How Does Medical Marijuana Affect The Body
Marijuana affects the body through neurotransmitters, which are the chemical messengers of the nervous system.
Various factors can stimulate neurotransmitter activity, initiating a set of physiological responses. In cannabis, it is mainly THC or CBD binding to endocannabinoid receptors that produce new physiological reactions in the body.
The endocannabinoid system is one of the most important neurotransmitter systems in the body. It utilizes cannabinoid receptors located throughout the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system . Cannabis works to turn on endocannabinoid neurotransmitters through activity at these receptors.
What Evidence Or Research Exists To Say That Cbd Helps With Parkinsons Disease
One study showed that CBD may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties relevant to managing Parkinsons disease or its symptoms.
Another study stated that CBD may act as a neuroprotective antioxidant to help manage oxidative neurological disorders. Antioxidants may help reduce oxidative injury caused by neurological diseases such as Parkinsons.
Overall Completeness And Applicability Of Evidence
It can be argued that intelligibility is the most critical outcome to be measured in speech and language therapy trials. If this global measure does not improve then it is irrelevant to the patient how many other objective speech quality measures improve they still cannot be understood. All included trials assessed intelligibility and almost all results were not statistically significant. The exception to this was the perceptual ratings of speech recordings overlaid with babble noise for which LSVTLOUD gave a greater improvement than LSVTARTIC . The noninferiority of online delivery of LSVT was supported by the intelligibility results of Constantinescu 2011, who reported no statistically significant difference between the improvements in both acoustic and perceptual measures for this group and the facetoface delivery group.
The prosodic abnormality score, which assesses volume, pitch, tone, intonation, vocal quality , rate and rhythm, does not appear to have been independently assessed for validity.
Adverse events were not reported by any of the trials included in this review. Although the risk associated with speech and language therapy is low, patients could be affected by vocal strain or abuse during high effort exercises.
Speech and language therapy methodology
Speech and language therapy terminology
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Overall Quality Of Life
Researchers have suggested that the many potential benefits of CBD can translate to improved quality of ones life. This is a major concern for people diagnosed with Parkinsons Disease, as the condition affects various both physical and mental health.
One study found that people with Parkinsons disease and no psychiatric symptoms or conditions experienced an improved quality of life while taking CBD . However, this study was conducted in a very small group of people, so further research is needed to draw further conclusions on these findings.
Side Effects And Risks Of Using Cbd For Parkinsons Disease
Researchers have not conducted extensive studies on CBDs adverse effects on individuals with Parkinsons disease.
However, CBD may induce minor side effects, such as dry mouth, reduced appetite, diarrhea, drowsiness, and fatigue.
Other reported side effects of CBD are tiredness and changes in body weight.
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Traditional Treatments For Parkinsons Disease
There is no known cure for Parkinsons Disease although pharmaceutical medications may be helpful in managing symptoms of the disease. Traditional treatments include medications that stimulate dopamine production in the brain. Additionally, MAO B inhibitor medications are given to slow the breakdown of dopamine in the brain. Another common medication used to treat Parkinsons Disease is called an anticholinergic. This medication works to control tremors associated with the disease.
With all pharmaceutical medications there are significant side effects. For the above medications side effects may include dizziness, nausea, impaired memory, confusion, hallucinations, constipation, impaired urination and others. For some individuals who suffer with Parkinsons Disease the side effects of medication may be too much to bear.
Medical Cannabis is a unique alternative for people suffering with Parkinsons Disease. There are many subjective reports from patients who use medical cannabis to control the symptoms of Parkinsons Disease, with very few, if any, side effects.
Oxidative Stress And Cannabidiol
The energy production and metabolism of glucose implicated in OS are regulated by the FOXO transcription factors . This relationship between -catenin and FOXO leads to the promotion of cell quiescence and cell cycle stop. -catenin interrupts its complex with TCF/LEF by binding with FOXO . -catenin did not lead to nuclear translocation to and accumulates in the cytoplasm to inactivate the WNT/-catenin pathway .
CBD can reduce the redox balance through the modification of both the rate and activity of oxidants and antioxidants . CBD stops free radical chain reactions through the capture of free radicals and then by reducing their activities . CBD downregulates the oxidative conditions through the prevention of the initiation of superoxide radicals, produced by xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase . Moreover, CBD can enhance the diminution in NO levels . CBD also diminishes ROS production through the chelation of the transition metal ions implicated in the Fenton reaction to enhance hydroxyl radicals . CBD acts on the antioxidant BHT to prevent dihydrorodamine oxidation in the Fenton reaction .
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The Future Of Medical Marijuana
With more states legalizing it, there will continue to be a large demand for medical marijuana. Hopefully, well designed, large scale research is forthcoming.
According to Rachel Dolhun, MD Vice President, Medical Communications at the Michael J Fox Foundation, The work to date on marijuana and cannabinoids has given promising but conflicting signals on potential benefit for motor and non-motor symptoms as well as levodopa-induced dyskinesia. This therapy may represent a future treatment option for PD, but the correct dose and formulation are not clear, full side effects and drug interactions are unknown, and benefits have not been rigorously determined.”1
In the meantime, PWP will have to rely on anecdotal evidence on whether medical marijuana is an effective treatment for Parkinsons.
Is There Any Evidence That Cbd Can Make Parkinsons Disease Worse
No conclusive studies are determining whether CBD worsensParkinsons disease.
However, one study suggested that cannabinoids, such as CBD and THC, may have a hypokinetic effect through the activation of the CB1 receptors. This characteristic may cause hypokinesia or limiting motor movements.
Slow movements and limited motion range are some of the symptoms of Parkinsons disease. Thus, hypokinetic effects may worsen the condition.
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Cbd As A Treatment For Parkinsons
CBD hasnt been used in people with Parkinsons disease long-term, and research into the benefits of this cannabinoid only began a few decades ago.
That means research is limited, and often, the studies that have been done are very small. Scientists and doctors need to conduct larger-scale efforts to confirm any benefits.
However, some studies suggest CBD may have some positive effects, especially when it comes to nonmotor symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders.
Is There Insurance Coverage For Cbd
Some insurance agencies provide product liability insurance for the CBD and hemp industries. The conditions for this insurance type may vary among insurance providers.
However, CBD product liability insurance works similarly to other liability insurance products, wherein the policyholder uses the insurance to protect the brand or manufacturer from customer complaints caused by a faulty item.
Thus, this insurance coverage can shield CBD companies or help settle such legal claims, provided that the CBD products adhere to the FDAs guidelines, such as not making promises that CBD can treat or prevent diseases
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Can You Use Cbd Oil As A Prevention For Parkinsons
Studies have suggested that CBD may be able to help prevent Parkinsons disease, but the current data comes only from animal models.
The research also suggests that CBD can do nothing to help treat PD after its onset. Based on this, it may only be useful as a preventive supplement.
However, most clinical trials only use CBD after a person is diagnosed with Parkinsons disease. This is important because about 60 percent of the dopamine-receptive neurons in the brain are already destroyed by the time a person begins showing the symptoms of their condition.
Its also difficult to predict who will develop Parkinsons and who will be more resistant to this disease. There are only a few preventive strategies, and thus far, we dont know if CBD can help everyone.
Risks And Benefits For People With Pd
There are risks and benefits associated with the use of cannabis for people with PD. Benefits include a possible improvement in anxiety, pain, sleep dysfunction, weight loss and nausea. Potential adverse effects include impaired cognition , dizziness, blurred vision, mood and behavioral changes, loss of balance and hallucinations. Chronic use of marijuana can increase the risk of mood disorders, particularly among young users, and lung cancer.
Researchers issue caution for people with PD who use cannabis particularly because of its effect on thinking. PD can impair the executive function the ability to make plans and limit risky behavior. People with a medical condition that impairs executive function should be cautious about using any medication that can compound this effect.
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The Increased Interest In Cbd Products As Supplemental Treatment
There is also a very confusing array of CBD products that are available for purchase. These vary in:
- What the manufacturers state is in the product. That is, some formulations of CBD will state on their label that they also contain a small amount of THC or that they contain other cannabis-derived compounds, but not THC. Others state that they are pure CBD.
- The formulation. CBD is available in oils, creams, pills, inhalants and more.
It is not just the Parkinsons disease community that has taken an interest in CBD. There are countless health claims that CBD is helpful for a whole host of conditions. Clinical trial evidence to support the use of CBD however, is minimal. The only FDA-approved indication for CBD is to reduce seizure frequency in certain rare and severe forms of childhood epilepsy. A purified form of CBD, sold under the brand name Epidiolex® was tested in a well-designed clinical trial in order to gain this approval. .
For all the other health claims, there is not enough clinical trial data to allow the FDA to state whether or not CBD is effective. And there definitely is not enough data to support the use of one type or formulation of CBD over another.
This has not dimmed the enthusiasm of millions of CBD users for a wide range of medical conditions.
How Cbd May Help With Parkinsons Disease
There is no conclusive evidence that CBD helps manage Parkinsons disease or alleviate the symptoms of this disorder.
However, researchers have been interested in CBDs therapeutic properties as a potential remedy to help with Parkinsons disease or its symptoms.
CBD is purported to have anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic , antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties. These potential benefits suggest that CBD may help alleviate neuroinflammation, epilepsy, anxiety, oxidative injury, and nausea.
Individuals with Parkinsons disease may experience trembling hands, arms, legs, or head. Other symptoms include limb and trunk stiffness, slowness of movement, impaired balance leading to falling, depression, and sleep disruptions.
CBD works by engaging the bodys endocannabinoid system and inhibiting the fatty acid amide hydrolase enzyme. Inhibiting these enzymes may help exert CBDs neuroprotective properties, which may be beneficial for Parkinsons disease.
The ECS also contains the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, which have regulatory functions within the body.
CB1 receptors are primarily prominent in the brain and spinal cord and provide an effect on pain, appetite regulation, and memory. Meanwhile, CB2 receptors are present in the peripheral nervous system and immune system cells and help regulate inflammation.
Hypokinesia, also called bradykinesia, is a state wherein the body lacks sufficient motor function leading to a limited range of motions.
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An Active Response To Parkinsons Diagnosis
Both Dennis Mullen, 71, of Westminster, and Mel Preusser, 78, of Denver, take an active role in managing their Parkinsons disease. They exercise regularly, watch their diets and educate themselves about their condition through reading, classes and support groups.
Mullen ran his own FedEx Ground business until his 2010 diagnosis forced him to retire because the job required extensive walking. Since then hes battled tremors, stiffness and muscle freezing that occasionally stymie him during routine activities like trips to the pantry.
He admits that his initial diagnosis of Parkinsons disease left him depressed. But his wife and kids helped him shed those feelings.
I said I wont let this get me down, Mullen said. Im a fighter.
He said he works to stay abreast of the latest information about Parkinsons disease.
I take a bunch of different ideas and try them, he said. You have to grasp the things that are out there and try to keep up to date on what is working and not working for people.
Initially, he used the LVST BIG physical therapy program, riding a stationary two-seat bicycle with his sons, and the LSVT LOUD approach for speech therapy to mitigate his symptoms.
His vigilance alerted him to articles about CBD being used to treat seizures in kids and later its possible help for people with Parkinsons disease. That led him to Leeheys study.
What Are The Common Reasons That Someone With Pd May See A Speech
Often people with PD are referred to an SLP by their physician when they begin to have difficulty communicating or swallowing. Unfortunately, by the time people receive an evaluation from a SLP they have likely been experiencing subtle symptoms for quite a while. People with PD as well as their family members and friends often start being aware of communication issues when the person with PDs voice becomes too soft to communicate effectively. The communication symptoms begin very gradually, so they may first experience difficulty projecting their voice in a noisy environment, or when ordering at a drive-thru window. Over time they begin to experience more and more issues being heard and understood by others. Some people may gradually develop some imprecise/slurred speech and/or a hoarse or breathy voice quality. Communication can also be negatively impacted by changes in nonverbal communication, such as reduced facial expression and speaking with a monotone inflection.
Swallowing issues are often not detected until the person with PD is coughing significantly during meals or struggling to chew and swallow food safely and efficiently. The changes in swallowing can also happen so gradually that people assume symptoms are just related to aging or some other external factor, when in reality, these changes are directly related to the sensory and motor issues associated with PD.
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Using Cbd To Treat Parkinsons Disease Symptoms
The benefits and research around CBD are still emerging
With the legalization of medical marijuana, many states are approving the use of it in a non-traditional way to treat the symptoms of certain conditions, including Parkinsons disease. Marijuana has two major components to ittetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol . Both may help with nausea and muscle pain or spasms, but unlike THC, CBD doesnt give you the high feeling marijuana is most commonly known for. This makes it an enticing, natural way for many to help treat their Parkinsons disease symptoms. Whats more, is that because CBD is a natural compound from the Cannabis sativa plant, using it may also leave you side effect-free, unlike many prescription medications.
What Does The Fda Say About Using Cbd Oil For Parkinsons
CBD oil hasnt been approved by the FDA as a treatment for Parkinsons disease. In fact, there are no FDA-approved cannabis treatments for this condition as of today. However, the FDA did acknowledge a CBD-based medication, Epidiolex, to treat two types of drug-resistant epilepsy.
Researchers from the University of Colorado are using Epidiolex to analyze its benefits on people with Parkinsons-triggered tremors. The study is currently in its second stage.
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Parkinsons Disease Affects 10 Million Worldwide
Parkinsons disease is a neurological disorder that causes uncontrollable or unintended movements, stiffness and difficulties with balance and coordination in more than 10 million patients worldwide. Common treatments include medications to treat the symptoms of Parkinsons disease, but there is no known cure for the condition.
A study published by the Journal of Parkinsons Disease in 2020 determined that nearly 10% of Parkinsons patients in Germany, where cannabis has been approved as a treatment for the condition since 2017, use cannabis to treat their symptoms. But with an almost inexhaustible variety of marijuana strains and other cannabis products available from both licensed and illicit sources, choosing a formulation that will consistently provide relief can be challenging.
There are over a trillion possible combinations of cannabinoids and terpenes that could be derived from the cannabis plant, but only a handful are the optimal combination to treat Parkinsons, said Lecht. Our mission is to discover the correct combination, and to identify the precise ratio so all active ingredients interact in the right way with each other. We can then leverage our Unlokt technology to make a product that will deliver the precise combination of cannabinoids and terpenes to patients quickly, safely and effectively.
Forms Of Cbd Administration
There are a variety of options when it comes to administering CBD. The main difference is that each form takes a different amount of time to work and lasts differently in the body. They are:
Ingestible CBD, which commonly includes oils and tinctures .
Sublingual consumption, which is a few drops of oil or tincture placed under the tongue for a few minutes. It is often suggested because the oil is absorbed quickly into the bloodstream and is generally effective within a few minutes. One can also digest the oil or tincture directly or add it to food.
Oil capsules that can be taken like pills.
CBD edibles, like gummies, can take an hour before they start working. The effects can be felt for 4 hours or longer.
Oils and tinctures can also be applied topically, meaning they can be applied to the skin. Like digesting CBD, it can take an hour or so for the effects to be felt and will last for a few hours. This method of use is good for people suffering from localized pain.
One can also opt for CBD vape products , CBD inhalers, or smoke high-CBD hemp strains. This method of inhalation allows users to feel the effects of CBD almost immediately and generally lasts a couple of hours.
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