Better Parkinson Prognosis With Protection
One of the known markers for PD is low glutathione in the substantia nigra – which was also the case for these animals that were given rotenone and iron.
Glutathione is the body’s “protective molecule” and is typically depleted in the brains of Parkinsons patients.
Increasing glutathione in the substantia nigra, they found, gave the test animals “dopaminergic neuroprotection” and decreased the damage caused by these toxins.
- This is why glutathione-building supplements are advised by neurologists for a better Parkinson prognosis.
This molecule can also protect against the eventual toxic effect of the Parkinsons medications which cause dyskinesia or “shaking:”
See: Dyskinesia caused by Parkinsons Medications, Carbidopa, Levodopa
Treatment For Paraquat Poisoning
According to a case report published in the Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention, there are currently no generally accepted guidelines on the treatment of patients who suffered from Paraquat poisoning.
However, the most common treatment options done in hospitals consist of prevention of gastrointestinal absorption of the chemical and its removal from the blood.
The hospital is most likely going to focus on getting Paraquat out of your system.
In case of patients who have managed to go to the hospital soon after ingestion of the herbicide, you may likely be given activated charcoal either to be taken orally or through a nasal tube.
But if Paraquat poisoning is more severe, removal of the chemical from the blood may be necessary, and can be performed through hemoperfusion.
This procedure aims to filter blood through the charcoal in order to remove Paraquat from your system, particularly from your lungs.
Doctors may also continue ordering blood and urine tests and monitor your vital signs to check for damage caused by Paraquat poisoning.
Unfortunately, the herbicide Paraquat is highly toxic and there is no known cure or antidote for it up to this day.
This is why early treatment is important, and may allow patients to avoid the permanent adverse health effects and long-term consequences of Paraquat poisoning.
What Are The Symptoms Of Parkinson’s Disease
The main symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are:
- tremor or shaking, often when resting or tired. It usually begins in one arm or hand
- muscle rigidity or stiffness, which can limit movement and may be painful
- slowing of movement, which may lead to periods of freezing and small shuffling steps
- stooped posture and balance problems
The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease vary from person to person as well as over time. Some people also experience:
- loss of unconscious movements, such as blinking and smiling
- difficulties with handwriting
- drop in blood pressure leading to dizziness
- difficulty swallowing
Many of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease could be caused by other conditions. For example, stooped posture could be caused by osteoporosis. But if you are worried by your symptoms, it is a good idea to see your doctor.
New Ucla Health Study Unveils Blood Test That Can Measure Cumulative Exposure Over A Lifetime
Lead is a poison that particularly affects the brain and nervous system. Exposure to lead in the environment can cause developmental and behavioral problems in young children its also harmful to adults.
Lifelong exposure levels, however, can be tricky to measure.
Now, a new study from UCLA Health has shown a link between lead exposure and Parkinsons disease. The study demonstrates a new method for measuring long-term lead exposure that is much easier than previous methods, and that could be modified to test for other environmental toxins.
Parkinsons is a neurological disease that affects movement, causing tremors, muscle stiffness, and difficulty moving, and also affects mood and cognition. The causes of Parkinsons are not fully understood, but exposure to environmental toxins has been shown to play a role. Studies of the effect of lead on Parkinsons disease have been inconclusive so far.
Measuring long-term lead exposure can be complicated. Blood tests reveal recent exposures, but researchers often want to know about cumulative exposure over a lifetime. Bone tissue can store lead for years, but the fluorescence imaging test that is used to detect lead in bone is expensive and time-consuming. Some researchers measure exposure through questionnaires, but these can often miss environmental sources of exposure, and participants dont always remember details accurately.
It turns out that lead exposure also leaves a distinctive DNA methylation signature.
Other Causes Of Parkinsonism
“Parkinsonism” is the umbrella term used to describe the symptoms of tremors, muscle rigidity and slowness of movement.
Parkinson’s disease is the most common type of parkinsonism, but there are also some rarer types where a specific cause can be identified.
These include parkinsonism caused by:
- medication where symptoms develop after taking certain medications, such as some types of antipsychotic medication, and usually improve once the medication is stopped
- other progressive brain conditions such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple systems atrophy and corticobasal degeneration
- cerebrovascular disease where a series of small strokes cause several parts of the brain to die
You can read more about parkinsonism on the Parkinson’s UK website.
Page last reviewed: 30 April 2019 Next review due: 30 April 2022
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Translating Certainty Ratings Into Levels Of Evidence For Parkinsonian
Five descriptors will be used to rate the level of evidence: high,moderate,low,inadequate evidence, and evidence of no health effect. The first three descriptors used in the previous step to indicate the certainty of the evidence will be directly converted into levels of evidence. However, if the level of certainty is very low or no evidence is identified, the level of evidence will be considered inadequate .
The descriptor evidence of no health effect that indicates that paraquat is not related to PD in humans or in rodent models will be considered only when the level of certainty is high .
How Is Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosed
Diagnosis is difficult at every stage of the disease, but particularly in the early stages. No single test can provide a diagnosis. A diagnosis will likely involve physical and neurological examinations, conducted over time to assess changes in reflexes, coordination, muscle strength, and mental function. Your doctor might also see how you respond to medicine.
You may need to have brain imaging tests to rule out other conditions that might be causing your symptoms. Such tests could include MRI and CT scans and possibly some other types of scans. Blood tests may also be done to exclude other illnesses.
Effects Of Lead And Dsp
Effects on STN Neurons
A total of 102 neurons were recorded in the STN of control, lead and DSP-4 rats. The firing rate of STN neurons was not significantly different in the three different groups of animals as previously reported . In control rats, the mean firing rate of STN neurons was 11.92 ± 1.74 spikes/s , in lead treated rats 12.04 ± 2.15 spikes/s and in DSP-4 rats 14.01 ± 1.81 spikes/s .
Figure 6. Effects of lead and DSP-4 treatments on the electrical activity of STN, GP, and SNr neurons. Representative examples of spike trains and the corresponding interspike interval histograms showing regular, irregular and bursty neurons recorded in the STN. Histograms represent the mean ± SEM of the firing rate of all neurons recorded in each experimental group . Firing rate data from control, lead and DSP-4 rats were compared using the one-way ANOVA. Firing pattern histograms showing the proportion of STN, GP and SNr cells discharging regularly , irregularly or with bursts . Changes in the proportion of different firing patterns were analyzed using a Chi2 test. *P< 0.05 comparison with controls.
Concerning the firing pattern, sub-chronic lead treatment significantly increased the proportion of STN neurons with bursty pattern compared to controls . In DSP-4 rats, a significant increase in the proportion of irregular neurons was found compared to controls .
Effects on GP Neurons
Effects on SNr Neurons
What Does Paraquat Do To Humans
Once inhaled, Paraquat can cause poisoning in patients which can then result in lung damage.
Aside from this, patients can also suffer from Paraquat poisoning after skin exposure or absorption. In this case, poisoning is more likely if the skin exposure lasts for a longer time, involves a concentrated version of the chemical, or if absorbed by a person whose skin has cuts, sores, or severe rash.
Lastly, once patients ingest a large amount of Paraquat, it can immediately cause direct damage once it comes into contact with the mouth, stomach, or intestines.
After Paraquat enters the body, it begins to spread in all areas of the body.
Paraquat causes toxic chemical reactions in several parts of the body, such as the lungs, kidneys, and liver.
Furthermore, in 2011, the journal Environmental Health Perspectives from a study that explored Parkinsons disease and the possibility that it may be linked to pesticide use.
The research explained that Parkinsons was associated with lifetime use of pesticides, with the supporting evidence that animal studies have suggested the pesticides Paraquat and Rotenone causes oxidative stress and blocks mitochondrial complex.
Paraquat specifically works by producing intracellular molecules that damage cells through oxidative stress.
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How Paraquat Exposure Is Treated In The Hospital
Initial therapy consists of removing the paraquat from the body and preventing further absorption for oral exposures by using activated charcoal or Fullers earth. Nasogastric suction may be considered for ingestions that present within 1 hour. Supportive care measures such as intravenous fluids , medications to help with breathing and to raise low blood pressure, a ventilator to support breathing, and possibly dialysis for kidney failure should be provided. Administration of excessive oxygen should be avoided because it may worsen paraquat toxicity. No proven antidote or cure exists for paraquat poisoning.
Effect Of Lead On Neurodevelopment
A childs BPb measurement is estimated to account for 2% to 4% of variance in neurodevelopment measures //. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry // cautions, however, that when studying the effects of lead on child development, the influence of multiple factors like treatment by parents or other adult caregivers should be taken into account. A childs family and personal psychosocial experiences are strongly associated with performance on neurodevelopment measures and account for a greater proportion of the explained variance in these measures than BPb levels.
Many studies have examined the effects of lead on childrens development outcomes covering varying ages at which BPb was measured and varying ages over which BPb levels were averaged. Statistically significant associations have been identified between average BPb levels over a specific period and various adverse health outcomes other studies have reported statistically significant associations with a single lead measurement at a specific age or with a peak measurement. In contrast to adults, central nervous system effects are more prominent than peripheral effects in the developing nervous system //. The developmental effects of lead occur during a critical time window .
Low-level BPb and development
In utero lead exposure
Biomarkers/biological Monitoring Of Lead Exposure
Biological monitoring has been defined as the measurement and assessment of agents or their metabolites either in tissues, secreta, excreta, expired air or any combination of these to evaluate exposure and health risks compared with an appropriate reference //. The term biological marker is a general term used for a system that specifically measures an interaction between a biological system and a chemical, physical, or biological environmental agent. Biological monitoring techniques are useful for risk assessment of toxic agents in the field of environmental health. Biomarkers are generally classified into three groups: biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility.
A variety of biomarkers are available to monitor human exposure to lead. Appropriate selection and measurement of lead biomarkers of exposure are critically important for health care management purposes, public health decision making, and primary prevention synthesis. Although different biologic tissues and fluids have been used to test for lead exposure, no biomarker of bioavailable lead has been generally accepted. The present review reviews focuses on the neurotoxic effects and the biomarkers of exposure of lead in humans and experimental animals.
Data Synthesis And Statistical Analysis
Meta-analysis of results will be considered by investigating heterogeneity among animal and human studies, separately. It is common, though, that environmental health studies have some differences regarding outcome assessments and exposure definitions that could be an obstacle to formal statistical meta-analysis . The heterogeneity associated with pooled effect estimates will be assessed with the use of a 2 test and the I2 statistic . Heterogeneity will be classified as follows: 0 to 40% 30 to 60% 50 to 90% and 75 to 100% .
Statistical analysis will be conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis STATA software . If considerable heterogeneity is detected among studies, meta-analysis will not be indicated and results will only be presented in tables or in a narrative synthesis. However, if heterogeneity does not exceed 75%, we will use random effects meta-analysis , which is a more conservative approach of pooling the results. In this case, the measure of association will be presented as odds ratios and mean difference, both with a 95% confidence interval , for studies with dichotomous and continuous data, respectively .
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Parkinson Causes: Do Genetics Or Environmental Toxins Lead To Parkinson
While Parkinson causes are diverse…
Both genetic and environmental causes of Parkinsons Disease are well recognized in the medical literature.
1) Environmental toxins lead to Parkinsons:
Studies, both of large groups of people and experimental studies show that both pesticides and metal toxicity are Parkinson causes.
- These toxins cause “a-Syn aggregation” which leads to neuro-degenerative diseases including Parkinsons.
2) Genomic defects are among Parkinson Disease causes:
- Yes, family history, or genetics can be a player, but few people get Parkinsons directly from genetic mutation. A number of factors usually combine to trigger the disease.
Which Parkinson Disease Causes Might Affect You?
When Parkinson causes converge — either genomic, or environmental factors or both, these lead to abnormalities in the mitochondria of the cells and there is more “oxidative stress.”
- Toxicity causes inflammation and oxidative stress and eventually the balance of health tips toward disease.
While not a Parkinson cure, we can protect better against toxins, and lower inflammation and oxidative stress.
Do I Have A Paraquat Lawsuit
Multiple lawsuits have been filed against the manufacturers of paraquat herbicides. Farmers and agricultural workers who were diagnosed with Parkinsons disease have brought claims alleging that companies such as Syngenta , Chevron/Chevron Phillips Chemical, and Growmark failed to warn them of the neurological effects posed by long-term exposure to low doses of paraquat.
If you worked as a certified applicator of paraquat or worked on or near a farm where paraquat herbicide was used and you have been diagnosed with Parkinsons disease, you may be able to bring a claim against the manufacturer and other parties involved in the distribution and sale of the product. You should speak to an attorney as soon as possible to ensure your rights are protected.
Dreyer Boyajian LLP has extensive experience handling complex product liability claims. Please call today for a free consultation to find out if you have a paraquat lawsuit.
How Is Parkinson’s Disease Managed
Your doctors will tailor your treatment based on your individual circumstances. You will manage your condition best if you have the support of a team, which may include a general practitioner, neurologist, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, psychologist, specialist nurse and dietitian.
While there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, symptoms can be treated with a combination of the following.
Dementia With Lewy Bodies
- Dementia with Lewy bodies is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder in which abnormal deposits of a protein called alpha-synuclein build up in multiple areas of the brain.
- DLB first causes progressive problems with memory and fluctuations in thinking, as well as hallucinations. These symptoms are joined later in the course of the disease by parkinsonism with slowness, stiffness and other symptoms similar to PD.
- While the same abnormal protein is found in the brains of those with PD, when individuals with PD develop memory and thinking problems it tends to occur later in the course of their disease.
- There are no specific treatments for DLB. Treatment focuses on symptoms.
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Anxiety: A Silent Symptom Of Parkinsons Disease
The diseases environmental risk factors include exposure to pesticides, heavy metals, and air pollutants, as well as traumatic brain injury. Pesticides, in particular, have attracted researchers attention as possible Parkinsons triggers.
Given evidence supporting a link between agriculture and Parkinsons, researchers at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, in New Hampshire, wondered why Medicare records showed relatively high disease concentrations in both their region of the Northeast and in the Midwest. Between these two regions, agriculture and its related pesticide use is only widespread in the Midwest.
They decided to examine environmental exposures and lifestyle behaviors among people in a rural area of New England with and without Parkinsons.
Identifying environmental factors that increase risk would allow exposure mitigation and disease prevention efforts while facilitating the experimental investigation of mechanisms and intervention opportunities, they wrote.
Investigators conducted a survey of 97 people with Parkinsons, with a mean age of 69.36, and 195 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals in New Hampshire and neighboring Vermont between 2017 and 2020. Respondents were asked about their employment, hobbies, physical activity, exposures to various substances, and family medical histories.
Exposure to lead associated with a 2.7 times greater Parkinsons risk, after adjusting for these same factors .
Burden Of Disease From Lead Exposure
The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation estimated that in 2017, lead exposure accounted for 1.06 million deaths and 24.4 million years of healthy life lost ) worldwide due to long-term effects on health. The highest burden was in low- and middle-income countries. IHME also estimated that in 2016, lead exposure accounted for 63.2% of the global burden of idiopathic developmental intellectual disability, 10.3% of the global burden of hypertensive heart disease, 5.6% of the global burden of the ischaemic heart disease and 6.2% of the global burden of stroke .
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