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What Race Is More Likely To Get Parkinson Disease

Prevalence Of Parkinsons State

What is Parkinson’s Disease?

Western and Southern states appear to have lower rates of Parkinsons disease, while Northeastern and many Midwestern states have higher rates . Mississippi and Montana have the lowest rates of Parkinsons, at 5.1 per 10,000. Vermont has the highest rate of Parkinsons at 9.9 per 10,000.

Exhibit 2: Prevalence of Parkinsons Disease, by geography

What Causes Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease is a chronic, progressive neurological disease that currently affects about 1 million Americans. Parkinsons disease involves a small, dark-tinged portion of the brain called the substantia nigra. This is where you produce most of the dopamine your brain uses. Dopamine is the chemical messenger that transmits messages between nerves that control muscle movements as well as those involved in the brains pleasure and reward centers. As we age, its normal for cells in the substantia nigra to die. This process happens in most people at a very slow rate.

But for some people, the loss happens rapidly, which is the start of Parkinsons disease. When 50 to 60 percent of the cells are gone, you begin to see the symptoms of Parkinsons.

Who Is Affected By Parkinsons Disease

Several studies have found that the incidence of PD is much more common in men than women.2,4 One estimate found that PD affects about 50 percent more men than women.2 The reasons for the differences in men and women with PD are unclear, although some suggested explanations are the protective effect of estrogen in women, the higher rate of minor head trauma and exposure to occupational toxins in men, and genetic susceptibility genes on the sex chromosomes.4

People with a close family member with Parkinsons have a small increased risk of developing the disease. About 15 percent to 25 percent of people with PD have a known relative with the disease.2

It is estimated that about 10 million people worldwide are living with PD. The incidence of the disease is higher in industrialized countries.3,4

The incidence of PD increases with age: while PD affects 1 percent of the population over the age of 60, this increases to 5 percent of the population over the age of 85.1

Approximately 5 percent of people with PD are diagnosed before the age of 60.1

Urban areas have a higher prevalence and incidence of PD.5

Read Also: Is Parkinsons Disease Genetic

Causes Of Parkinsons Disease

The exact cause of Parkinsons is unknown. It may have both genetic and environmental components. Some scientists think that viruses can trigger Parkinsons as well.

Low levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, a substance that regulates dopamine, have been linked with Parkinsons. Abnormal proteins called Lewy bodies have also been found in the brains of people with Parkinsons. Scientists dont know what role, if any, Lewy bodies play in the development of Parkinsons.

While theres no known cause, research has identified groups of people who are more likely to develop the condition. These include:

  • Sex: Men are one and a half times more likely to get Parkinsons than women.
  • Race: Whites are more likely to get Parkinsons than African Americans or Asians.
  • Age: Parkinsons usually appears between the ages of 50 and 60. It only occurs before the age of 40 in 5-10 percent of cases.
  • Family history: People who have close family members with Parkinsons disease are more likely to develop Parkinsons disease, too.
  • Toxins: Exposure to certain toxins may increase the risk of Parkinsons disease.
  • Head injury: People who experience head injuries may be more likely to develop Parkinsons disease.

How Is Parkinsons Disease Diagnosed

Parkinson

Diagnosing Parkinsons disease is sometimes difficult, since early symptoms can mimic other disorders and there are no specific blood or other laboratory tests to diagnose the disease. Imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to rule out other disorders that cause similar symptoms.

To diagnose Parkinsons disease, you will be asked about your medical history and family history of neurologic disorders as well as your current symptoms, medications and possible exposure to toxins. Your doctor will look for signs of tremor and muscle rigidity, watch you walk, check your posture and coordination and look for slowness of movement.

If you think you may have Parkinsons disease, you should probably see a neurologist, preferably a movement disorders-trained neurologist. The treatment decisions made early in the illness can affect the long-term success of the treatment.

Read Also: Is Parkinson’s Deadly

What Is Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease is a progressive neurological disorder. The first signs are problems with movement.

Smooth and coordinated bodily muscle movements are made possible by dopamine, a substance in the brain. Dopamine is produced in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra.

In Parkinsons, the cells of the substantia nigra start to die. When this happens, dopamine levels are reduced. When they have dropped 60 to 80 percent, symptoms of Parkinsons start to appear.

Some of the early symptoms of Parkinsons can begin several years before motor problems develop. These earliest signs include:

    • problems with attention and memory
    • difficulty with visual-spatial relationships

    Early signs of Parkinsons disease may go unrecognized. Your body may try to alert you to the movement disorder many years before movement difficulties begin with these warning signs.

    The exact cause of Parkinsons is unknown. It may have both genetic and environmental components. Some scientists believe that viruses can trigger Parkinsons as well.

    Low levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, a substance that regulates dopamine, have been linked with Parkinsons.

    Abnormal proteins called Lewy bodies have also been found in the brains of people with Parkinsons. Scientists do not know what role, if any, Lewy bodies play in the development of Parkinsons.

    While theres no known cause, research has identified groups of people who are more likely to develop the condition, which include:

    The Importance Of Establishing Parkinsons Prevalence Numbers

    Parkinsons Prevalence estimates will help the Parkinsons Foundation attract the attention of federal and state government as well as the pharmaceutical industry to the growing need and urgency in addressing PD. This is an important first step to better understanding who develops PD and why.

    The next phase of this study will be to determine the rate of PD diagnosis or incidence, how that has changed over time and what is the rate of mortality among those affected by PD. Determining the prevalence and incidence will allow the PD community to effectively advocate for additional money and resources necessary to support Parkinsons research.

    Parkinsons Foundation Prevalence Project numbers highlight the growing importance of optimizing expert Parkinsons care and treatment for people with Parkinsons, which would help future caregivers and ease the strain on health and elder care systems.

    By supporting this study, the Foundation works to better understand Parkinsons with the goal of solving this disease. Establishing these numbers and using them to educate PD communities and influence legislation will help the foundation provide tailored resources, outreach and advocacy to the underserved PD populations across the nation. The entire published study is available in the Parkinsons Foundation scientific journal, npj Parkinsons Disease.

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    Is Parkinsons Disease Inherited

    Scientists have discovered gene mutations that are associated with Parkinsons disease.

    There is some belief that some cases of early-onset Parkinsons disease disease starting before age 50 may be inherited. Scientists identified a gene mutation in people with Parkinsons disease whose brains contain Lewy bodies, which are clumps of the protein alpha-synuclein. Scientists are trying to understand the function of this protein and its relationship to genetic mutations that are sometimes seen in Parkinsons disease and in people with a type of dementia called Lewy body dementia.

    Several other gene mutations have been found to play a role in Parkinsons disease. Mutations in these genes cause abnormal cell functioning, which affects the nerve cells ability to release dopamine and causes nerve cell death. Researchers are still trying to discover what causes these genes to mutate in order to understand how gene mutations influence the development of Parkinsons disease.

    Scientists think that about 10% to 15% of persons with Parkinsons disease may have a genetic mutation that predisposes them to development of the disease. There are also environmental factors involved that are not fully understood.

    Stages Of Parkinsons Disease

    Parkinson’s Disease Treatment — Mayo Clinic

    Parkinsons disease is progressive diseases, and it is divided into different stages. Each stage explains the event of the illness and therefore, the symptoms a patient is experiencing. These stages increase in number because the disease increases in severity. It focuses almost entirely on motor symptoms.

    People with Parkinsons disease experience the disorder in several ways. Symptoms can range from mild to debilitating. Some individuals may transition smoothly between the five stages of the disease, while others may skip stages entirely. Some patients will spend years in Stage One with only a few symptoms. Others may experience a faster progression to the top stages.

    Stage One: Symptoms affect just one side of your body.

    The initial phase of Parkinsons disease typically presents with mild symptoms. Some patients wont even detect their symptoms within the earliest phases of this stage. In stage One, the common symptoms experienced are tremors and shaking limbs. Relations and friends may begin to note other symptoms, including tremor, poor posture, mask face, or loss of countenance.

    Stage Two: Symptoms begin affecting movement on each side of your body.

    During this stage of the disease, youll begin taking medication. The foremost common first treatment for Parkinsons disease is dopamine agonists. This medication activates dopamine receptors, which make the neurotransmitters move more quickly.

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    How Is Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosed

    Someone with the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease may be sent to see a neurologist, a doctor who specializes in the brain, nerves, and muscles. The neurologist may do some tests, including a brain scan and blood tests. These tests will not make the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, but the doctor will want to make sure that there is no other problem causing the symptoms. To diagnose Parkinson’s disease, the doctor relies on a person’s medical history, symptoms, and a physical exam.

    What Is Parkinsons Disease Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment And Prevention

    The causes and symptoms of Parkinsons disease can vary from person to person. While there is no cure, there are medications and treatments to help manage the condition.

    Parkinsons disease is a movement disorder that happens when nerve cells in a certain part of the brain are no longer making the chemical dopamine.

    The condition is also sometimes known as paralysis agitans or shaking palsy.

    The Parkinsons Foundation estimates that 60,000 Americans are diagnosed with Parkinsons every year. However, the true number of people who develop the disease may be much higher.

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    How Does Environment Come Into It

    Your environment is a hard one to pin down. Partly, that’s because it covers a lot of ground. It’s everything that’s not your genes, which could mean where you live, what you eat, chemicals you’ve come into contact with, and more.

    Not only that, but it could take years for the effects from something in your environment to show up. So far, doctors have a lot of clues but no smoking gun. So you could have people who live or work in an area around chemicals tied to Parkinson’s, but many of them don’t get it.

    Some research shows links between Parkinson’s and:

    • Agent Orange, a chemical used to destroy trees and crops in the Vietnam War.
    • Certain chemicals used in farming, such as insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides.
    • Some metals and chemicals used in factories, such as manganese, lead, and trichlorethylene .

    These can come into play based on where you live, what you do for work, or if you served in the military. Sometimes, these chemicals seep into well water, so that’s one more way they can affect you.

    Causes Of Parkinson’s Disease

    Parkinsons Symptoms, Diagnosis &  Treatments

    Parkinson’s disease is caused by a loss of nerve cells in part of the brain called the substantia nigra. This leads to a reduction in a chemical called dopamine in the brain.

    Dopamine plays a vital role in regulating the movement of the body. A reduction in dopamine is responsible for many of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

    Exactly what causes the loss of nerve cells is unclear. Most experts think that a combination of genetic and environmental factors is responsible.

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    What Role Do Genes Play

    Your genes are like your body’s instruction book. So if you get a change in one of them, it can make your body work in a slightly different way. Sometimes, that means you’re more likely to get a certain disease.

    There are several genetic mutations that can raise your risk for Parkinson’s, each by a little bit. They have a part in about 1 in 10 cases.

    If you have one or more of these changes, it doesn’t mean you’ll get Parkinson’s. Some people will, but many won’t, and doctors don’t know why. It may have to do with other genes or something in your environment.

    Drugs And Medication Used To Treat Parkinsons Disease

    A number of different drugs can be used to treat Parkinsons.

    Levodopa

    Levodopa is the most common treatment for Parkinsons. It helps to replenish dopamine.

    About 75 percent of cases respond to levodopa, but not all symptoms are improved. Levodopa is generally given with carbidopa.

    Carbidopa delays the breakdown of levodopa which in turn increases the availability of levodopa at the blood-brain barrier.

    Dopamine agonists

    Dopamine agonists can imitate the action of dopamine in the brain. Theyre less effective than levodopa, but they can be useful as bridge medications when levodopa is less effective.

    Drugs in this class include bromocriptine, pramipexole, and ropinirole.

    Anticholinergics

    Anticholinergics are used to block the parasympathetic nervous system. They can help with rigidity.

    Benztropine and trihexyphenidyl are anticholinergics used to treat Parkinsons.

    Amantadine

    Amantadine can be used along with carbidopa-levodopa. Its a glutamate-blocking drug . It offers short-term relief for the involuntary movements that can be a side effect of levodopa.

    COMT inhibitors

    Catechol O-methyltransferase inhibitors prolong the effect of levodopa. Entacapone and tolcapone are examples of COMT inhibitors.

    Tolcapone can cause liver damage. Its usually saved for people who do not respond to other therapies.

    Ectacapone does not cause liver damage.

    Stalevo is a drug that combines ectacapone and carbidopa-levodopa in one pill.

    MAO-B inhibitors

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    Is There A Cure For Parkinsons

    Theres currently no cure for Parkinsons, a disease that is chronic and worsens over time. More than 50,000 new cases are reported in the United States each year. But there may be even more, since Parkinsons is often misdiagnosed.

    Its reported that Parkinsons complications was the

    Complications from Parkinsons can greatly reduce quality of life and prognosis. For example, individuals with Parkinsons can experience dangerous falls, as well as blood clots in the lungs and legs. These complications can be fatal.

    Proper treatment improves your prognosis, and it increases life expectancy.

    It may not be possible to slow the progression of Parkinsons, but you can work to overcome the obstacles and complications to have a better quality of life for as long as possible.

    Parkinsons disease is not fatal. However, Parkinsons-related complications can shorten the lifespan of people diagnosed with the disease.

    Having Parkinsons increases a persons risk for potentially life threatening complications, like experiencing:

    • falls

    Parkinsons often causes problems with daily activities. But very simple exercises and stretches may help you move around and walk more safely.

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    Virtual Parkinson’s Half Marathon 5k And 1 Mile Walk

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    Additional virtual race information can be found at .

    Its race time!

    The Wisconsin Chapter of the American Parkinsons Disease Association is excited to launch the registration for the 2021 virtual Parkinsons half marathon, 5K, and 1 mile walk to be held April 17-25, 2021!

    Although our preference would be to see you all cross the finish line in Cottage Grove, Wisconsin, the COVID-19 pandemic has forced our hand into a virtual race as we remain focused on keeping our participants, spectators, sponsors and volunteers safe. Same race, same amazing Parkinsons community, just new scenery for your walk or run!

    The Nasset family and friends have poured their time and talents into this event over the past nine years, and it has been the #1 fundraiser for the Wisconsin Chapter of APDA, with donations totaling over $300,000. An incredible achievement thats possible because of YOU!

    The proceeds of this race support educational programs and exercise classes for people with Parkinsons disease and help provide financial support to Wisconsin families struggling to afford all of the additional costs of life with Parkinsons. Simply put, your generosity helps to provide education and support to everyone in Wisconsin affected by Parkinsons disease, helping them live life to the fullest.

    Join us for the 2021 Parkinsons half marathon, 5K and 1 mile walk!

    Causes And Risk Factors Of Parkinsons Disease

    Most cases of Parkinsons disease are idiopathic, meaning the cause is unclear.

    Its widely believed that a person with Parkinsons may have been genetically vulnerable to the disease, and that one or more unknown factors in the environment eventually triggered the disease.

    Most of the symptoms of Parkinsons disease come from the loss of neurons in an area of your brain called the substantia nigra.

    Normally, the neurons in this part of the brain make the chemical messenger dopamine, which allows communication with another area of the brain, the corpus striatum.

    This communication helps produce smooth, purposeful movement. When the neurons in the substantia nigra die, the resulting loss of communication leads to the motor symptoms of Parkinsons.

    Although the cause of this cell death is unknown, many researchers believe that the cells are killed by clumped proteins called Lewy bodies.

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