Ginkgo Biloba Protects Cognitive Function And Mood In Parkinsons Disease
Cognitive deficits have a negative impact on the quality of life of individuals with Parkinsons disease.
Overcoming cognitive impairment is yet another challenge in treating Parkinsons disease.
Research studies indicate the therapeutic effects of Ginkgo biloba in cognitive enhancement.
Since cognitive health is influenced by the dopamine levels in the brain, Ginkgo biloba can help maintain dopamine levels and healthier cognition in Parkinsons disease.
Beck et al. have found that a 240mg daily dose of a supplement containing Ginkgo biloba extracts helps improve cognition of elderly volunteers with memory impairment.
They observed that the herb mildly enhanced dopamine levels which improve cognitive flexibility.
A research article published in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2010 confirmed that a 240 mg dose of daily administration of Ginkgo biloba can help protect cognition and reduce mental health symptoms in dementia patients.
Ginkgo biloba can enhance cognition in healthy individuals and slow down its decline in elderly individuals and those at risk of developing dementia.
Amieva and colleagues have reported that the long-term use of standardized Ginkgo extracts lower cognitive decline in elderly individuals compared to those who do not use Ginkgo or nootropics like piracetam.
Cognitive deficits, motor symptoms and impaired quality of life can induce depressive and anxiety related feelings in Parkinsons disease.
Gbe Improved The Activity Of Different Antioxidant Enzymes In
The neurological damage seen in patients with PD involves free radical synthesis and oxidative stress. To explore the effects of GBE treatment, we determined whether it was associated with changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GSH-PX and in the expression of MDA. The results are shown in Figure 2. SOD activity improved significantly in the high-dose, intermediate-dose, low-dose, and Madopa groups compared with the control group . GBE treatment improved SOD activity in A53T -synuclein transgenic mice in a dose-dependent manner. The therapeutic effectiveness of intermediate- and high-dose GBE was similar with Madopa. GSH-PX activity showed a trend similar to the SOD activity. In contrast, MDA expression was significantly reduced in the high-dose, intermediate-dose, low-dose, and Madopa groups compared with the control group . GBE treatment reduced MDA expression in A53T -synuclein transgenic mice by a dose-dependent manner. The therapeutic effectiveness of intermediate- and high-dose GBE was similar with Madopa.
Figure 2SOD activity, GSH-PX activity, and the expression of MDA were measured in -synuclein A53T transgenic mice. *p< 0.05 compared with the control group & p< 0.05 compared with the Madopa group.
Cocktail Therapy May Benefit Individuals With Parkinson Disease Dementia
“Cocktail therapy,” or drug combination treament, may improve quality of life and the conditions of patients with Parkinson disease dementia.
Treatment with cocktail therapy was determined to be safe and may improve quality of life and the conditions of patients with Parkinson disease dementia , according to a study in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment.
Research shows that 46% of the patients with PD progress to PDD within 10 years of being diagnosed with PD. PDD seriously reduces patients quality of life and increases the burden on caregivers,” researchers said. Right now, there are fewer methods to treat PDD than PD, and the treatments available for dementia are less effective.
Researchers enrolled 60 patients with PDD from the Second Hospital of Baoding in China between January 2011 and October 2016. Patients were 53% male, ranged in age from 60 to 81 years, and had a mean age of 68.6 ± 9.9 years. They were randomly assigned to the studys test or control group. Investigators, evaluators, patients, their families, and their caregivers were blinded to the experimental drugs provided and did not know the patients’ group assignments. Both groups had similar patient characteristics.
MoCA scores of the test group were significantly higher than those from the control group at the 6-month evaluation. Both Blessed-Roth and CDR-SB scores of the test group were significantly lower than those from the control group at the 6-month evaluation.
You May Like: Does Dr Phil Have Parkinsons
Effects On Alzheimers Disease
Various studies show that ginkgo biloba extract has neuroprotective effects. Because Alzheimers disease is caused by neurodegeneration due to a combination of inflammation, oxidative stress, and neuronal apoptosis, most research focuses on preventing or treating these. The loss of cognition and memory that Alzheimers disease triggers can be minimized with gingko biloba since it is has multiple mechanisms of providing neuroprotection.
Amyloidogenesis And Ab Aggregation Protection
One of the main mechanisms through which Alzheimers disease takes over the brain is AB plaque accumulation. In 2000, Bastianetto et. al took a look at Ginkgo biloba extracts neuroprotective effects and it proved effective on hippocampal neurons. AB toxicity was induced to simulate Alzheimers AB plaque accumulation. Toxicity was induced in cultured cells through exposure to solubilized peptides AB 25-35, AB 1-40 and AB 1-42. The control group was exposed to only the AB peptides and the treated group was exposed to both AB peptides and EGb 761. The group treated with the highest concentration of ginkgo biloba extract inhibited cell apoptosis and showed a protective effect.
It also protects against amyloidogenesis, the process of amyloid production. EGb761 seems to regulate the amyloid precursor protein pathway. The group treated with EGb761 had an increase in the release of alphaAPP, the enzyme responsible for the regulation of the non-amyloidogenic processing of APP.
Data Extraction And Critical Appraisal Of Studies
Study selection and appraisal of studies were performed independently by two researchers . Disagreement was resolved by consensus. Information was extracted via a standardized checklist included study design, duration of the study, comparability of study groups with respect to sex, age, baseline scores of cognitive, psychopathological and activities of daily living scales and clinical outcomes on different rating scales in the following domains: cognition, activities of daily living , neuropsychiatric symptoms, patients quality of life, response according to the studies definitions and drop out rates due to side effects. The study and publication quality was assessed on the basis of whether the following quality criteria had been adequately fulfilled: randomization and allocation concealment, blinding of patients and investigators, sample size estimation, handling and reporting of study discontinuations, application of the intent-to-treat principle, relevant data inconsistencies, and report of study funding. All clinical outcomes were assessed in the intent-to-treat samples. An intent-to-treat analysis was accepted when a last-observation-carried forward analysis was performed, or when no drop-outs occurred and all patients were included in the evaluation.
Recommended Reading: Does Parkinsons Disease Cause Dizziness
Anti Apoptotic Effect As Protection
A main cause of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimers is cell apoptosis. Ginkgo biloba extract has anti-apoptotic effects in several intracellular signaling pathways that lead to apoptosis. In this experiment, Defeudis et. al took a look at the effect that the component of ginkgo biloba extracts bilobalide had on brain edemas. Brain edemas can lead to brain cell apoptosis. In this setup, edemas were induced by triethlytin. Bilobalide was administered systemically and cerebral edemas were reduced. One mechanism attributes it to the inhibition of apoptotic cell damage.
Don’t Miss: What Does Parkinson’s Disease Smell Like
Dti Prediction With Deeppurpose And Molecular Docking
High-throughput analysis was conducted to predict the potential drugtarget interaction between all 25 active compounds in GBE and all 47 PD targets in three cell types. Detailed results are listed in Supplementary Table S5. Predicted binding scores of targets in top enriched pathways were shown in the matrix plot in Figure 6. The binding score between MAPK14 and ginkgolide J was 8.43, the highest among all predicted, suggesting a possible strong interaction between them. The second highest interaction between MAPK14 and ginkgolide A reached 8.41. Notably, ginkgolides A, B, J, and K showed similar binding patterns to potential targets, possibly due to similar chemical structures among these compounds. Consequently, molecular docking was performed to confirm the affinity between MAPK14 and ginkgolide J or A. As shown in the 3D and 2D structures, MAPK14 will be stably docked with ginkgolide J or ginkgolide A, and the delta G calculated for each docking were 7.207,632 kJ/mol and 7.0555,134 kJ/mol, respectively . Molecular docking results were in agreement with predictions rendered by DeepPurpose. Detailed results of molecular docking are listed in Table 6. In conclusion, DTI between selected targets and GBE components was predicted with DeepPurpose. Further validation with the molecular docking approach suggested a potentially strong interaction between ginkgolide J or A with MAPK14, a potential target for PD.
Ginkgo Biloba Extract In An Animal Model Of Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review
Although the exact cause of neuronal loss in Parkinson’s disease is not known, evidence points to oxidative stress and the production of reactive oxygen species as the main events that occur in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the brain of parkinsonians. EGb761 is an extract of the leaves from the Ginkgo biloba tree that has been reported as an antioxidant and neuroprotective agent. The objective of this work was to perform a systematic review of the studies that analysed the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on Parkinson’s disease or Parkinsonism. This research was conducted using the following databases: Medline, PsycInfo, Cinahl, Sigle, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane Library, and Embase. Initially, we selected 32 articles. After a more detailed analysis, only 10 articles remained. One of the hypotheses for the positive effect of EGb761 on Parkinson’s disease is the reduction or inhibition of monoamine-oxidase activity. This enzyme metabolises dopamine, inducing the formation of free radicals, which in turn damage nigrostriatal neurons. Another hypothesis is that the neuroprotective effect of EGb761 against 6-hydroxydopamine, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and MPP+ toxins. As there are few studies on the effect of EGb761 on humans, this review could contribute new data to further the discussion of this issue.
How to cite this document
Don’t Miss: How To Manage Parkinson’s
Potential Active Components And Related Targets Of Gbe
Chemical components of GBE were searched and collected from TCMSP, TCMID, and SymMap databases and manually checked references from PubMed. After screening the druggability of these compounds using Lipinskis Rule , a total of 25 compounds were selected . The selected components chemical properties and ADMET profiles were listed in detail . Flavonoids or flavonoid derivatives were the major part of GBE. Other major active compounds were the terpenoid of the Ginkgo biloba, including bilobalide and ginkgolides. Most components were with high permeability, indicating a high degree of absorption. The toxicity of all components was relatively low except for fluoranthene and pyrene, which suggested suitability for drug development. Targets of these selected compounds were retrieved from databases and supplemented by manually screened references, rendering 283 potential targets.
FIGURE 1. ADMET features of 26 compounds in GBE. Heatmaps showed pharmacokinetic parameters of two components in GBE, including parameters describing drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity.
Target Genes In Different Cell Types Of Pd
Aided by recent advances in the snRNA-seq technique, we could characterize all cell types in the midbrain of Parkinsons disease . Astrocytes and microglia have been proved critical modulators in PD pathogenesis and are both targets of disease-modifying therapies . Thus, we selected microglia, astrocytes, and neurons as potential cellular targets of GBE. PD-related targets were determined according to DEGs in different cell types. As shown in Venn diagrams , potential targets were identified in the intersections between GBE and PD-related targets. The 3-category Veen diagram showed that only several targets were shared between cell types, such that PIK3CA was identified as a potential target in all 3 cell types. Despite that, most GBE targets were unique in each cell type. Cell-type-specific GBE targets were listed in Supplementary Table S2, and Supplementary Figure S1 showed the overlapping status of GBE targets in other cell types.
FIGURE 2. PPI Network analysis of potential GBE targets for PD. All GBE targets for PD in microglia, neurons, and astrocytes were identified via PPI Network. Node size was positively correlated to the degree score. The thickness of the edges indicated the connectivity score between linking nodes. Three Venn diagrams showed cell-type-specific targets in the intersection between PD-related targets and GBE targets.
Also Check: Can Women Get Parkinson’s
Ginkgo Biloba Doesnt Protect From Alzheimers
Second Major Study Shows No Benefit to Supplement
Sept. 5, 2012 A second large study failed to show that the supplement ginkgo biloba can prevent Alzheimers disease.
The study included close to 3,000 elderly people in France with memory problems. Some of them took ginkgo biloba and some did not.
Over five years of follow-up, about the same number of people in the two groups got Alzheimers disease.
The study is published in the journal Lancet Neurology.
Ginkgo May Improve Ssri Induced Sexual Dysfunction
Above I showed you just what Ginkgo can do for your erections.
But there is one more benefit of taking Ginkgo it might help with the sexual dysfunction caused by SSRIs.
Last week I talked about SSRIs and Erectile Dysfunction, specifically about the problem of Post-SSRI sexual dysfunction and the fact that it can last forquite a long while.
Ginkgo might be able to help.
A study from researchers at the University of California found that of 30 men studied, 74% reported that Ginkgo helped cure them of their PSSD.
Whats more, this number was even higher for women at 91%.
However, its not all good news.
Another study gave Ginkgo to six men and six women with PSSD and compared them to a placebo group and found no significant difference at 12 weeks for either sex.
And while these numbers are smaller, they were actually given more Ginkgo biloba then the people in the previous study .
That said, researchers did note:
There were some spectacular individual responses in both groups
So while its clear that Ginkgo is a superb supplement to help enhance erections, the jury is still out on whether it can cure SSRI-induced erectile dysfunction.
But if it were me and I was in a sexless relationship with post-SSRI, Id definitely give it a try, at the 120mg dosage used in the successful study.
You May Like: What Is Off Time In Parkinson’s Disease
Warning Disclaimer Use For Publication
WARNING: Please DO NOT STOP MEDICATIONS without first consulting a physician since doing so could be hazardous to your health.
DISCLAIMER: All material available on eHealthMe.com is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. All information is observation-only. Our phase IV clinical studies alone cannot establish cause-effect relationship. Different individuals may respond to medication in different ways. Every effort has been made to ensure that all information is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. The use of the eHealthMe site and its content is at your own risk.
If you use this eHealthMe study on publication, please acknowledge it with a citation: study title, URL, accessed date.
Comparisons Of Moca Scores Between Test And Control Groups Before And After Treatment
There was no difference in MoCA scores between the test and control groups before treatment . However, the MoCA scores of the test group at six months after treatment were significantly increased compared with the control group these scores were also higher than those before the treatment and at three months in the test group . The MoCA scores of the control group at six months were increased compared with before the treatment and at three months, but there was no statistical significance in the difference .
Table 2 Comparison of MoCA scores in the test and control groups before and after treatment
At the different time after treatment, the scores for the different components of MoCA in the test group were significantly increased compared with the control group , the scores for the different components of MoCA after treatment were significantly increased than before treatment in the test group . The improvement in visual-spatial ability and executive function , naming , attention , language abstract ability ,delayed memory and orientation were more obvious in the test group .
Table 3 Comparison of different components of MoCA in the test and control groups before and after treatment
Also Check: Is The Parkinson’s Foundation Legitimate
Suggested Ginkgo Biloba Supplements For Parkinsons Disease
Please consult a health practitioner before taking any health supplements.
There are many ginkgo biloba supplements available in the market but not all meet the standards set by German Commission E monograph.
The standardised content of pharmaceutical quality supplements contains 22-27% flavone glycosides and 5-7%terpenlactones, 2.8-3.4% ginkgolides A, B, C and 2.6-3.2% bilobalide. Also, they should contain less than 5 ppm gingkolic acid.
I have listed one pharmaceutical grade supplement and other dietary supplements that provide Ginkgo extracts close to these standards.
Tebonin Egb 761
EGb 761 is a patented standardised Ginkgo extract that is also referred to as Tebonin or Tanakan. It was developed by Dr Willmar Schwabe Group.
It has been used in clinical studies for several health conditions and is used to treat diabetes and diabetic neuropathies in France and Russia. In some European countries it is available as an over the counter drug.
Tebonin Gingko EGb761:
Here are some good quality standardised ginkgo extracts available as dietary supplements.
|Natures Way Ginkgold Max||Life Extension Ginkgo Biloba|
An Insight On Parkinsons
Before we start thinking of treatment methods, we need to understand the actual disease. Parkinsons is caused by nerve cell degenerations, preventing the brain from connecting with the body as it moves. Usually, you dont even notice the disease at first. Initial symptoms include stiffness, a weakness of a limb, or a faint trembling when youre resting your hand. Over time, these symptoms become more and more obvious, the tremors getting worse as they become full-on shaking of the limbs. At this point, you start to lose your movement, balance and coordination of your whole body.
It is not unusual to experience mental conditions such as cognitive problems or depression as a Parkinsons patient. While most of the time the disease is genetic, there are also certain factors that are said to increase the risk of Parkinsons, such as:
- Illegal drug use
Dont Miss: Voice Amplifiers For Parkinsons
Read Also: Does Jesse Jackson Have Parkinsons