Thursday, September 22, 2022
Thursday, September 22, 2022
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How Many People In The World Have Parkinson’s Disease

Janet Reno: Public Service With Parkinson’s

The first woman to serve as U.S. attorney general, from 1993 to 2001, Janet Reno was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in 1995, just two years after she was nominated to the cabinet position. She was 55 at the time. “Well, my hand was shaking this summer, and I thought it would go away. I thought it was maybe you all picking on me. But it didn’t go away, and so I went and had it checked out,”Reno said during a press conference at the time.

Reno took medication to bring her symptoms under control, and although her Parkinson’s advanced, she was able to guest star as herself in a 2013 episode of The Simpsons, presiding in a trial in which Bart Simpson was the defendant.

Reno died in November 2016 at age 78.

What Diseases And Conditions Resemble Parkinsons Disease

PD is the most common form of parkinsonism, in which disorders of other causes produce features and symptoms that closely resemble Parkinsons disease. Many disorders can cause symptoms similar to those of PD, including:

Several diseases, including MSA, CBD, and PSP, are sometimes referred to as Parkinsons-plus diseases because they have the symptoms of PD plus additional features.

In very rare cases, parkinsonian symptoms may appear in people before the age of 20. This condition is called juvenile parkinsonism. It often begins with dystonia and bradykinesia, and the symptoms often improve with levodopa medication.

Q: Can The Stress Of The Covid

A: Stress can definitely increase PD symptoms. I have discussed the relationship between stress, anxiety and PD in general before, and COVID-19 has certainly created a very stressful environment for everyone. There can be stress related to contracting the virus as well as the anxiety and concern about returning to pre-pandemic activities now that life is starting to return to normal. The stress is being felt much more acutely by older adults and those with chronic medical issues, members of the population who have an increased risk of complications from COVID-19 infection. Many people with PD experience anxiety as a non-motor feature of their PD, and many are reporting that anxiety has increased since the pandemic began. To help minimize stress and normalize the current situation, be sure to establish daily routines, continue to exercise , and stay connected with family and friends in person if youre ready, or online or on the phone. Be patient with yourself and with others.

Q: Once I Am Vaccinated Can I Go Back To Doing Things As I Was Doing Them Before The Pandemic Does The Emergence Of The Delta Variant Change Anything

A: The CDC continually updates its guidelines in response to evolving public health conditions.

  • Fully vaccinated people can participate in many of the activities that they did before the pandemic; for some of these activities, they may choose to wear a mask.
  • To reduce the risk of becoming infected with the Delta variant and potentially spreading it to others, everyone, including those who are fully vaccinated, should wear a mask in public indoor settings if they are in an area of substantial or high transmission. The CDC constantly updates the map of US counties for which this applies. You will need to refer to your local public health authorities to determine whether your area is one with substantial or high transmission
  • Fully vaccinated people might choose to mask regardless of the level of transmission in their area, particularly if they or someone in their household is immunocompromised or at increased risk for severe disease, or if someone in their household is unvaccinated. People who are at increased risk for severe disease include older adults and those who have certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, overweight or obesity, and heart conditions.

Stage Two Of Parkinsons Disease

Understanding Parkinson

Stage two is still considered early disease in PD, and it is characterized by symptoms on both sides of the body or at the midline without impairment to balance. Stage two may develop months or years after stage one.

Symptoms of PD in stage two may include the loss of facial expression on both sides of the face, decreased blinking, speech abnormalities, soft voice, monotone voice, fading volume after starting to speak loudly, slurring speech, stiffness or rigidity of the muscles in the trunk that may result in neck or back pain, stooped posture, and general slowness in all activities of daily living. However, at this stage the individual is still able to perform tasks of daily living.

Diagnosis may be easy at this stage if the patient has a tremor; however, if stage one was missed and the only symptoms of stage two are slowness or lack of spontaneous movement, PD could be misinterpreted as only advancing age.

Other Risk Factors Of Parkinson’s

Because the causes of Parkinsons disease are unknown, there is no scientifically validated preventive course to reduce the risk of its onset. The single biggest risk factor for Parkinsons disease is advancing age. Men have a somewhat higher risk than women.

That being said, a number of studies have highlighted factors that are associated with either greater or lesser risk of Parkinsons disease. For example, smoking and caffeine consumption have been associated with lower rates of Parkinsons disease, while head injury and pesticide exposure have been associated with higher risk. While such studies do not definitively link these factors with Parkinsons disease one way or another, they highlight areas where further research may guide us to risk-prevention or treatment strategies.

Our website contains more information on the specific symptoms of Parkinsons which include:

What Causes Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease develops when there is a loss of nerve cells in the brain which produce a chemical called dopamine.  Dopamine is a chemical messenger that transmits impulses between nerve cells in the brain to control body movements.  Without enough dopamine, nerves in the brain which control muscle action do not work properly.  When the loss of nerve cells reaches 80%, Parkinsons disease symptoms begin to appear.  The disease progresses over time as dopamine levels in the brain gradually fall.

The reason for the nerve damage is currently unknown, although two areas currently being researched as possible causes are genetics and environmental factors.

Q: Are There Any Studies Of The Effects Of The Covid

A: Currently, there is no data that the COVID-19 vaccine has any long-term negative effects on anyone, including those with PD. Some people with PD have reported a worsening of PD symptoms in the short term after vaccination, which then resolve. The Center for Disease Control instituted a vaccine safety monitoring system, called , which captures side effects of the vaccine. If you have side effects from the vaccine and have PD, you can alert the CDC using this system. This will be an invaluable tool for scientists to discover trends in vaccine side effect profiles.

Levodopa Makes Symptoms Worse

Another misconception about levodopa is that it can make Parkinsons disease symptoms worse. This is not true.

It is important to note that levodopa can cause other motor symptoms, such as dyskinesia, which refers to involuntary jerky movements. However, the onset of dyskinesia is to the progress of the underlying disease rather than how long an individual has been taking levodopa.

Therefore, doctors no longer recommend holding off on taking levodopa until later in the disease.

According to the American Parkinsons Disease Association , dyskinesia does not generally appear until the individual has been taking levodopa for 410 years. The APDA also writes:

Dyskinesia in its milder form may not be bothersome, and the mobility afforded by taking levodopa may be preferable to the immobility associated with not taking levodopa. People with Parkinsons must weigh the benefits from using levodopa versus the impact of dyskinesia on their quality of life.

Tremor is perhaps one of the most recognizable symptoms of Parkinsons disease. However, some people develop nonmotor symptoms before tremor appears.

Also, some individuals do not experience tremor at any point during the diseases progression.

Speaking with MNT, Dr. Beck explained, About 20% of people with Parkinsons disease do not develop a tremor. Although scientists do not know why this is the case, Dr. Beck believes that tremor severity, in general, might depend on which brain regions the disease affects.

Case Studies And Spokespeople For Interview

We know real life stories can bring news to life. Contact us to put your story into context and organise interviews with people with Parkinson’s, their families and carers anywhere in the UK. We can also help you to liaise with our VIP and celebrity supporters about media opportunities.

We have expert spokespeople available in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland to comment on a wide range of topics including:

  • Parkinson’s research and the search for a cure.
  • Parkinson’s nurses and specialist Parkinson’s care.
  • Health and social care policy and campaigns.
  • Fundraising and events.

Tips for reporting on Parkinsons

It is important that Parkinsons is reported on correctly – with the most up to date information and an accurate understanding of the condition.

Find out more about Parkinsons

Parkinson’s is a progressive neurological condition. This means that it causes problems in the brain and gets worse over time.

Estimated Healthcare Costs Related To Pd In The Us

The combined direct and indirect cost of Parkinsons, including treatment, social security payments and lost income, is estimated to be nearly $52 billion per year in the United States alone.

Medications alone cost an average of $2,500 a year and therapeutic surgery can cost up to $100,000 per person.

Medications For People With Parkinsons Disease

Symptoms of Parkinsons disease result from the progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the brain and other organs such as the gut, which produce a neurotransmitter called dopamine. This causes a deficiency in the availability of dopamine, which is necessary for smooth and controlled movements. Medication therapy focuses on maximising the availability of dopamine in the brain. Medication regimes are individually tailored to your specific need. Parkinsons medications fit into one of the following broad categories: 

  • levodopa dopamine replacement therapy
  • dopamine agonists mimic the action of dopamine
  • COMT inhibitors used along with levodopa. This medication blocks an enzyme known as COMT to prevent levodopa breaking down in the intestine, allowing more of it to reach the brain
  • anticholinergics block the effect of another brain chemical to rebalance its levels with dopamine
  • amantadine has anticholinergic properties and improves dopamine transmission
  • MAO type B inhibitors prevent the metabolism of dopamine within the brain.

Parkinson’s Prevalence Facts And Stats

Study: 1.2 million will be living with Parkinson

Parkinson’s is the fastest growing neurological condition in the world, and currently there is no cure. 

1 in 37 people alive today in the UK will be diagnosed with Parkinson’s in their lifetime.

Our estimates show that around 145,000 people live with a Parkinson’s diagnosis in the UK in 2020.

Broken down within the UK, for 2020, that’s:

  • England: 121,000
  • Wales: 7,600
  • Northern Ireland: 3,900 

With population growth and ageing, this is likely to increase by a fifth, to around 172,000 people in the UK, by 2030.

Every hour, 2 more people are diagnosed. That’s the same as 18,000 people every year. 

Parkinsons Only Affects Movement

It is true that the medical community considers Parkinsons disease a motor disorder. However, people with the condition often also experience nonmotor symptoms, which can begin the motor symptoms.

Nonmotor symptoms can cognitive impairment or dementia, depression and anxiety, sleep dysfunction, pain, apathy, sexual dysfunction, and bowel incontinence.

People often overlook these symptoms, but they are important. As the authors of one on the topic explain:

onmotor symptoms dominate the clinical picture of advanced Parkinsons disease and contribute to severe disability, impaired quality of life, and shortened life expectancy.

drugs is levodopa, which the body converts into dopamine once it enters the brain.

There is a long standing myth that levodopa can only relieve symptoms for about 5 years before it stops working. This is a myth. Levodopa can be effective for decades. However, over time, its effectiveness might reduce.

Medical News Today spoke with James Beck, Senior Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer of the Parkinsons Foundation. He explained why levodopa becomes less potent:

One of the cruel ironies about Parkinsons disease is that the key enzyme that converts levodopa to dopamine is predominantly found in the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra, which are lost during progression of the disease. So, the main way to make dopamine available to the Parkinsons brain declines as the disease advances.

Estimation Of The 2020 Global Population Of Parkinsons Disease

N. Maserejian, L. Vinikoor-Imler, A. Dilley

Category:

Objective: To estimate the number of individuals living with PD globally in 2020.

Background: Although previous studies have estimated PD prevalence in many countries, the number of individuals with PD globally in 2020 has not been estimated.

Method: We comprehensively reviewed the literature for recent and reliable prevalence estimates of PD globally. The Global Burden of Disease Study was the only source available that provided an overall global estimate, with 2017 the most recent year available from the published manuscript or online tools . We verified the estimates of the PD prevalence of several countries that comprised the GBD summary estimate, by reviewing the individual publications and comparing them to the GBD estimates. GBD estimates tended to be in the lower range but close to estimates from the individual papers. For all but two countries , we applied the GBD prevalence proportions in 2017. For the US and Canada, we applied more recent prevalence proportions by Marras et al. 2018 . We assessed the worldwide PD population in 2020 by multiplying the most reliable prevalence proportions by the corresponding 2020 population, using CDC data for US, Statistics Canada for Canada, Eurostat for European countries and UN population estimates for the rest of the world.

To cite this abstract in AMA style:

Mov Disord.

Projected Estimates Of Parkinsons Disease With Aging Population

As the life expectancy has increased worldwide, it is expected that the burden of chronic diseases, like PD, will continue to grow. It is estimated that the number of people with PD in 2005 totaled between 4.1 million and 4.6 million and that number will more than double by 2030 to between 8.7 million and 9.3 million.7

Sex Differences In Pd

Median age was significantly higher in women , PD total number of cases was higher in men from 30 to 69 years. Levodopa and other antiparkinsonian drug prescriptions were significantly higher in men . In contrast, comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and psychiatric disorders were more common in females. Advanced PD , and fractures were more frequent in women as well. Age distribution, drug prescriptions, and comorbidities are exhibited in and 2.

Ben Petrick: The Major League With Parkinson’s

Ben Petrick dreamed of a stellar baseball career as a catcher with the Colorado Rockies. He played in 240 Major League games, the majority of which came after Parkinson’s disease struck him at age 22 in 2000. He retired from baseball in 2004.

He’s since authored , a book whose title in part references the 40,000 Americans diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease every year. The book also recounts his experiences in Major League Baseball while coping with Parkinson’s disease. According to an ESPN interview, Petrick’s father was also diagnosed with the condition but maintains a positive attitude, saying that although he has Parkinson’s, Parkinson’s doesn’t have him.

Alan Alda: Taking Action Keeping Active

The award-winning M*A*S*H actor broke the news of his Parkinsons diagnosis during an appearance on the CBS This Morning TV news show in July 2018 and hes found that exercise helps him stay positive. You can hold back the progress if you do a lot of specific exercises, so I do a lot of crazy things, he told in 2019. For this Marriage Story actor, these crazy things reportedly include boxing, juggling, tennis, swimming, marching, and biking.

Confirming the news of his diagnosis on Twitter, Alda remained optimistic. I decided to let people know I have to encourage others to take action, he . My life is full. I act, I give talks, I do my podcast, which I love. If you get a diagnosis, keep moving!

Q: I Have Parkinsons Disease Should I Receive A Covid

A: For information about the COVID-19 vaccines how they work, safety, and more please visit our updated COVID-19 information section.  In general, your age alone increases your risk of complications from COVID-19 infection. Depending on what PD symptoms you have, PD can also increase the risk of complications from the virus. For these reasons, it would be wise to protect yourself as much as possible from COVID-19, which would include getting vaccinated. As always, speak to your doctor about your individual clinical situation and to find out when and where you will be able to get the vaccine.

Do Symptoms Get Worse

The Rise of Parkinson

PD does not affect everyone the same way. The rate of progression and the particular symptoms differ among individuals.

PD symptoms typically begin on one side of the body. However, the disease eventually affects both sides, although symptoms are often less severe on one side than on the other.

Early symptoms of PD may be subtle and occur gradually. Affected people may feel mild tremors or have difficulty getting out of a chair. Activities may take longer to complete than in the past. Muscles stiffen and movement may be slower. The persons face may lack expression and animation . People may notice that they speak too softly or with hesitation, or that their handwriting is slow and looks cramped or small. This very early period may last a long time before the more classical and obvious motor symptoms appear.

As the disease progresses, symptoms may begin to interfere with daily activities. Affected individuals may not be able to hold utensils steady or they may find that the shaking makes reading a newspaper difficult.

People with PD often develop a so-called parkinsonian gait that includes a tendency to lean forward, taking small quick steps as if hurrying , and reduced swinging in one or both arms. They may have trouble initiating movement , and they may stop suddenly as they walk .

Symptoms Of Parkinson’s Disease

These common symptoms of Parkinson’s disease often begin gradually and progress over time:

  • Shaking or tremor
  • Poor posture
  • Slowing of body movements

As the disease continues to progress, additional symptoms can occur such as slurred or soft speech, trouble chewing and/or swallowing, memory loss, constipation, trouble sleeping, loss of bladder control, anxiety, depression, inability to regulate body temperature, sexual dysfunction, decreased ability to smell, restless legs and muscle cramps.

Who Is Affected By Parkinsons Disease

Several studies have found that the incidence of PD is much more common in than .2,4 One estimate found that PD affects about 50 percent more men than women.2 The reasons for the differences in men and women with PD are unclear, although some suggested explanations are the protective effect of estrogen in women, the higher rate of minor head trauma and exposure to occupational toxins in men, and genetic susceptibility genes on the sex chromosomes.4

People with a close family member with Parkinsons have a small increased risk of developing the disease. About 15 percent to 25 percent of people with PD have a known relative with the disease.2

It is estimated that about 10 million people worldwide are living with PD. The incidence of the disease is higher in industrialized countries.3,4

The incidence of PD increases with age: while PD affects 1 percent of the population over the age of 60, this increases to 5 percent of the population over the age of 85.1

Approximately 5 percent of people with PD are diagnosed before the age of 60.1

Urban areas have a higher prevalence and incidence of PD.5

Brian Grant: Staying Positive With Parkinson’s

Brian Grant spent 12 seasons as a National Basketball Association player, playing for the Sacramento Kings, the Portland Trail Blazers, the Miami Heat, the Los Angeles Lakers, and the Phoenix Suns. As an NBA player, he was known for his positive team commitment as well as his work with disadvantaged children. According to an interview with ESPN, he was diagnosed with early-onset Parkinson’s disease in January 2009, following his retirement from professional basketball. He went on to found the Brian Grant Foundation, which is dedicated to raising awareness and inspiring those living with Parkinson’s disease to include exercise as medicine.

Q: What Side Effects Can I Expect From The Covid

A: While there have been some varied reactions, the COVID-19 vaccines are approved by the FDA and considered safe. Some people may simply experience a mildly sore arm and that is it . There are some who may have a more noticeable reaction and feel chills, body aches, headaches and/or fatigue for 1-2 days, but these generally clear up quickly. There have also been some anecdotal reports of PD symptoms temporarily worsening after COVID-19 vaccination.

Weighing the risks of someone with PD getting COVID-19, as well as the significant downsides of all the pandemic-related restrictions on social and physical activities to someone with PD vs. the potential for side effects from the vaccine, I would favor getting the vaccine. As always, discuss all your medical concerns with your neurologist and primary care physician.

Stage Three Of Parkinsons Disease

Stage three is considered mid-stage and is characterized by loss of and of movement.

Balance is compromised by the inability to make the rapid, automatic and involuntary adjustments necessary to prevent falling, and falls are common at this stage. All other symptoms of PD are also present at this stage, and generally diagnosis is not in doubt at stage three.

Often a physician will diagnose impairments in reflexes at this stage by standing behind the patient and gently pulling the shoulders to determine if the patient has trouble maintaining balance and falls backward . An important clarifying factor of stage three is that the patient is still fully independent in their daily living activities, such as dressing, hygiene, and eating.

Are There Places Where Parkinsons Is More Or Less Common

In general, research suggests that the prevalence of Parkinsons is higher in Europe and the United States than in Asian, Latin American and African countries.

These differences may be largely explained by differences in the age-profile. If the population has more younger people and a lower life expectancy then its likely to have a lower number of people with Parkinsons. And in developing nations this may be compounded if they have less developed healthcare systems as Parkinsons is much less likely to be diagnosed or researched.

Read this interesting paper about the experiences of people with Parkinsons in Tanzania.

Although, there have been some reports of specific areas where Parkinsons is more or less common than expected, its usually difficult to prove these hotspots are not simply due to chance, or to see the same patterns in other similar areas.

Map Research: Where Do Patients With Parkinson’s Live

In addition, Bas Bloem also sees enough evidence that there is a relationship between the use of chemical and Parkinson’s disease. He explains this, among other things, in this lecture for the University of the Netherlands. There is more and more evidence for this. In France, the condition is even a recognized occupational disease among farmers. “We now know that, for example, wine growers have an increased risk of developing this disease,” says Bloem. “The areas in France where a lot of grapes are grown correspond exactly to the areas where Parkinson’s is common.” In the Netherlands, too, there will now be a ‘Map study‘, to accurately depict where Parkinson’s patients live. This should provide more insight into the role of pesticides in the development of Parkinson’s disease.

Establishing Pd Research Priorities

Nutritional and Genetic Susceptibilities in Parkinson

The NINDS-organized Parkinsons Disease 2014: Advancing Research, Improving Lives conference brought together researchers, clinicians, patients, caregivers, and nonprofit organizations to develop 31 prioritized recommendations for research on PD. These recommendations are being implemented through investigator-initiated grants and several programs. NINDS and the s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences held the Parkinsons Disease: Understanding the Environment and Gene Connection workshop to identify priorities for advancing research on environmental contributors to PD.

Research recommendations for Lewy Body Dementia, including Parkinsons disease dementia, were updated during the NIH Alzheimers Disease-Related Dementias Summit 2019 .

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