Chasing Protection In Parkinsons Disease: Does Exercise Reduce Risk And Progression
- Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
Exercise may be the most commonly offered yet least consistently followed therapeutic advice for people with Parkinsons disease . Epidemiological studies of prospectively followed cohorts have shown a lower risk for later developing PD in healthy people who report moderate to high levels of physical activity, and slower rates of motor and non-motor symptom progression in people with PD who report higher baseline physical activity. In animal models of PD, exercise can reduce inflammation, decrease -synuclein expression, reduce mitochondrial dysfunction, and increase neurotrophic growth factor expression. Randomized controlled trials of exercise in PD have provided clear evidence for short-term benefits on many PD measurements scales, ranging from disease severity to quality of life. In this review, we present these convergent epidemiological and laboratory data with particular attention to translationally relevant features of exercise . In the context of these findings we will discuss clinical trial experience, design challenges, and emerging opportunities for determining whether exercise can prevent PD or slow its long-term progression.
Best Life: How To Prevent Parkinsons Disease
ORLANDO, Fla. — Nearly one million people are living with Parkinsons disease in the U.S. and about 60,000 more are diagnosed with it each year.
But can you lower your risk of getting this neurodegenerative disorder? Ivanhoe reports on intriguing new research.
Parkinsons is a disease that affects movement causing tremors, stiffness, slowness, and more.
The pattern of their movement is notable. But also, it affects many of other functions of the brain such as sleep, mood, sometimes cognition, stated Hooman Azmi, MD, FAANS, a neurosurgeon at Hackensack University Medical Center.
But are there ways to stop the disease before it starts?
In a recent study, scientists followed more than 41,000 people for 18 years. During this time, 465 developed Parkinsons. They found patients with the highest intake of vitamins C and E had a 38 percent reduced risk of Parkinsons.
Exercise might be another way to reduce the risk of Parkinsons.
According to the Harvard Health Letter, exercising in your thirties and forties decades before Parkinsons typically occurs may reduce your risk of developing the disease by about 30 percent.
Other evidence has shown people who consume caffeine are less likely to develop Parkinsons disease.
Drinking coffee also reduces the risk by up to 30 percent. Green tea and beer may also have a protective effect.
When it comes to exercising to lower Parkinsons risk, some experts believe the exercise needs to be vigorous to make a difference.
Effects Of Parkinson’s Disease On The Body Include:
- Continue regular daily activities to help maintain mobility.
- Lead as normal a life as possible, not restricting activities that are still possible.
- Establish a regular exercise program consisting of stretching and weight bearing.
- Walking 30 minutes each day can be a realistic goal.
- Seek advice from a rehabilitation specialist as soon as possible for help determining an exercise level, overcoming problems with balance and safety, difficulties with speech, or for fatigue and stress management.
- Adaptive training and use of quad-canes or straight canes, and other mechanical aids help with balance problems.
- Try to avoid unnecessary stress in your life. Leading a healthy life, eating regularly, sleeping regularly, and exercising will help keep you fit both mentally and physically.
- All symptoms of Parkinson’s disease get worse under stress.
- Ask the doctor about regulating treatments so that treatments are more effective during peak work conditions.
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Take Prebiotics And Probiotics
Gut dysbiosis plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of Parkinsons disease. Accordingly, probiotics have the potential to help with onset of the disease, as well as management of its symptoms. A combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, L. reuteri, and L. fermentum has been found to relieve constipation, improve insulin sensitivity, and improve antioxidant status in people with PD, thus correcting several of the characteristic features of the disease.
Prebiotics, fermentable fibers that feed beneficial gut bacteria, may be another useful intervention for preventing Parkinsons disease. FOS and GOS, two types of prebiotic fibers, increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a protein important for neuronal protection, survival, and plasticity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is abnormally low in Parkinsons disease patients boosting its levels may have neuroprotective effects.
Eat Organic Whenever Possible
More research needs to be done on this subject, but many experts now believe pesticides can increase the risk of Parkinsons disease. Researchers have found high levels of pesticides inside the brains of people with Parkinsons, and those chemicals can suppress the production of dopamine. Products that are certified organic arent supposed to contain any chemical pesticides or herbicides.
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Foster A Good Relationship
Lastly, maintaining your relationship and communication with the person with Parkinsonâs can be the most challenging and rewarding aspect of caregiving. As Parkinsonâs disease progresses, the roles change and the person with Parkinsonâs may go from being an independent head of the household to a very dependent person requiring a significant level of care. However, research shows that despite high levels of strain, caregivers with good quality relationships have reduced depression and better physical health. Remember, as a caregiver your service to your loved one is beyond measure in terms of love, depth of care, and concern.
What Is The Outlook For Persons With Parkinsons Disease
Although there is no cure or absolute evidence of ways to prevent Parkinsons disease, scientists are working hard to learn more about the disease and find innovative ways to better manage it, prevent it from progressing and ultimately curing it.
Currently, you and your healthcare teams efforts are focused on medical management of your symptoms along with general health and lifestyle improvement recommendations . By identifying individual symptoms and adjusting the course of action based on changes in symptoms, most people with Parkinsons disease can live fulfilling lives.
The future is hopeful. Some of the research underway includes:
- Using stem cells to produce new neurons, which would produce dopamine.
- Producing a dopamine-producing enzyme that is delivered to a gene in the brain that controls movement.
- Using a naturally occurring human protein glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, GDNF to protect dopamine-releasing nerve cells.
Many other investigations are underway too. Much has been learned, much progress has been made and additional discoveries are likely to come.
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What Parkinsons Looks Like In The Brain
PD is a progressive disease of the nervous system in which a persons brain gradually stops producing the neurotransmitter, dopamine. With less and less dopamine, they lose the ability to regulate their movements, body, and emotions. The condition is associated with degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain and alterations in other parts of the brain and neurotransmitters.
PD progresses slowly in most people with symptoms often taking years to develop, and many can live for years with the disease. PD itself isnt fatal. However, complications from it are serious and can lead to death. The four main-movement related symptoms of Parkinsons are:
- Tremor, which means shaking or trembling. Tremor may affect your hands, arms, or legs.
- Stiff muscles.
- Problems with balance or walking.
Many other problems, such as depression, constipation, sleep disturbances, and cognitive issues, may be present.
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Incidence Of Parkinson’s Disease
A study of data from 2005 to 2018 indicated that PD is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases worldwide . The influence factors in the study of PD were mainly divided into prospective studies and case-control studies. In the world’s high-income countries, the median incidence of PD is 14/100,000, and the rate is 160/100,000 in people aged 65 or older . Among the 40-year-old American population, the risk of PD in men is about 2%, while in women is 1.3% . The age-adjusted prevalence of PD reflects morbidity and mortality, which in Africa is lower than that in Europe, the United States, and Asia . Currently, there are fewer morbidity data related to racial or ethnic, but the incidence varies according to the current research. A study from a large medical institution in the United States indicated that the incidence in Blacks is higher than that in Whites. The age-adjusted and gender-adjusted incidence of PD was highest among Hispanics , followed by non-Hispanic whites , Asian , and Blacks . Another study based on beneficiaries of US health insurance suggested that the incidence of PD in Whites was also higher than that in Blacks or Asians . The incidence of PD increases with age and reaches a maximum at 80 years old. In the Chinese population aged 60 years, the incidence of PD is more than 1%.
Optimise Your Diet Reduce Your Toxic Load
While the cause of Parkinsons is not known, environmental toxins such as pesticides and herbicides are implicated. Researchers have found levels of these chemicals to be higher in the brains of Parkinsons sufferers and incidence of Parkinsons is higher in areas with greater use of these chemicals. It makes sense to avoid any environmental toxins that you can. Also, consider your intake of dietary toxins such as alcohol and caffeine avoiding or reducing these may reduce the load on your bodys detoxification pathways.
What Are The Symptoms Of The Disease
The four primary symptoms of PD are:
- Tremor. Tremor often begins in a hand, although sometimes a foot or the jaw is affected first. The tremor associated with PD has a characteristic rhythmic back-and-forth motion that may involve the thumb and forefinger and appear as a pill rolling. It is most obvious when the hand is at rest or when a person is under stress. This tremor usually disappears during sleep or improves with a purposeful, intended movement.
- Rigidity. Rigidity , or a resistance to movement, affects most people with PD. The muscles remain constantly tense and contracted so that the person aches or feels stiff. The rigidity becomes obvious when another person tries to move the individuals arm, which will move only in ratchet-like or short, jerky movements known as cogwheel rigidity.
- Bradykinesia. This slowing down of spontaneous and automatic movement is particularly frustrating because it may make simple tasks difficult. The person cannot rapidly perform routine movements. Activities once performed quickly and easilysuch as washing or dressingmay take much longer. There is often a decrease in facial expressions.
- Postural instability. Impaired balance and changes in posture can increase the risk of falls.
Therapy Regimen By Comparing The Effects Of Different Intensities Of Physical Activity On Pd
The light physical activity reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha in the skeletal muscle and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the soleus muscles . Linke’s study found that physical activity can not only reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the blood but also enhance the activity of free radical scavengers . Schulze’s findings suggest that physical activity enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in the vascular endothelium through a shear stress-dependent mechanism . Vettor’s findings demonstrate that physical activity promotes endothelial NO synthase- dependent mitochondrial biogenesis in the heart, which behaves as an essential step in cardiac glucose transport . The light activity can reduce oxidative stress and enhance mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, blood, and heart. These protective effects can improve autonomic dysfunction , sleep quality , and depression in PD patients.
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What Is Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons disease is a nervous system disease that affects your ability to control movement. The disease usually starts out slowly and worsens over time. If you have Parkinsons disease, you may shake, have muscle stiffness, and have trouble walking and maintaining your balance and coordination. As the disease worsens, you may have trouble talking, sleeping, have mental and memory problems, experience behavioral changes and have other symptoms.
Eight Causes Of Parkinsons Disease
Many scientists and doctors dream of developing a cure for Parkinsons disease. However, the reality is that Parkinsons disease is caused by multiple factors and therefore is unlikely to respond to a single therapy.
we can make more progress and improve quality of life by addressing the many underlying causes of Parkinsons disease
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What Research Is Being Done
The mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and to use the knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease. NINDS is a component of the National Institutes of Health , the leading supporter of biomedical research in the world. NINDS conducts and supports three types of research: basicscientific discoveries in the lab, clinicaldeveloping and studying therapeutic approaches to Parkinsons disease, and translationalfocused on tools and resources that speed the development of therapeutics into practice. The goals of NINDS-supported research on Parkinsons disease are to better understand and diagnose PD, develop new treatments, and ultimately, prevent PD. NINDS also supports training for the next generation of PD researchers and clinicians and serves as an important source of information for people with PD and their families.
Tips To Slow Or Stop Progression
Some suggest that you may be able to delay some of the effects of Parkinsons disease through regular physical activity. Ideally this would include a combination of exercise that includes:
- aerobic activity
- balance training
- functional activities
The NINDS has funded a number of studies to learn more about the impact of exercise, including whether exercise might help people delay the need for medication.
Dysregulated Iron And Copper Metabolism And Oxidative Stress In Parkinsons Disease
The accumulation of Fe observed in SN in association with the occurrence of aggregated misfolded protein seems to contribute to the progression of PD . One theory claims that pathological distributions of Fe and copper aggravate oxidative damage and contribute to PD progression. Elevated cytosolic Fe in SN of PD patients has long been associated with neurotoxicity via various mechanisms including deleterious interactions between DA and Fe . Furthermore, dysmetabolism of Cu with reduced cytosolic fraction of the metal, reflecting reduced activity of the cuproenzyme superoxide dismutase-1 will also increase the oxidative stress in PD . The pathogenic role of the aggregation of alpha-synuclein, effective as a Cu chaperone, for the SOD1 insufficiency is unclear . The alterations in Fe and Cu distribution appear to occur early in the PD disease process and are therefore not considered to represent merely a reactive redistribution of metals secondary to neuroinflammation .
Try The Ketogenic Diet
The ketogenic diet is characterized by a high fat intaketypically 80 to 90 percent of total caloriesmoderate protein intake, and a very low carbohydrate intake. Originally developed as a treatment for refractory epilepsy in children, the ketogenic diet has exploded in popularity in recent years.
A growing body of clinical research shows the health benefits of the ketogenic diet, including weight loss and improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, some of the most exciting findings related to the ketogenic diet deals with its impact on neurological diseases like Parkinsons. In animal models of PD, the ketogenic diet reduces mitochondrial damage and improves motor function. In humans, the diet improves both motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. There are two primary ways the ketogenic diet alleviates symptoms of PD:
- Ketones are an alternative fuel source for the brain. The human brain typically relies on glucose for energy. In PD, part of the process required to produce energy from glucose is impaired, making glucose an inefficient fuel source. Ketones bypass that process and are readily taken up by the brain, so they serve as an efficient alternative energy source for neurons.
- Ketone metabolism decreases oxidative stress in the brain and reduces neuroinflammation, thus alleviating two of the underlying causes of PD.
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Who Gets Early Onset Parkinsons Disease
About 10%-20% of those diagnosed with Parkinsons disease are under age 50, and about half of those are diagnosed before age 40. Approximately 60,000 new cases of Parkinsons are diagnosed each year in the United States, meaning somewhere around 6,000 12,000 are young onset patients.
Is it genetic or hereditary?
The cause of Parkinsons disease is not yet known. However, Parkinsons disease has appeared across several generations of some families, which could indicate that certain forms of the disease are hereditary or genetic. Many researchers think that Parkinsons disease may be caused by genetic factors combined with other external factors. The field of genetics is playing an ever greater role in Parkinsons disease research, and scientists are continually working towards determining the cause or causes of PD.
What Lifestyle Changes Can I Make To Ease Parkinsons Symptoms
Exercise: Exercise helps improve muscle strength, balance, coordination, flexibility, and tremor. It is also strongly believed to improve memory, thinking and reduce the risk of falls and decrease anxiety and depression. One study in persons with Parkinsons disease showed that 2.5 hours of exercise per week resulted in improved ability to move and a slower decline in quality of life compared to those who didnt exercise or didnt start until later in the course of their disease. Some exercises to consider include strengthening or resistance training, stretching exercises or aerobics . All types of exercise are helpful.
Eat a healthy, balanced diet: This is not only good for your general health but can ease some of the non-movement related symptoms of Parkinsons, such as constipation. Eating foods high in fiber in particular can relieve constipation. The Mediterranean diet is one example of a healthy diet.
Preventing falls and maintaining balance: Falls are a frequent complication of Parkinson’s. While you can do many things to reduce your risk of falling, the two most important are: 1) to work with your doctor to ensure that your treatments whether medicines or deep brain stimulation are optimal and 2) to consult with a physical therapist who can assess your walking and balance. The physical therapist is the expert when it comes to recommending assistive devices or exercise to improve safety and preventing falls.
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