Phosphatase And Tensin Homolog And Putative Kinase 1
PTEN was first identified as a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 10q23. PTEN removes the 3phosphate from phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate and eventually shuts down PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway leading to growth inhibition and apoptosis . Frequent inactive mutations of PTEN were detected in a variety of human cancers including glioblastoma, advanced prostate, and endometrial cancers, and reduced expression is found in many other tumor types such as lung and breast cancer .
While its role as tumor suppressor is established unambiguously, emerging evidence shows that the biological function of PTEN extends to the CNS where it is widely expressed and localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus . Several studies indicate that PTEN is a crucial regulator of neuronal development, neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and synaptic plasticity and has been linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders at the molecular level . The main target of PTEN, mTOR, plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of postmitotic neurons by regulating key cellular processes such as protein synthesis, autophagy, mitochondrial metabolism, and biogenesis . The selective inhibitor of mTORC1, rapamycin was shown to be neuroprotective in experimental models of Alzheimers disease and PD .
What Causes Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s disease occurs when nerve cells, or neurons, in an area of the brain that controls movement become impaired and/or die. Normally, these neurons produce an important brain chemical known as dopamine. When the neurons die or become impaired, they produce less dopamine, which causes the movement problems of Parkinson’s. Scientists still do not know what causes cells that produce dopamine to die.
People with Parkinson’s also lose the nerve endings that produce norepinephrine, the main chemical messenger of the sympathetic nervous system, which controls many functions of the body, such as heart rate and blood pressure. The loss of norepinephrine might help explain some of the non-movement features of Parkinson’s, such as fatigue, irregular blood pressure, decreased movement of food through the digestive tract, and sudden drop in blood pressure when a person stands up from a sitting or lying-down position.
Many brain cells of people with Parkinson’s contain Lewy bodies, unusual clumps of the protein alpha-synuclein. Scientists are trying to better understand the normal and abnormal functions of alpha-synuclein and its relationship to genetic mutations that impact Parkinsons disease and Lewy body dementia.
People With Parkinsons Disease May Have Double The Risk For Melanoma A Dangerous Skin Cancer
The American Academy of Neurology, an association of 24,000 neurologists and neuroscience professionals, is dedicated to promoting the highest quality patient-centered neurologic care. A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system such as Alzheimers disease, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, brain injury, Parkinsons disease and epilepsy.For more information about the American Academy of Neurology, visit .
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Papaya Is Not The Same As Pawpaw
Unfortunately, the very healthy and nontoxic papaya fruit has been confused with the pawpaw 13-15. The papaya is in a different family , and has a completely different genus and species, Carica papaya Linn. 16. The fruit contains many antioxidants, vitamins and minerals, as well as enzymes that help digestion as well as chitinase, which has antibacterial activity 17. It also has relatively few calories . The health benefits include being hypertensive and is hepatoprotective . The fruit also has antibacterial, antihelminthic , antifungal and antimalarial properties. Fermented papaya fruits also support the immune system. The antioxidants in the fruit can help prevent heart disease, stroke, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases . An extract of the seeds is marketed as being able to rejuvenate the body and increases ones energy 17. So, the fruit of the papaya tree is quite different than the fruit of the North American pawpaw. Papaya fruits are very healthy.
In conclusion, graviola, the North American pawpaw and other fruits in the Annonaceae family can cause an atypical form of Parkinsons disease that does not respond to the standard therapy . Moreover, there is much misinformation and confusion in not just the popular literature, but also in some peer reviewed articles that have been published in scientific journals.
Drug Acts On Peoples Own Dopamine Process
Dr. Moussa says that the optimum dose for raising dopamine activity fits neatly with that for increasing the immune response.
Findings from earlier studies had already suggested, he remarks, that nilotinib appeared to spur both immune cells and brain cells to target the toxic alpha-synuclein, creating room for the healthy version to release the stored dopamine.
In addition, the team found that the dose of nilotinib that led to the most significant drop in blood levels of alpha-synuclein was 150 mg. Many people who have Parkinsons disease also have high blood levels of alpha-synuclein, which can be toxic.
Taken together, the results would suggest that nilotinib reduces toxic alpha-synuclein and inflammation in the brain, while at the same time preserving dopamine and the cells that produce it.
This is exciting because this kind of potential treatment for Parkinsons could increase use of a patients own dopamine instead of using or periodically increasing drugs that mimic dopamine.
Dr. Charbel Moussa
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I What Every Physician Needs To Know
Idiopathic Parkinsons disease is a progressive neurologic disorder characterized by motor dysfunction including rest tremor, bradykinesia, postural instability and rigidity of movement. Symptoms can progress to include speech and swallowing problems, and in some cases, dementia or psychosis.
While the exact mechanism remains unknown, there is clear nerve cell loss in the dopamine-producing substantia nigra, leading to diminished dopamine in the basal ganglia. Pathology shows intracytoplasmic inclusions in the neurons, known as Lewy bodies, which are a hallmark finding of Parkinsons disease. Idiopathic Parkinsons disease is a clinical diagnosis of exclusion.
Parkinsonism is the cluster of traits seen in Parkinsons disease, but with an alternate etiology . Identifying the drug induced variant is important, as symptoms can improve once the offending agent is discontinued. Other forms of parkinsonism often have a more rapid, aggressive course, and are less responsive to dopamine replacement medications.
Experimental Cancer Drug Shows Promise For Parkinson’s
A drug originally developed for prostate cancer may have exciting potential for treating Parkinson’s, according to research published today in;Cell Stem Cell.
The study, funded by Parkinson’s UK, suggests that the drug, tasquinimod, which is not yet on the market, works by controlling genes that may cause Parkinson’s. This happens when the drug interacts with a protein inside brain cells.
Is Cirrhosis Of The Liver A Form Of Cancer
The liver is a vital and also, the largest organ in the human body. Its large size is a clear indication of the many roles it plays in the human body.
Some of its functions include:
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- Getting rid of toxic and harmful substances from the bloodstream. These substances may include alcohol and drugs.
- It produces bile which is helpful in the digestion of food.
- It regulates the amount of sugar present in blood.
- Blood proteins useful in clotting, defense and oxygen transportation are produced by the liver.
- When nutrients are in excess, the liver stores some of them and returns the others into the bloodstream.
Liver cirrhosis is a condition of the liver associated with the formation of scars on the liver as a result of continuous damage that is experienced by the liver for a long time. Healthy tissues of the liver disappear and are replaced by scars. These scars cause proper functioning of the liver to be hindered.
Scars on the liver tissue restricts flow of the blood and as a result, the processing of nutrients, toxins that are produced naturally, hormones and drugs is slowed down. Other productions made by the liver are also made slow such as production of protein production.
The formation of these scars on the liver cannot be reversed and can progress to situations where the liver stops functioning completely, which is failure of the liver.
Chronic Inflammation Links Cancer And Parkinsons Disease
- 1Translational Medicine Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China
- 2Key Laboratory for Cancer T-Cell Theranostics and Clinical Translation, Xiamen, China
- 3INNOVA Cell Theranostic, Yangzhou, China
- 4TRANSLA Health Group, Xiamen, China
An increasing number of genetic studies suggest that the pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease and cancer share common genes, pathways, and mechanisms. Despite a disruption in a wide range of similar biological processes, the end result is very different: uncontrolled proliferation and early neurodegeneration. Thus, the links between the molecular mechanisms that cause PD and cancer remain to be elucidated. We propose that chronic inflammation in neurons and tumors contributes to a microenvironment that favors the accumulation of DNA mutations and facilitates disease formation. This article appraises the key role of microglia, establishes the genetic role of COX2 and CARD15 in PD and cancer, and discusses prevention and treatment with this new perspective in mind. We examine the evidence that chronic inflammation is an important link between cancer and PD.
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Diagnosis Of Parkinsons Disease
A number of disorders can cause symptoms similar to those of Parkinson’s disease. People with Parkinson’s-like symptoms that result from other causes are sometimes said to have parkinsonism. While these disorders initially may be misdiagnosed as Parkinson’s, certain medical tests, as well as response to drug treatment, may help to distinguish them from Parkinson’s. Since many other diseases have similar features but require different treatments, it is important to make an exact diagnosis as soon as possible.
There are currently no blood or laboratory tests to diagnose nongenetic cases of Parkinson’s disease. Diagnosis is based on a person’s medical history and a neurological examination. Improvement after initiating medication is another important hallmark of Parkinson’s disease.
Parkinsons Disease And Cancer: Whats The Connection
Researchers have long tried to understand the relationship between Parkinsons disease and cancer, with multiple studies conducted over the years. Intuitively, PD and cancer are not at all similar, and can even be thought of as biochemically opposite in one disease , cells die unexpectedly and in the other , cells divide too often and are perpetuated for too long. In fact, there have been many epidemiological studies over past decades that have shown that patients who have had cancer have a lower risk of developing PD than the general population. Other studies have shown that people with PD have lower overall cancer risks than people without PD.
Despite many papers demonstrating this inverse relationship between PD and overall cancer risk, an occasional study has been conducted which concluded that people with PD have an increased risk of cancer. It can be confusing to understand the different studies and determine how the resulting information may or may not apply to you.
Here we highlight some of the more common cancer-related topics when it comes to PD:
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Literature Search And Data Extraction
This meta-analysis followed the MOOSE guidelines for reporting meta-analysis on observational studies and was registered on PROSPERO . We searched all published literature that reported PD association with cancer in MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE up to 1 March 2021. Search items related to PD, cancer and epidemiological studies were identified and modified for each database. We constrained our search in human studies and in the English language. Detailed search terms can be found in . Duplicates were matched based on author, year, and title in Endnote X9 and manually compared before removing.
Budget To Deliver Better Access To Life Changing Medicines For Liver Cancer Eye Conditions And Parkinsons Disease
Amended PBS listings on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme for Australians suffering from liver cancer, myopia and Parkinsons disease.
The Hon Greg Hunt MP Minister for Health and Aged Care
Australians suffering from liver cancer, myopia and Parkinsons disease will soon have new treatment options, with amended PBS listings on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme coming into effect.
In Tuesdays Budget, the Morrison Government will provide significant investment for new medicines including over $230 million to expand the listing Tecentriq® and Avastin® on the PBS for use in combination to treat patients with advanced unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
Unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of liver cancer, which often occurs in people with other chronic liver diseases. It also has one of the lowest survival rates of all cancer types.
From 1 November, more than 500 patients per year could benefit from PBS listing of this treatment, which would otherwise cost more than $170,000 per course.
Australia will be the first country in the world to have this combination treatment publically funded for this type of liver cancer.
This PBS listing has been implemented only two months after TGA registration, after it was assessed through the new TGA provisional approval pathway and considered for funding in parallel by the expert Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee .
These listings were all recommended by the independent PBAC.
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Parkinsons Cancer And Type 2 Diabetes Share A Key Element That Drives Disease
Parkin protein is in a different part of the cell than the mitochondria at time 0 but then co-localizes with the mitochondria after 60 minutes . Credit: Salk Institute
Enzyme with central role in cancer and type 2 diabetes also activates clean-up protein in Parkinsons.
When cells are stressed, chemical alarms go off, setting in motion a flurry of activity that protects the cells most important players. During the rush, a protein called Parkin hurries to protect the mitochondria, the power stations that generate energy for the cell. Now Salk researchers have discovered a direct link between a master sensor of cell stress and Parkin itself. The same pathway is also tied to type 2 diabetes and cancer, which could open a new avenue for treating all three diseases.
Our findings represent the earliest step in Parkins alarm response that anyones ever found by a long shot. All the other known biochemical events happen at one hour; weve now found something that happens within five minutes, says Professor Reuben Shaw, director of the NCI-designated Salk Cancer Center and senior author of the new work, detailed in Science Advances on April 7, 2021. Decoding this major step in the way cells dispose of defective mitochondria has implications for a number of diseases.
Cancer Drug Shows Promise For Parkinsons Disease
Patients with Parkinsons disease were given the leukaemia drug nilotinib, which improved symptoms of the disease.
Phase I research
SocratesJedi / Wikimedia Commons
Parkinsons disease is characterised by the loss of dopamine neurons, leading to inadequate dopamine production within the brain.;
Researchers from Georgetown University, Washington DC, found that the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib, which is licensed for treatment in chronic myeloid leukaemia , increased brain dopamine and improved motor and cognitive function in patients with PD and Lewy body dementia.;
The six-month phase I study involved 12 patients, 11 of whom completed the trial. At doses lower than those usually given in CML, the drug was well tolerated and, in addition to symptom improvements, resulted in favourable changes to biomarkers of PD progression.;
However, the researchers note that the study was intended to assess safety and larger, placebo-controlled studies are planned to properly establish the drugs efficacy in PD and dementia.
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Ethnicity: Does Ethnicity Play A Role In The Relationship Between Parkinsons And Cancer
A study, conducted in 2015 in Taiwan among people of Chinese heritage, indicated an increased risk of cancer in people with PD. In order to explain why this study did not conform to prior results, the researchers suggested that the relationship between cancer and PD may differ in different ethnic populations. Particular genes influence cancer risk as well as PD risk, so it should come as no surprise that these factors may change in different populations. However, much more work must be done to confirm this result, and currently there are no changes to cancer screening for PD patients of particular ethnicities.
Symptoms And Diagnosis Of Parkinsons:
Lets take a further look at Parkinsons disease.
Did you know that certain medical procedures, such as bone marrow transplants, can cause Parkinsons symptoms? Head trauma, liver disease, tumors, lesions, and vascular disease are all direct causes of Parkinsons disease. Physicians tend to be careful when testing for Parkinsons. Several different tests need to be done:
- The first test will be a blood test. The purpose is to test for toxins that may be causing the symptoms of Parkinsons.
- Next, an MRI and CT scan will examine the entire body and look for any unusual obstructions or abnormal functions in the vascular region.
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What About Cigarettes Parkinsons Smoking And Risk Of Cancer
As I mentioned in a previous blog, there is also an inverse relationship between cigarette smoking and PD. It is unclear whether that is because an ingredient of cigarette smoke protects smokers from PD, or because the lack of dopamine in people with PD make them more risk-averse as a group, and therefore less likely to smoke.
Regardless, because it is clear that smoking increases the risk of multiple types of cancer, any study that investigates the cancer rates of people with PD must always account for the fact that people with PD tend to smoke less than people without PD. The most recent study which analyzes the relationship between cancer risk and PD, as referenced above, takes great pains to remove this confounding factor in its statistical analysis. Even with taking differences in smoking rates into account, the conclusion of the study is that people who have had cancer are less likely to develop PD. It is also the case that rates of certain types of cancers that have not been linked to smoking are lower in people with PD. This fact supports the conclusion that the lower rates of smoking among PD patients is not the cause of the lower rates of cancer. Regardless of any study results, cigarette smoking is linked to numerous deadly diseases and must be avoided.