Wednesday, November 23, 2022
Wednesday, November 23, 2022
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What Is The Latest Medicine For Parkinson

Modern Life Is Harming Our Brains

New treatments for Parkinson’s disease

Too much stress and pressure. Poor sleep and diet. Smartphones. While modern life has many positives, it also brings bigger struggles and a heavier toll on our brains and mental health than ever before. Were undergoing a tsunami of anxiety and stress that is degrading and shortening our lives, making it one of the biggest challenges our society is facing. And this will only continue to get worse.As if that wasnt challenging enough, we also have brain aging starting from our early 20s, with your brain physically starting to shrink and brain networks dying. This makes it absolutely critical, now more than ever, to take care of your brain. That’s why Mendi was born.

Latest News In Parkinson Disease: Treatment Progress Cognition Improvements And More

An overview of the latest news in Parkinson disease reported across MJH Life Sciences.

An overview of the latest news in Parkinson disease reported across MJH Life Sciences.

FDA Approves Investigational NDA for Ketamine in Levodopa-Induced Dykinesia

As the gold standard of treatment for PD, levodopa effectively reduces parkinsonian symptoms, although long-term use has been linked with several adverse events. Chief among these, frequency of OFF time and abnormal involuntary movements, known as levodopa-induced dyskinesia , have been shown to significantly impact quality of life and treatment efficacy.

There are no approved treatments to address LID however, an article by NeurologyLive® indicates there may be some progress in addressing this issue. Last week, the FDA approved PharmaTher Holdings investigational new drug application for ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-modulating drug, in the treatment of LID in patients with PD.

A phase 2 clinical trial evaluating the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of ketamine compared with the active control treatment of midazolam is expected to begin patient enrollment in the third quarter of this year. Pending success, the manufacturer noted that it will seek an agreement with the FDA to proceed to a phase 3 clinical study next year.

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Parkinson’s: What Is It And What Are The Symptoms

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A new study has identified a drug candidate, which may help minimise dyskinesia. Dyskinesia are involuntary, erratic, movements of the face, arms and legs, Parkinsons Foundation reports. This isnt a symptom within itself but its a common complication associated with certain types of Parkinsons medication.

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What Is Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease is a progressive brain disorder that causes shaking and muscle stiffness, and slows movement. It develops when neurons in a particular part of the brain stop working properly and are lost over time. These neurons produce an important chemical called dopamine. Dopamine is used by the brain to send messages across brain areas to help control movement. Eventually, the brain cannot make enough dopamine to control the movement properly.1,2

Are There Different Types

The current treatments for Parkinson

There are different types of Parkinsonism. Parkinsonism is an umbrella term that is used to describe the collection of symptoms that people suffer with, when they have a disease in this umbrella. Parkinsonism can be drug-induced , which can be reversible. However, idiopathic , vascular and other types of Parkinsonism are irreversible.

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What We Know So Far

  • We’ve uncovered clues to the causes and genetic involvement in Parkinson’s.
  • We’re figuring out the chain of events that leads to the damage and loss of brain cells.
  • We’re working to advance new treatments and therapies.
  • We’re exploring repurposing drugs to help manage some of the more distressing symptoms, like hallucinations and falls.
  • And we know that, although people with Parkinson’s share symptoms, each person’s experience of the condition and response to treatment is different.

Now, the science is ready for us to develop the new treatments and cure that people with Parkinson’s so desperately need.

Research takes time. But we launched the Parkinson’s Virtual Biotech to speed up the most promising potential treatments. The more we can invest, the sooner we’ll get there.

Inhibition Of Monoamine Oxidase

ZNS is capable of inhibiting monoamine oxidase-B . Sonsalla et al. reported that ZNS regulates MAO-B activity, reversibly, with an IC50 of 25 M in vitro.

Previous studies have demonstrated that the metabolism of dopamine by MAO-B produces reactive oxygen species , which contribute to nigrostriatal degeneration . ZNS prevents the formation of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium , which is derived from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine via MAO-B, and thereby inhibits the oxidation of dopamine to hydrogen peroxide and the related neurotoxic effects .

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Searching To Control Symptoms: New Methods Of Delivery

In recent months, symptomatic treatment of PD has had some new developments as well. A new drug for PD, rotigotine, has been introduced in Europe and elsewhere as Neupro. This compound is a dopaminergic agonist, a class of drugs that also includes drugs that have been available for many years in the U.S., including Mirapex, Requip, and Permax . Neupro is unique in how it is delivered: it is absorbed through the skin and so has been marketed as a transdermal patch with continuous delivery over 24 hours. So far, experience with Neupro suggests that it is effective and well tolerated. However, whether this drug or its unique mode of delivery will offer a significant advantage over currently marketed medications of the same class still remains to be learned.

PD still presents many challenges for the medications of the future. Among the unmet needs are ways to reverse the problem of imbalance, especially falling backward. The flexed posture of PD, swallowing and speech difficulties, and situation-specific “freezing” are all challenges for improved drug therapy. Scientists have not yet determined where in the brain and what types of biochemical disturbance underlie these problems.

Side Effects Talk To Your Doctor Or Pharmacist

Will there be any effective treatments for Parkinson’s in my lifetime?

If you get side effects from your Parkinson’s medicines, tell your doctor or pharmacist. Common side effects include nausea , light-headedness, leg swelling and sleep problems. Also let them know if you think your medicines are causing confusion, hallucinations or involuntary movements. Some people have an unusual desire to gamble or engage in other obsessive behaviors. Your doctor may adjust the amount of medicine you take or you may be given another type. Do not stop taking your Parkinsons medicines until you are advised to do so.

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Advances In Deep Brain Stimulation

Deep brain stimulation is another established treatment for PD that is useful in treating dopamine-dependent motor symptoms when levodopa-induced side effects become particularly problematic. DBS involves the surgical implantation of electrodes that stimulate subcortical structures including the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus internus. DBS offers significant improvements in motor symptoms and fluctuations in comparison to best medical therapy in some advanced PD patients, but dopamine-resistant symptoms other than tremor respond poorly. It has also been suggested in an open-label trial that DBS is beneficial in early PD patients, with improved tremor scores and reduced development ofde novo tremor. In addition to surgical complications, DBS strategies may cause cognitive and neuropsychiatric adverse effects as well as speech dysfunction. Novel DBS approaches, including adaptive DBS, targeting different regions, and refined intra-operative imaging techniques promise to offer improved clinical applicability and reduce the impact of adverse effects.

Latest Treatments For Parkinsons Disease

Researchers still have much to learn about Parkinsons disease. As researchers continue to work hard in the fight against this disease, the lessons they learn may lead to new, innovative treatments.

Parkinsons disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra area of the brain, advises the Parkinsons Foundation. Even though the disease itself is not fatal, PD is a serious condition one which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention rates as the 14th most common cause of death in the United States due to the diseases related complications.

PD symptoms affect autonomous functions and the ability to move limbs. The Mayo Clinic notes that most people with PD may show little or no expression, speech may become slurred, arms may not swing when one walks, and stiffness and gait issues may become apparent. PD can affect balance and posture as well.

There is no cure for PD, but there are many different treatments that can slow its progress and reduce symptoms.

WebMD says new treatments for PD give individuals continued hope. Heres a look at some of the potential options.

Stem cell usagetem cells can turn into any type of cell, and there is hope that they can transform into the dopamine-producing neurons used to treat PD. But there is increased risk of involuntary movement from too much dopamine with this treatment. Stem cell therapy also may present ethical and moral issues with some patients.

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Taking A Closer Look At Your Options

Since the drug levodopa was synthesized in the 1960s, levodopa in combination with carbidopa , has been the gold standard for treating the symptoms of Parkinsons. However, after several years of taking this medication some people experience dyskinesias, or involuntary writhing movements. This is sometimes referred to as levodopa-induced dyskinesias or LIDS. The fear of these side effects has led many clinicians and patients to avoid levodopa-carbidopa for as long as possible.

But some experts do not believe this levodopa phobia is warranted . In short, they say that levodopa can be considered as a potential first-line therapy in all age groups—although caution should be exercised in younger patients. In most cases, the dosage will start low then increase slowly, often in combination with other medications, to adjust to a persons changing condition.

Other first-line medications that can be used to control Parkinsons symptoms include drugs known as dopamine agonists and monamine oxidase inhibitors. Dopamine agonists provide relief by mimicking the action of dopamine within the brain, and monamine oxidase inhibitors help maintain motor control by slowing the breakdown of dopamine within the brain. These drugs can help younger patients buy some time before starting levodopa-carbidopa.

Adenosine A2 Antagonist: Istradefylline

8 Common Treatments for Parkinson

A group of brain circuits called the basal ganglia play a role in causing PD symptoms. The basal ganglia have adenosine A2A receptors that are located next to dopamine receptors. Scientists believe that activating the dopamine receptor or blocking the adenosine A2 receptor can improve PD symptoms.

Istradefylline, an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist shows mild motor symptom fluctuation improvements. Approved for use in Japan, Istradefylline has also received U.S. FDA approval.

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Real Neurofeedback Finally For Home Use

Mendi lets you train and strengthen your brain, just like you train your body. By visualizing what your brain is doing in a mirror’, you can train it naturally and effectively. Weve taken the best from exclusive brain training clinics which cost $100+ per session, improved it, and made it accessible to you. So you can train your brain – anytime, anywhere.

Why Is Distinguishing Young

Socially, people who are affected by PD at a younger age experience the disease differently they may be at a different stage of their career and often have less time to engage in their own care. They may also have children or are planning to have children and have questions regarding passing on PD genes.

Medically, doctors tailor treatment when it is a younger person with PD. The younger you are, the more likely the disease is genetic. Your care team may offer genetic testing or counseling. Younger brains also have a higher neuroplasticity potential which allows the brain to handle and respond to disease and therapy differently.

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How Do You Know You Have Parkinsons Disease

There is no definitive way to diagnose Parkinsons disease. Your doctor will ask questions about the onset of your symptoms and assess your movement to make referrals to specialists who can make a formal diagnosis.

You can expect to see a neurologist who can complete a neurologic examination. This may include brain imaging, an MRI, or a PET scan to see activity in the area of the brain typically affected by Parkinsons disease.

Your doctor may also refer you to a movement disorder specialist. Seeing subspecialists is very important to avoid being misdiagnosed. Highly trained specialists can provide their expertise in specific areas of medicine where a precise diagnosis isnt possible from blood work or another definitive test.

Causes Of Parkinson’s Disease

New Treatments Emerging for Parkinson’s Disease

The causes of Parkinsons disease are still greatly unknown. Scientists who have studied this disorder estimate that 10-15% of cases come from genetics after seeing a series of genetic mutations that were common in Parkinsons patients.

Doctors suspect that environmental factors and lifestyle choices may have effects on the severity of Parkinsons disease symptoms. Exposure to chemicals like pesticides may increase the likelihood of developing Parkinsons disease. On the other hand, a good diet and regular exercise may decrease your chances.

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How Does It Work

In people with Parkinsons disease, the brain doesnt produce enough of a neurotransmitter called dopamine. The cells that produce dopamine either die or become impaired. Dopamine is necessary for proper motor control and movement.

Specifically, dopamine transmits signals in the brain that are involved in smooth, purposeful movements like eating, writing, and typing. Like selegeline and rasagaline, safinamide is a type of MAO-B inhibitor, which prevents the breakdown of dopamine and thus increases its levels in the brain.

Of note, safinamide also modulates glutamate release however, the specific effect of this action on the drugs therapeutic actions is unknown.

Unlike other MAO-B inhibitors, which can be prescribed alone for those with early-stage Parkinsons disease, safinamide is intended to be used in conjunction with other types of antiparkinson drugs for the later-stage disease, most notably levodopa as well as dopamine agonists.

When people first start treatment for Parkinsons symptoms, drugs tend to work pretty well and symptoms are controlled throughout the day. Between five and 10 years, however, the efficacy of conventional Parkinsons drugs wanes in many people, and symptom control becomes more difficult to alleviate.

Specifically, in people with mid- to late-stage Parkinsons disease, motor fluctuations or involuntary muscle movements begin to crop up.

What Is The Treatment Like

At the moment, the main treatment for idiopathic Parkinsonism is to replace the dopamine that the brain cells are no longer producing. It is given in a slightly different chemical format so that it isnt broken down by the body before it manages to reach the brain. Other important parts of treatment include exercise with physiotherapists, psychological intervention and reviews from speech and language therapists.

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Clinical Effectiveness Of Zonisamide

Murata et al. incidentally found that ZNS was effective in treating PD patients. Since then, several clinical trials have been performed to explore the effectiveness of ZNS for the treatment of PD. Based on adequate randomized controlled trials , ZNS is efficacious and safe as an adjunctive therapy in patients with PD . Additionally, the 2018 guideline has supported the use of ZNS for motor symptoms, especially for treating motor fluctuations . We review the clinical trials below further details are summarized in Table 2.

Table 2. Clinical trials on zonisamide effectiveness in the treatment of PD.

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Treatment for Parkinson

Mendi lets you train and strengthen your brain, just like you train your body. By visualizing what your brain is doing in a mirror’, you can train it naturally and effectively. Weve taken the best from exclusive brain training clinics which cost $100+ per session, improved it, and made it accessible to you. So you can train your brain – anytime, anywhere.

After a successful launch through crowdfunding and becoming the most funded & pre-ordered product in history in the categories of brain and mental health, were incredibly excited to continue offering early access to Mendi for you, here on our own website.

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Closer To Nasal Spray Drug Delivery For Parkinsons Disease

Posted on 24 May 2021

Scientists at the University of York have made significant progress in the development of a nasal spray treatment for patients with Parkinsons disease.

Researchers have developed a new gel that can adhere to tissue inside the nose alongside the drug levodopa, helping deliver treatment directly to the brain.

Levodopa is converted to dopamine in the brain, which makes-up for the deficit of dopamine-producing cells in Parkinsons patients, and helps treat the symptoms of the disease. Over extended periods of time, however, levodopa becomes less effective, and increased doses are needed.

Interpreting The Test Results

The results indicated that reduced signaling of Shh combined with increased dopamine from L-dopa helped in the formation and expression of LID. Conversely, increased signaling of Shh alongside dopamine from L-dopa relieved symptoms of LID.

In other words, low levels of Shh encouraged LID formation, and high levels of Shh reversed LID symptoms.

Interestingly, the scientists also noticed that following severe reduction of Shh from dopamine neurons, and in the absence of L-dopa, the non-Parkinsons mice also experienced LID-like involuntary movements.

These findings led the scientists to conclude that exploring Shh agonists could be a promising therapeutic approach in the development of anti-LID medications.

Medical News Today reached out to experts to seek their opinion on the study.

Dr. Rebecca Gilbert, Ph.D., the chief scientific officer at the American Parkinson Disease Association, explained that the clear clinical implications from the study could greatly help people with Parkinsons disease who experience LID.

However, she also sounded a note of caution. Research is a slow process, which can understandably be frustrating for those affected by .

The development of a drug that reduces based on Dr. Kottmanns work will need many more years of work to come to fruition, she added.

However, Dr. Kottmanns avenue of understanding dyskinesias is a new and exciting approach that should bring hope to anyone who is dealing with this difficult problem, Dr. Gilbert concluded.

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