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association found that 1 in 4 unpaid caregivers are feeling more stress trying to balance work and family due to COVID-19.5
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How Many Canadians Live With Parkinsonism And How Many Are Newly Diagnosed Each Year
Based on the latest estimates available , in 20132014, approximately 84,000 Canadians aged 40 years and older were living with diagnosed parkinsonism and 10,000 Canadians were newly diagnosed with this condition . The age-standardized prevalence was 1.5Footnote i times higher among males than among females , and similarly the age-standardized incidence was 1.7Footnote i times higher among males than females . The epidemiological burden of parkinsonism increases with age. In 20132014, when comparing estimates among Canadians aged 85 years and older vs. those aged 40-44 years, the prevalence of the condition was 169Footnote i times higher in the older age group , while the incidence was 48Footnote i times higher in the older age group .
Figure 1: Prevalence of diagnosed parkinsonism, including Parkinsons disease, by sex and age group, Canada, 20132014
Note: The 95% confidence interval shows an estimated range of values which is likely to include the true value 19 times out of 20. Data source: Public Health Agency of Canada, using Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System data files contributed by provinces and territories, July 2017.
What Is The Trend Over Time In The Prevalence And Incidence Of Parkinsonism In Canada
Between 20042005 and 20132014, the number of Canadians living with diagnosed parkinsonism increased from approximately 61,000 to 84,000, while the number of Canadians newly diagnosed increased from approximately 8,000 to 10,000. However, during the same period, there was no significant change in the age-standardized prevalence proportion, which remained at 0.4%, or the incidence rate, which went from 51.6 per 100,000 to 52.6 per 100,000. The sex differential also remained constant over time for both indicators .
Figure 3: Age-standardized prevalence and incidence of diagnosed parkinsonism, including Parkinsons disease, among Canadians aged 40 years and older, by sex, 20042005 to 20132014
Notes: Age-standardized estimates to the 2011 Canadian population. The 95% confidence interval shows an estimated range of values which is likely to include the true value 19 times out of 20. The 95% confidence intervals of the prevalence estimates are too small to be illustrated.Data source: Public Health Agency of Canada, using Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System data files contributed by provinces and territories, July 2017.
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Identification Of Parkinsons Disease Cases In The Health Improvement Network
Four case definitions with varying levels of stringency were developed to identify people with PD: A PD diagnosis Read code plus at least 2 antiparkinsonian drug prescriptions. This method of identification of people with PD is the strictest and has been validated in General Practice Research Database , another primary health care database and used in a previous study. a PD diagnosis Read code alone a PD diagnosis Read code OR Read code for parkinsonian symptom, secondary and unspecified parkinsonism a PD diagnosis Read code OR symptom Read code OR at least one antiparkinsonian drug prescription from 5 classes of antiparkinsonian medication: Levodopa-containing medications, Dopamine-receptor agonists, Amantadine, Monoamine-oxidase–B inhibitors-rasagiline and selegiline and Catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors . This is the broadest and most sensitive case definition. Read code lists for diagnosis and symptoms of Parkinsons disease and drug code list for antiparkinsonian medications were identified using developed methods .
Patients entered the cohort on the latest of: the start date of study period , acceptable mortality reporting date, acceptable computer usage date, 50th birthday or GP registration plus six months for our analysis on the incidence of PD. Patients exited the cohort on the earliest date of PD diagnosis, left the GP practice, died, last data recorded in THIN, or the study period ended .
Has Incidence Of Parkinson Disease Increased Over Past 30 Years
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Media Advisory: To contact corresponding study author Walter A. Rocca, M.D., M.P.H., call Susan Barber Lindquist at 507-284-5005 or email . To contact editorial writer Honglei Chen, M.D., Ph.D., call Robin Arnette at 919-541-5143 or email .
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A study of patients in a Minnesota county suggests the incidence of parkinsonism and Parkinson disease may have increased over the past 30 years but that trend may not be genuine and must be confirmed in other populations, according to an article published online by JAMA Neurology.
A previous study suggested smokers may have reduced risk of Parkinson disease and speculated the decline in smoking by men in the U.S. after a peak in the 1940s and 1950s could result in an increase in PD incidence decades later. That theory has not been tested empirically.
As a result, Walter A. Rocca, M.D., M.P.H., of the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., and coauthors studied time trends for parkinsonism and for PD in Olmsted County, Minn., from 1976 to 2005.
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Prevalence And Incidence Of Parkinson’s In New Zealand
The ageing population means that more people are likely to be afflicted with age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinsons and Alzheimers. Medicine has made huge strides in the last few decades in treating and preventing cardiac issues. With our resulting longer lives, concerns about our brain wearing out are beginning to replace fears of our heart stopping.
We have performed research into the numbers of people in New Zealand with Parkinsons for the period 2006 to 2020. This study was conducted by Drs Toni Pitcher and Daniel Myall using pharmacoepidemiology methods . Citations for the scientific publications of the research are listed at the bottom of the page as well as a link to github where the analysis code can be found.
Incidence Of Parkinsons Is Increasing
8 January 2018
The number of people diagnosed and living with Parkinsons is increasing, according to the latest research from Parkinsons UK. The estimated prevalence in 2018 is around 145,000 people in the UK. Thats around 1 in 350 adults in the UK. And this is expected to rise by nearly a fifth by 2025. The estimated incidence for 2018 is around 18,000.
Whats causing the increase?
The increase is due to a growing and ageing population. The Parkinsons UK analysis suggests that 1 in every 37 people will be diagnosed with Parkinsons in their lifetime.
We analysed medical records of a large sample of patients registered with UK GPs. This helped us estimate the number of people diagnosed with Parkinsons in the UK in 2018 and the number that are likely to be diagnosed in the future.
The growth in Parkinsons shown in the report is a huge challenge. It is now more urgent than ever that people affected by Parkinsons receive the support they need and new treatments and a cure are found.
The statistics also highlight the current need for further improvements in Parkinsons services, and for more professionals with the right expertise.
Parkinsons UK chief executive Steve Ford says:The number of people with Parkinsons is increasing. Our new figures show that on average, 50 people are diagnosed every day. Its more urgent than ever to find better treatments and a cure for this condition.
Where can I get more information?
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How Parkinson’s Affects Daily Life And Overall Health
Prescott states, “Since Parkinson’s Disease is a progressive neurological disease the impact to the person can be significant as they live with the disease. Parkinson’s Disease may cause both motor and non-motor symptoms. Motor symptoms may include tremors, slow movement, rigidity, and balance problems. People with Parkinson’s Disease often experience vocal symptoms such as soft tone to voice, loss of vocal tone and rapid speaking and stuttering. Non-motor symptoms can include cognitive decline, depression, anxiety, weight loss, fatigue, constipation, sleep disturbances and reduction in sexual desire . There are medications and surgical therapies that can support the person to live the highest quality life.”
Can We Turn The Tide
The study authors believe that the key to transforming this seemingly inevitable rise in Parkinsons disease is activism.
Stopping the production and use of certain chemicals that may increase the risk of Parkinsons is essential. As the authors write:
We have the means to prevent potentially millions from ever experiencing the debilitating effects of Parkinson disease.
Also crucial, as ever, is financial backing. More research is needed to understand why the condition appears and how it progresses, and this type of scientific investigation is never cheap.
In particular, scientists need to develop better medications. Currently, the most effective therapy is levodopa, which is 50 years old and not without its issues, including both psychological and physical side effects.
While this recent analysis is worrying, the authors leave the reader with some positivity, concluding that he Parkinson pandemic is preventable, not inevitable.
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Incidence And Prevalence Of Pd In The Norwegian Population Between 2005 And 2016
The crude incidence for PD between 2005 and 2016 was on average 23.1 for females and 29.6 for males, per 100,000 person-years. The prevalence for PD in the population was on average 0.2% of the females and 0.23% of the males in the general population, and 0.98% of the females and 1.35% of the males for the population > 65 years. For both sexes, the age-specific incidence and prevalence increased with age, peaking at the 7585 age group . However, while the male/female PD prevalence ratio remained ~1.5 across all age groups , the male/female incidence ratio changed with age, increasing by 1.2% for every year of life . Substantial variation in both incidence and prevalence was observed over the 20052016 observation period, for which the measures were calculated . There was no general time-trend in the incidence of PD during the observation period, though a significant decrease was observed among the 3059 age group . In contrast, PD prevalence significantly increased during the observation period in all age groups, with the exception of the 3059 group, for which only a trend for increased prevalence was observed . Interestingly, the yearly rise in PD prevalence increased with age, with the biggest differences observed for older populations .
Table 1 Age- and sex-adjusted PD incidence, prevalence, and mortality.