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Patient Education On Parkinson’s Disease

Medications For People With Parkinsons Disease

Neurology – Topic 13 – Parkinson’s disease female patient

Symptoms of Parkinsons disease result from the progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the brain and other organs such as the gut, which produce a neurotransmitter called dopamine. This causes a deficiency in the availability of dopamine, which is necessary for smooth and controlled movements. Medication therapy focuses on maximising the availability of dopamine in the brain. Medication regimes are individually tailored to your specific need. Parkinsons medications fit into one of the following broad categories:

  • levodopa dopamine replacement therapy
  • dopamine agonists mimic the action of dopamine
  • COMT inhibitors used along with levodopa. This medication blocks an enzyme known as COMT to prevent levodopa breaking down in the intestine, allowing more of it to reach the brain
  • anticholinergics block the effect of another brain chemical to rebalance its levels with dopamine
  • amantadine has anticholinergic properties and improves dopamine transmission
  • MAO type B inhibitors prevent the metabolism of dopamine within the brain.

What Causes Parkinson’s Disease

Doctors are not sure what causes this disease. Genetic and environmental factors may both play a role. People who have this disease experience changes in the brain. They lose brain cells that produce dopamine. This is a chemical that relays messages in the brain. Without it, the areas of your brain that control movement and coordination dont work properly.

Living With Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease progresses over time, often taking years before symptoms appear. Because it develops gradually, most people have many years of productive living after being diagnosed.

The following are some tips from the National Parkinson Foundation for walking, standing and other day-to-day activities:

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Who Is At Risk For Parkinson’s Disease

The biggest risk factor for Parkinson’s is advancing age. The average age for Parkinson’s symptoms to start is 60 years. Men are affected more than women. But the reason for this is unclear.

Family history is another key risk factor. A person with an affected parent or sibling has a 4% to 9% higher chance of getting Parkinson’s. This higher risk is most likely because of a mix of environmental and genetic factors. Having 1 or more close relatives with Parkinson’s raises the risk of the disease. But unless the person has a known genetic change for Parkinson’s, the increased risk is 2% to 5%.

Sidebar: Advances In Circuitry Research

Symptoms of Parkinson

The brain contains numerous connections among neurons known as neural circuits.

Research on such connections and networks within the brain have advanced rapidly in the past few years. A wide spectrum of tools and techniques can now map connections between neural circuits. Using animal models, scientists have shown how circuits in the brain can be turned on and off. For example, researchers can see correlations between the firing patterns of neurons in a zebrafishs brain and precise behavioral responses such as seeking and capturing food.

Potential opportunities to influence the brains circuitry are starting to emerge. Optogenetics is an experimental technique that involves the delivery of light-sensitive proteins to specific populations of brain cells. Once in place, these light-sensitive proteins can be inhibited or stimulated by exposure to light delivered via fiber optics. Optogenetics has never been used in people, however the success of the approach in animal models demonstrates a proof of principal: A neural network can be precisely targeted.

Thanks in part to the BRAIN Initiative, research on neural circuitry is gaining momentum. The Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies Initiative is accelerating the development and application of new technologies that enable researchers to produce dynamic pictures of the brain that show how individual brain cells and complex neural circuits interact at the speed of thought.

NIH Publication No. 15-5595

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What Is Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinsons disease is movement disorder of the nervous system that worsens over time. As nerve cells in parts of the brain weaken or are damaged or die, people may begin to notice problems with movement, tremor, stiffness in the limbs or the trunk of the body, or impaired balance. As these symptoms become more obvious, people may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks. Not everyone with one or more of these symptoms has PD, as the symptoms appear in other diseases as well.

No cure for PD exists today, but research is ongoing and medications or surgery can often provide substantial improvement with motor symptoms.

Some Other General Points

Stay as active as possible. Exercise regularly as much as you are able. This may not be possible when the condition is more advanced. However, it is something to consider when symptoms are not too bad. You may walk more slowly than before but a daily walk is good exercise and may help to loosen up stiff muscles. Well-meaning relatives or friends may tell you to rest and take things easy. However, as much as possible and for as long as possible, resist the temptation for others to do things for you just because it may be quicker.

Constipation is common in people with PD. Help to reduce the chance of this by having lots to drink and eat plenty of vegetables, fruit, and foods high in fibre. Exercise can also improve constipation. Sometimes laxatives may be needed to treat constipation.

Some medicines taken for other conditions can interfere with dopamine and make PD worse. These may be prescribed for such things as mental illness, sickness, vertigo and dizziness. Check with your doctor if you are unsure about any medicines that you take.

Driving. If you are a driver you should tell the DVLA and your insurance company if you develop PD. Your insurance may be invalid if you do not. Depending on the severity of symptoms and the medicines that you are taking, you may still be allowed to drive following a medical assessment.

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Sidebar: Morris K Udall Centers Of Excellence For Parkinson’s Disease Research

The Morris K. Udall Parkinsons Disease Research Act of 1997 authorized the NIH to greatly accelerate and expand PD research efforts by launching the NINDS Udall Centers of Excellence, a network of research centers that provide a collaborative, interdisciplinary framework for PD research. Udall Center investigators, along with many other researchers funded by the NIH, have made substantial progress in understanding PD, including identifying disease-associated genes investigating the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to PD, developing and improving PD research models, and discovering and testing potential therapeutic targets for developing novel treatment strategies.

The Udall Centers continue to conduct critical basic, translational, and clinical research on PD including: 1) identifying and characterizing candidate and disease-associated genes, 2) examining neurobiological mechanisms underlying the disease, and 3) developing and testing potential therapies. As part of the program, Udall Center investigators work with local communities of patients and caregivers to identify the challenges of living with PD and to translate scientific discoveries into patient care. The Centers also train the next generation of physicians and scientists who will advance our knowledge of and treatments for PD. See the full list of Udall Centers.

Resources For Specialized Populations

Neurology – Topic 14 – Parkinsons disease – examining a patient

For Care Partners

When one person in a couple or family is affected by Parkinsons disease, the other family members live with it as well. To keep your care partnering relationship healthy and balanced, its important that the care partner finds time to take a break from caregiver duties, has some outside interests, and has others they can turn to for support and resource information.

Young Onset Parkinsons Disease

For those who have been diagnosed under the age of 50, APDA provides resources and information to help younger people with Parkinsons Disease live active and productive lives. Our Early/Young Onset section offers a wide range of resource links and discusses issues that are particularly relevant to people with young onset Parkinsons disease, such as ongoing employment, parenting, and planning for the near and distant future.

Veterans with PD

In 2017, APDA published Helping Those Who Serve: Parkinsons Disease Information for Veterans Community. This manual offers general information about Parkinsons diagnosis, symptoms and treatment, tips for coping with disease progression and support for care partners. It also provides step by step directions on how to access the Veterans Affairs system and receive care from the VA PADRECC and consortium centers across the country. The manual is accessible on the page linked below, and in print.


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Parkinsons Foundation Partners With Medscape Education To Deliver Patient Education

Member for

, 2018The Parkinsons Foundation has collaborated with Medscape Education to launch an online learning program entitled Parkinsons Disease Psychosis: A Learning Destination for Care Partners and Patients, available on Medscapes patient portal, WebMD Education. The program is intended to provide Parkinsons patients and their caregivers with information about Parkinsons disease progression, self-care and shared decision-making in the management of Parkinsons disease and Parkinsons disease psychosis.

Parkinsons disease psychosis is known to be a significant cause of distress and impaired quality of life for patients and their care partners. The program is founded on the belief that through education, patients and their caregivers can be empowered to develop informed long-range care plans in concert with their health care professionals and preserve their quality of life.

WebMD Education is a resource that provides easy-to-understand, commercial-free coursework, tools, and resources that help patients and their care partners better understand their condition and treatment options so they can have an informed discussion with their health care professional about their treatment goals, preferences, and plan of care.

The evidence-based online curriculum consists of three text-based activities accompanied by brief videos:

All of the modules are free and can be accessed via the following link: .

Caregiving For People Living With Parkinsons

Caring for a loved one with PD can be a challenging job, especially as the disease progresses. Former caregivers of a loved one with PD suggest doing the following : Get prepared, Take care of yourself, Get help , Work to maintain a good relationship with your loved one, and Encourage the person with PD for whom you care, to stay active.

Preparing for caregiving starts with education. Reading this fact sheet is a good start. More resources are available to you in theResources section of this fact sheet. Early Parkinson√Ęs disease usually requires more emotional support and less hands-on care. It is a good time for family members/caregivers to educate themselves about the disease.

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How Do Symptoms Progress And What Is The Outlook

The symptoms of PD tend to become gradually worse over time. However, the speed of progression varies greatly from person to person. When symptoms first begin, you may not need treatment when symptoms are relatively mild.

Most people with PD can expect to have some time of relatively mild symptoms. Then, when the symptoms become worse, they can expect several years of good or reasonable control of the symptoms with medication. But everyone is different and it is difficult to predict for an individual how quickly the disease will progress. Some people may only be slightly disabled 20 years after PD first begins, whereas others may be very disabled after 10 years.

Research into PD is active. For example, one main aim of research is to find medicines that prevent the damage to the affected cells, rather than just treating the symptoms, which is the main value of treatment at present. Further research on these chemicals continues. Research is underway using stem cell therapy to help treat PD. Other researchers are looking at alpha synuclein, a protein that gathers around the junction between nerve cells and is thought to affect the way messages are conducted between the brain and the nerves controlling movement.

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What Causes The Disease

Parkinson Disease Symptoms Infographic Stock Vector

The precise cause of PD is unknown, although some cases of PD are hereditary and can be traced to specific genetic mutations. Most cases are sporadicthat is, the disease does not typically run in families. It is thought that PD likely results from a combination of genetics and exposure to one or more unknown environmental factors that trigger the disease.

The protein alpha-synuclein. The affected brain cells of people with PD contain Lewy bodiesdeposits of the protein alpha-synuclein. Researchers do not yet know why Lewy bodies form or what role they play in the disease. Some research suggests that the cells protein disposal system may fail in people with PD, causing proteins to build up to harmful levels and trigger cell death. Additional studies have found evidence that clumps of protein that develop inside brain cells of people with PD may contribute to the death of neurons.

Genetics. Several genetic mutations are associated with PD, including the alpha-synuclein gene, and many more genes have been tentatively linked to the disorder. The same genes and proteins that are altered in inherited cases may also be altered in sporadic cases by environmental toxins or other factors.

Environment. Exposure to certain toxins has caused parkinsonian symptoms in rare circumstances . Other still-unidentified environmental factors may also cause PD in genetically susceptible individuals.

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Support For People With Parkinsons Disease

Early access to a multidisciplinary support team is important. These teams may include doctors, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, social workers and specialist nurses. Members of the team assess the person with Parkinsons disease and identify potential difficulties and possible solutions.There are a limited number of multidisciplinary teams in Victoria that specialise in Parkinsons disease management. But generalist teams are becoming more aware of how to help people with Parkinsons disease.

Pathophysiology Of Parkinsons Disease

Patient/caregiver was educated on pathophysiology of Parkinsons Disease as follows:

  • Parkinsons disease is a progressive disorder affecting the nervous system of an individual.
  • Nervous tissues, such as, brain and spinal cord, are composed of cells called neurons. These neurons are interconnected, and they communicate with each other through release of some chemicals called neurotransmitters.
  • A proper balance between the levels of these chemicals is needed for normal function of the brain, helping to execute safe movements, control of mood and emotions, and safeguard the memory function.
  • Parkinsons disease involves damage to the various nerve cells in the brain producing chemicals, such as, dopamine, acetylcholine, and serotonin.
  • Damage to these neurons results not only in deficiency of various chemicals in the brain, but also an imbalance in between these chemicals. This results in problems with the overall movement, motor skills, mood, and memory of affected individuals.
  • Cause of damage to these neurons is clearly unknown, but could be secondary to factors, such as, exposure to various chemicals used in farming, history of accidents & head injuries, and family history.
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    Where Can I Get More Information

    For more information on neurological disorders or research programs funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, contact the Institutes Brain Resources and Information Network at:

    Office of Neuroscience Communications and EngagementNational Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthBethesda, MD 20892

    NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patients medical history.

    All NINDS-prepared information is in the public domain and may be freely copied. Credit to the NINDS or the NIH is appreciated.

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    What Are The Symptoms Of The Disease

    Early Parkinson’s Disease

    The four primary symptoms of PD are:

    • Tremor. Tremor often begins in a hand, although sometimes a foot or the jaw is affected first. The tremor associated with PD has a characteristic rhythmic back-and-forth motion that may involve the thumb and forefinger and appear as a pill rolling. It is most obvious when the hand is at rest or when a person is under stress. This tremor usually disappears during sleep or improves with a purposeful, intended movement.
    • Rigidity. Rigidity , or a resistance to movement, affects most people with PD. The muscles remain constantly tense and contracted so that the person aches or feels stiff. The rigidity becomes obvious when another person tries to move the individuals arm, which will move only in ratchet-like or short, jerky movements known as cogwheel rigidity.
    • Bradykinesia. This slowing down of spontaneous and automatic movement is particularly frustrating because it may make simple tasks difficult. The person cannot rapidly perform routine movements. Activities once performed quickly and easilysuch as washing or dressingmay take much longer. There is often a decrease in facial expressions.
    • Postural instability. Impaired balance and changes in posture can increase the risk of falls.

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    Eating Drinking And Parkinsons Disease

    • Dont rush your meals. Allow the extra time you need to finish your meal. Rest your elbows on the table to provide more motion at your wrist and hand.
    • Sit with your knees and hips bent at a 90-degree angle in a straight-back chair.
    • Use utensils with built-up, lightweight handles, or use a spork a spoon and fork in one. Use a rocker knife for cutting food.
    • Use a non-skid mat to stabilize objects on the table.
    • Use a plate guard or plate with a raised lip to prevent food from spilling.
    • Use a long straw with a non-spill cup or use a plastic mug with a large handle.

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    What Genes Are Linked To Parkinsons Disease

    Several genes have been definitively linked to PD:

    • SNCA. This gene, which makes the protein alpha-synuclein, was the first gene identified to be associated with Parkinsons. Research findings by the National Institutes of Health and other institutions prompted studies of the role of alpha-synuclein in PD, which led to the discovery that Lewy bodies seen in all cases of PD contain clumps of alpha-synuclein. This discovery revealed the link between hereditary and sporadic forms of the disease.
    • LRRK2. Mutations in LRRK2 were originally identified in several English and Basque families as a cause of a late-onset PD. Subsequent studies have identified mutations of this gene in other families with PD as well as in a small percentage of people with apparently sporadic PD. LRRK2 mutations are a major cause of PD in North Africa and the Middle East.
    • DJ-1. This gene normally helps regulate gene activity and protect cells from oxidative stress and can cause rare, early forms of PD.
    • PRKN . The parkin gene is translated into a protein that normally helps cells break down and recycle proteins.
    • PINK1. PINK1 codes for a protein active in mitochondria. Mutations in this gene appear to increase susceptibility to cellular stress. PINK1 has been linked to early forms of PD.
    • GBA . Mutations in GBA cause Gaucher disease , but different changes in this gene are associated with an increased risk for Parkinsons disease as well.

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