Dataset Selection For Meta
Gene expression dataset searches were executed in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus 1 and Array Express database2 by inception of database records between January 1990 and November 2018 using the keywords related to Parkinsons disease. Two independent groups tested the procedure of dataset search and retrieval following the inclusion and exclusion criteria as described. Inclusion criteria: case-control study , comparative studies between PD and other neurological diseases, brain or whole blood as study specimens, datasets include raw or processed data. Whereas the exclusion criteria include animal model and in vivo studies, secondary gene expression studies, microarray dataset with less than two replicate samples in a group, and studies other than microarray experiments.
Figure 1. Study design: Systematic workflow describing the major steps adopted in this study: collection, curation, and meta-analysis of datasets identification of differential genes and selecting the genes that encode metalloproteins genes that encode metalloproteins showing a common trend in the blood and brain were selected and subjected to metalloprotein network identification of the linker protein that connects the hubs extracted from the metalloprotein network recruitment of research participants to determine the gene expression linker protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cell and the serum metal concentration of proteins in the hubs.
Choosing A Magnesium L
Very few magnesium supplements contain magnesium l-threonate.
So you must check product labels carefully to make sure your supplement contains it.
Magnesium l-threonate is available in its generic form, but there is one brand name you can look for as well, Magtein.
Magtein is a patented form of magnesium l-threonate thats been well-studied in animals.
Magtein is a raw ingredient included in magnesium formulations from a handful of supplement companies including Jarrow Formulas, NOW, and Source Naturals.
Dr. Pat | Be Brain Fit
The company behind Magtein partnered with Stanford University in one clinical trial, The Use of Magnesium L-Threonate for the Enhancement of Learning and Memory in People With Mild to Moderate Dementia.
You can read about it on ClinicalTrials.gov, a database of clinical trials being conducted around the world.
The fact that this brand name product has been studied does not necessarily mean it is more effective than generic magnesium l-threonate.
In my opinion, this simply reflects the monetary reality that there is little incentive for companies to conduct studies on substances that cant be patented.
Low Mg And Parkinsons Disease Model
In the course of investigations into the patho- genesis of the PDC, the present authors performed an experiment in which rats were exposed to restricted intake of Ca and/or Mg over two generations. This resulted in severe loss of dopaminergic neurons exclusively in the substantia nigra in 1-year-old rats that had been subjected to continuously low Mg intake over generations . This finding suggested a deep concern of low Mg intake over several generations to the pathogenesis of degeneration of the substantia nigra in humans.
Read Also: Gabapentin Parkinson’s
Natural Remedy For Parkinsons #4 Chlorella And Borax:
If you have a neurological disease such as Parkinsons orAlzheimers, the importance of removing heavy metals from the body – especiallyfrom the brain and nervous system – cannot be overstated. Heavy metalsaccumulate in the brain and nervous system at a rapid rate and cause damage tothe neurological pathways and brain inflammation. Fluoride is one ofthe worst, however, mercury, lead, aluminium and cadmium are also extremely dangerous.Chlorella and borax not only remove these heavy metals completely, theycontinue to prevent further toxic build-ups.
Chlorella is a miracle blue-green algae and one of themost powerful detoxifiers and chelators yet discovered. Whenits combined with cilantro, its benefits are enhancedsignificantly. A Russian study found that chlorella, combined with cilantro,was able to remove all heavy metals from the body, including fluoride and mercury,with no adverse or harmful side effects. You can purchase chlorellain powdered form online or from most health food stores. Just make sure you buythe Broken Cell Wall Chlorella as this is the strongest and most bio-available.For dosage recommendations, simply follow the directions on the container.
Foods High In Saturated Fat
The role that foods high in saturated fats play in Parkinsons progression is still under investigation and is often conflicting. We might eventually discover that there are certain types of saturated fats that actually help people with Parkinsons.
Some limited research does show that ketogenic, low-protein diets were beneficial for some with Parkinsons. Other research finds high saturated fat intake worsened risk.
But in general, foods that have been fried or heavily processed alter your metabolism, increase blood pressure, and impact your cholesterol. None of those things are good for your body, especially if youre trying to treat Parkinsons.
You May Like: What Is The Life Expectancy Of Someone With Parkinson’s Disease
Benefits Of Magnesium L
There are dozens of known magnesium benefits.
Appropriate magnesium supplementation has been proven to lift mood, increase resilience to stress, improve focus and concentration, raise energy levels, and improve sleep quality.
Its also good for a wide variety of conditions not related to brain health such as asthma, muscle cramps, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and heart disease.
Magnesium l-threonate has been around only since 2010.
So unlike many other natural supplements, it does not have a history of traditional use.
This makes research results more important than usual.
Of the dozen or so studies done on magnesium l-threonate, theres been only one clinical trial .
Since this study is by far the most relevant, lets take a look at this one first.
Magnesium The Most Imperative Mineral
Magnesium is the most abundant element that is involved in a wide range of biochemical processes in the body including energy generation, DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, and cell growth. It is essential for the proper functions of the brain, heart, and muscle. It is also crucial for your bone development.
Mg is abundant in plant and animal foods. It can be found in green leafy vegetables, nuts, whole grains, cereals, legumes, potatoes, rice, milk, fruits, chicken, beef, and salmon.
Read Also: Can Alcoholism Mimic Parkinson’s
Naturalremedy For Parkinsons #7 Omega
Animal based omega-3 fatty acids are a powerful weapon inthe fight against Parkinsons disease. One of the main fatty acids, DHA, is oneof the essential building blocks for the human brain. Half of your brain andeyes are made up of fat and a large proportion of this is DHA fat.
Omega-3 fatty acids have the unique ability to cross theblood-brain barrier, something most conventional drugs cannot do. They helpincrease dopamine levels and reduce neuroinflammation in the brain, while atthe same time, stimulating neuron growth. So basically, EPA and DHA help preventbrain cell damage and keep the nervous system in tip top working order! 4
Best sources of animal based omega-3s are either fishoil, cod liver oil or krill oil. High strength krill oil is the preferred option as thiscontains a substance called Astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is a potent brain food nutrientthat has been shown to prevent neurodegeneration and inflammation of the brain.For dosages, take AT LEAST the highest recommended amount listed on the bottle the same goes with fish oil or cod liver oil. You cant overdose on thesesupplements so theres nothing to be concerned about. In fact, the more omega-3syou can get into you the better the results!
In addition to this, try and eat some cold water fattyfish such as salmon, tuna, mackerel, sardines or herring 3-4 times a week foran extra supply of DHA and EPA.
As An Inhibiter Of Oxidative Stress
The present authors conducted a study to clarify the effects of Mg administration in a rat PD model involving culture of ventral mesencephalic- striatal cells with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium , based on recent evidence for significant loss of dopaminergic neurons exclusively in the substantia nigra of 1-year-old rats after exposure to low Mg intake over generations . The results indicated that Mg might protect dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra from degeneration. The concentration of Mg in the culture medium varied from 0.8 mM, corresponding to the control condition, to 4.0 mM. Effects were estimated by counting the number of surviving dopaminergic neurons immunopositive for tyrosine hydroxylase and measuring the length of dopaminergic neurites. An increase in the concentration of Mg to 1.2 mM significantly inhibited the toxicity of MPP+, and a concentration of 4.0 mM completely prevented any decrease in the number of dopaminergic neurons. The length of dopam- inergic neurites was significantly preserved in the presence of Mg at 1.2 and 4.0 mM. An increase in the concentration of Mg to 1.2 and 4.0 mM led to a significant amelioration in the length of dopam- inergic neurites after MPP+ toxicity .
Prevention of MPP+ toxicity by Mg in a Parkinson model . a: normal condition of cultured nigral dopaminergic neurons. b: severe loss of dopaminergic neurons and the neuritis after MPP+ administration. c: An increase in the concentration
You May Like: What Are Risk Factors For Parkinson’s Disease
Antioxidants: Vitamin C And E Mediterranean Diet
Since there is evidence relating oxidative damage of nerve cells to PD, some researchers are studying antioxidants:
- A 2002 study focused on the potential antioxidant Coenzyme Q10 , which is believed to play an important role in mitochondria health. Mitochondria are the “powerhouses” of a cell. Some scientists think that abnormalities of mitochondrial function may play a role in PD.
In 2011, a large clinical trial studying the potential benefits of CoQ10 on reducing the progression of early PD was stopped because a mid-study analysis suggested that there was no improvement in the people taking CoQ10 in comparison to those receiving treatment. Researchers decided that continuing the study would have shown an extremely low likelihood of CoQ10 showing any benefit in delaying the progression of early PD.
Scientists have also examined Vitamin E, Vitamin C and health foods to evaluate oxidative properties. Vitamin E can fight damage in the brain caused by free radicals and has been suggested to lower the risk of PD. However, researchers conducted an extensive and thorough study more than 10 years ago and failed to find any evidence that Vitamin E slows the progression of PD or manages symptoms. Since Vitamin E has few side effects, many people with PD continue to take it in high doses of 400 IU or more.
My Experience With Counselling And Parkinson’s Disease
– when the Bradykinesia took hold. What was quite remarkable and I did remark on it to my therapist was that although movement per se was still difficult, I was sitting there in full Parkinsons mode for the first time quite comfortable and without pain. This was quite a moment of revelation!
The importance of what Magnesium Oil Spray has done for me is much, much more than muscle pain relief. The shoulder pain was a constant state during off periods, so this issue was also preventing me from sleeping well and I cannot emphasize enough the importance of good sleep in recovering from PD. But even during the day, it meant I would get into terrible feedback cycles of physical pain and mental anguish. This product was the breakthrough that allowed me start breaking this vicious cycle and start learning about relaxation again.
More recently, I have come to understand the massive role of inflammation in PD, and because some people found the standard oil spray could sting their skin, to be on the safe side I have started using the sensitve skin version shown in the cover image to avoid any potential inflammatory complications.
You May Like: What Is The Life Expectancy Of Someone With Parkinson’s Disease
How Can I Start To Help My Friend With Parkinson’s Disease
For me this intervention has been highly beneficial and really helped me to re-open the pathways to movement we have since developed. I also believe, that having used it daily for over a year now, it has had a cumulative repair effect. However, back at the start, I had been describing to Deb how, when the Parkinsons stiffness and rigidity of muscles took hold , the very worst part was the pain in my shoulders. To help her understand what it felt like, I described it to her like this:
Imagine tensing the muscles of the shoulders up as hard as possible and then holding it like that for several minutes but then being unable to release the muscles by one millimeter again afterwards. Now imagine being stuck like that for hours!
Deb then made the intuitive leap between what I had described and muscle cramp. She herself had suffered in the past from something she calls Charlie Horses intense cramping of the calf muscles. She had researched the problem and discovered Magnesium, and that this provided quick and consistent relief for her.
So we searched for a similar product in the UK, but we found massageable magnesium products in doing so. The blurb on the product reads absorbed immediately when sprayed on to the skin relieves muscle stiffness and cramping. So I bought it and gave it a go. Due to the issues that many people with PD in absorbing nutrients properly through the gut, Deb suggested we should try these.
How About For Parkinsons
Researchers have been trying to find a connection between Mg intake and the risk of developing Parkinsons disease. The evidence collected so far suggests that there is a possible involvement of Mg in Parkinsons disease.
A study conducted in Japan showed that those who consume less Mg are at high risk of developing Parkinsons. In this study, 249 Parkinsons patients and 368 controls without brain diseases were examined for their consumption of different metals. The study found that those who were consuming high Mg in their diet were less likely to develop Parkinsons compared to those who were consuming less. The study further concluded that a higher intake of Mg may be protective against Parkinsons.
There is also evidence indicating that Mg could play a role in Parkinsons progression. A study involving 91 Parkinsons patients and 18 controls found that Mg concentration in cerebrospinal fluid decreased with the duration and severity of the disease. Its abnormal levels were also observed in otherstudies.
Also Check: Is Parkinsons Disease Fatal
What Is Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons Disease is a progressive neurological disorder which affects around 120,000 people in the UK. Progressive means that it typically worsens over time and neurological means that it affects the nervous system . The main symptoms of Parkinsons are slowness of movement , rigidity, tremor and postural instability . While Parkinsons is typically described as a movement disorder, a person with Parkinsons may experience a range of other symptoms including constipation, low mood, fatigue, sleep and memory problems. Symptoms of Parkinsons can be grouped into two major categories motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms .
Parkinsons typically strikes in middle age, with around 80% of cases presenting between ages of 40 and 70, and progression of symptoms is generally slow and continuous. Younger people who develop Parkinsons are more likely to have a relative with the illness suggesting a stronger genetic component. Symptoms usually begin gradually and motor symptoms are often preceded by non-motor symptoms such as fatigue, loss of smell, depression, constipation and sweating abnormalities.
If you are concerned that you or a friend or family member has symptoms of Parkinsons, you or they should see a GP immediately.
Analysis Of Individual Dataset
Each dataset was background corrected and normalized using Robust Multi-chip Averaging method. Principal component analysis plot was visualized to determine the sample distribution based on gene expression before and after normalization to identify outliers. The differentially expressed genes in PD compared to control was computed using the limma method with p-value < 0.05, adjusted by BenjaminiHochbergs false discovery rate .
Recommended Reading: Late Onset Parkinson’s
Magnesium And Risk Of Parkinsons Disease
Lately, there has been a growing interest in the protective role of Mg in Parkinsons disease. While the specific role of Mg in the development of Parkinsons disease has not been explored yet, a study conducted in Japan showed that low consumption of Mg increases the risk of Parkinsons disease. In this study, 249 Parkinsons patients and 368 controls without brain diseases were examined for their metal consumption. The study concluded that higher intake of Mg decreased the risk of developing Parkinsons disease .
Earlier before this study, it was reported that Mg concentration in the brain of Parkinsons patients decreases with progression of the disease. In this report, brains from 9 Parkinsons disease patients and 12 control subjects were analyzed for different metals. Mg level was found substantially lower in Parkinsons disease brains compared to control brains . Similar kinds of results were also observed in other studies .
Overall, these studies suggest that Mg has the therapeutic potential to protect the brain from developing Parkinsons disease.
Mg In Parkinsons Disease And Related Diseases
analysed four brain regions for concentrations of 24 metals by atomic absorption and atomic emission spectroscopy in brains of 9 patients with PD, 15 patients with other chronic neurological diseases and 12 subjects of controls. The results were that brains of PD and parkinsonism secondary to neurofibrillary tangle disease showed lower concentrations of Mg in the caudate nucleus and copper in the substantia nigra than control brains. Barbiloni et al., performed in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy on the occipital lobes of 13 patients with PD, 15 patients with multiple system atrophy and 16 age-matched healthy subjects. They reported that patients with PD showed significantly increased contents of inorganic phosphate , decreased cytosolic free , and unchanged phosphocreatine and pH. examined concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Si and Zn by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid of 91 PD patients and 18 controls. They concluded that Mg concentration in CSF of PD patients decreased with the duration and severity of the disease.
It has been proposed that Mg deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of parkinsonism- dementia complex and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Chamorro population on Guam, which is a member of the Mariana Islands in the western Pacific Ocean, as well as in the Kii peninsula of Japan and in West New Guinea . PDC is a disease entity that was established by
Read Also: How Is Parkinson’s Disease Inherited