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What Causes Parkinson Disease And Alzheimer

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Parkinsons Dementia Vs Alzheimers Dementia

Overlapping causes of dementia: Alzheimers, Parkinsons, stroke, ALS, Lou Gehrig’s

According to experts, Parkinsons dementia can cause impaired physical activity and impacts motor skills. Two neurotransmitters called dopamine and serotonin tend to be damaged by Parkinsons.

In addition to causing issues with movement and coordination, this form of dementia can also cause a slower thought process and memory problems. This is usually less pronounced however, until the later stages of the disease.

With Alzheimers, two types of proteins in the brain, tangles and plaques , accumulate and kill brain cells. This Alzheimers-induced dementia affects memory, clear thinking, language skills, and orientation. It reduces comprehension, learning capacity, and judgement. Storing new information and memory retrieval are impacted more than motor skills.

Distinguishing between these neurodegenerative conditions is important to determine the best treatment approach. Medications for one of condition might create problems when given to a patient with the other condition.

Sensitivity Analysis Between Pd And Ad Risk

To further test the stability of these estimates, we sequentially removed each genetic variant in the MR analysis. The direction and precision of the genetic estimates between PD and the risk of AD remained largely unchanged using these MR methods except maximum-likelihood method . In spite the exclusion of rs356182 notably increased the significance of the association between PD and AD risk, it is P value still not reach 0.05.

Other Causes Of Dementia

Dementia isnt the only reason for someone with Parkinsons to have dementia-like symptoms. They could also be caused by mental disorders, treatable conditions, or medication side effects.

Common mental disorders in Parkinsons disease could also cause dementia-like symptoms, including:

  • Depression sadness, tearfulness, fatigue, withdrawal, loss of interest in activities once enjoyed, sleeping too much or too little, weight gain or loss
  • Anxiety excessive worry or fear that disrupts everyday activities or relationships, restlessness, extreme fatigue, muscle tension, sleeping problems
  • Psychosis inability to think realistically, hallucinations, delusions , paranoia , and problems with thinking clearly

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The Era Of Digital Cognitive Testing

The development of digital cognitive testing and the evolution of self-completed computerized assessments and wearable devices to assess cognitive functioning in daily life, provides an exciting opportunity to both improve clinical management and to obtain more sensitive outcome measures for clinical trials and will likely become a standard procedure in the future, given further technological improvements and increased access to the internet and digital devices. To reach this point, psychometric requirements , documentation and technical problems, as well as their relation to traditional tests, need to be well known.

Tip : Whatand Howyou Eat Can Make A Difference


Theres no specific Parkinsons disease diet, but by adjusting your eating habits, you can help protect your brain. Diets that are good for your heart tend to also be good for brain health. Eating habits such as those promoted in the Mediterranean diet can help reduce inflammation, protect neurons, and promote better communication between brain cells.

Primarily, its important to eat plenty of fruit and vegetables, cut down on sugary foods and refined carbs, reduce fried and processed foods, and boost your intake of healthy fats and home-cooked meals. High protein meals may also help to benefit your brain chemistry.

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What Causes Parkinsons Disease Endogenous Factors Definition

Due to the high consumption of oxygen and the high content of oxidizable substrates , metal ions , and catecholamines. As described in the first part, the neurons of the substantianigra or substantianigra are rich in dopamine. It should also be added that the brains antioxidant defenses are weak in fact, there is a low concentration of glutathione and vitamin E, and moreover. There is an almost absence of catalase . Therefore, these toxic lesions can accelerate the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons at the nigra level.

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Despite the framework provided by the free radical theory. Among these, we recall cellular damage, which is based on dysfunction at the mitochondria level. In particular, at the level of the respiratory complex I. Some studies have shown that the respiratory chain activity in the brain of an individual suffering from the disease Parkinsons showed a 37% reduction in the activity of complex I, leaving the activities of complex II, III, and IV unchanged.

Alzheimers And Parkinsons Disease: Similarities And Differences

James M. Ellison, MD, MPH

Swank Center for Memory Care and Geriatric Consultation, ChristianaCare Configure

  • Expert Advice

Explore the similarities and differences between two common degenerative brain disorders.

Ron brings his 78-year-old wife, Sara, to the Memory Clinic, with a pressing concern. Sara is forgetting things more often even though her Parkinsons disease symptoms appear to be under good control with standard medications, healthy diet, and plenty of physical activity. She is losing her train of thought mid-sentence and she became very confused about where she was while driving the well-traveled route to her daughters home. Is she developing dementia? Is that a part of Parkinsons disease? Or is she developing Alzheimers disease? And what are the differences between Alzheimers and Parkinsons?

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Behaviors Seen In Parkinsons Disease Dementia

As dementia progresses, managing disorientation, confusion, agitation, and impulsivity can be a key component of care.

Some patients experience hallucinations or delusions as a complication of Parkinsons disease. These may be frightening and debilitating. Approximately 50 percent of those with the disease may experience them.

The best thing to do when giving care to someone experiencing hallucinations or delusions from Parkinsons disease dementia is to keep them calm and reduce their stress.

Take note of their symptoms and what they were doing before they exhibited signs of hallucinating and then let their doctor know.

This element of the disease can be particularly challenging for caregivers. Patients may become unable to care for themselves or be left alone.

Some ways to make caregiving easier include:

  • sticking to a normal routine whenever possible
  • being extra comforting after any medical procedures
  • limiting distractions
  • using curtains, nightlights, and clocks to help stick to a regular sleep schedule
  • remembering that the behaviors are a factor of the disease and not the person

What Causes Parkinson Disease

Dr Joel Wallach what causes Parkinson’s Disease ALS Alzheimer’s Disease

Parkinson disease arises from decreased dopamine production in the brain. The absence of dopamine makes it hard for the brain to coordinate muscle movements. Low dopamine also contributes to mood and cognitive problems later in the course of the disease. Experts don’t know what triggers the development of Parkinson disease most of the time. Early onset Parkinson disease is often inherited and is the result of certain gene defects.

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Biomarkers Of Cognitive Decline

Many of the pathologies associated with cognitive impairment can be identified in vivo using a variety of imaging and blood-based or CSF-based markers. These biomarkers can be used to provide an increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in PD and, from a clinical perspective, can identify patients with an increased risk of early and rapid cognitive decline.

One of the first identified predictive markers was temporo-parietal atrophy on MRI , confirmed in many subsequent studies. In addition, basal forebrain atrophy observed using MRI is also associated with cognitive impairment in PD,. Hypometabolism in the medial frontal and parietal regions using FDG-PET is associated with a decline in executive and memory function. More recent MRI techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, also hold promise as biomarkers of cognitive function. For example, increased radial and axial diffusivity in the thalamus observed using diffusion tensor imaging was associated with a decline in MoCA scores.

Signs And Symptoms Of Pdd

Common signs and symptoms of Parkinsons disease dementia include:

  • Poor memory and concentration
  • Depression
  • Visual hallucinations

If youve noticed some of the above signs and symptoms in yourself or a loved one, its important to get them checked out. But dont jump to conclusions. People with Parkinsons often experience cognitive changes such as anxiety, lack of motivation, and slowed thinking. These symptoms do not automatically mean dementia.

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The Differences Between Alzheimer’s And Parkinson’s

16 October, 2020

Do you know the differences between Alzheimers and Parkinsons? First of all, we must say that both diseases constitute two of the causes of dementia. Now, lets be a bit more specific. According to data from the WHO , dementia due to Alzheimers disease represents 60-70% of all cases of dementia in the world.

However, its important to keep in mind that theyre very different diseases. Additionally, we must make clear that having either condition doesnt always lead to the development of dementia . In this sense, we know that between 20-60% of people with Parkinsons disease end up developing dementia.

Buter et al. conducted a study that was published in the journal Neurology. It was conducted with 233 patients with Parkinsons disease. The researchers were able to observe that about 60% of them developed Parkinsons dementia in a period of 12 years.

So whats dementia? It refers to the set of symptoms that arise as a consequence of neurological damage or disease. These symptoms involve the loss or weakening of the mental faculties and mainly affect three different areas: cognitive , behavioral , and personality .

Reported Snca Mutations In Pd

Reverse Parkinson

We acquired the PD susceptibility SNCA lead SNPs through a rigorous screening process. We first searched all previous GWASs which reported SNCA as a PD susceptibility locus. Afterwards, we obtained the lead SNPs from each GWAS. However, we would exclude the lead SNP when they were not reported by GWAS of European ethnicity. When a lead SNP is reported by more than one GWAS, we would extract the summary statistics from the most large-scale GWAS because of its greater statistic power. When several lead SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium , we would choose the one from the most large-scale GWAS. We searched the LD information by using the HaploReg v4.1, which based on LD data from 1000 Genomes Project .

Finally, we only selected one lead SNP from 7 unduplicated lead SNPs. The sources and the detailed information about the 7 SNPs are described in Table . We excluded the SNPs rs11931074, rs8180209 and rs6532194 because they were reported in GWASs of Asian ethnicity. We then found that all of the rest 4 SNPs were located in SNCA. Considering the rs356182 was overwhelmingly significantly associated with PD risk in the most large-scale PD GWAS , we selected this genetic variant as tagged SNP to perform MR analysis.

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Support Groups For Parkinsons With Or Without Dementia

Parkinsons disease is tough to live with, both for the person affected and their family. Support groups are filled with people who are going through very similar experiences. Theyre a great place to safely vent frustrations, get new ideas for how to cope or solve problems, and learn about helpful resources.

Check with these organizations to find a support group in your area:

What Causes Parkinsons Disease: Genetics

Looking at genetics instead, about Parkinsons disease, there is great interest in trying to find out which gene is responsible for the majority of cases of the disease. Studies of homozygous twin pairs were conducted between 1969 and 1983 by several groups of researchers. These independent research results revealed that genetic factors played a weak if not small role in the causes of what causes Parkinsons disease. In recent years, however, some genealogies have been described in which the disease is transmitted in an autosomal way.

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Improved Clinical Trial Design

Clinical trials for therapies targeting cognition in PD may benefit from recent design improvements. More sensitive outcomes, including computerized cognitive testing and wearables to measure motor and other functions, together with the development of an internationally recognized set of core outcomes, as has been done for idiopathic PD, particularly focused on patients with cognitive impairment and on the effects of specific interventions , will allow the reporting and comparison of research outcomes in a standardized manner. More targeted selection criteria using current diagnostic criteria, and recommended assessments, combined with both biomarkers and genetic risk factors aiming to assign the right person to the right intervention at an early disease stage, as well as biomarkers demonstrating target involvement, will offer opportunities for improved statistical power and cheaper trials.

Are You Afraid Thinking Can Parkinson Cause Dementia

Doctor Thinks He Knows What Causes Alzheimers, Parkinsons, and ALS! | Mark Hyman

Can Parkinson Cause Dementia? Well, to know the answer to this questionyou must know about the disease first.

Though, Parkinsons disease is a kind of movement disorderit tightens the musclemakes them rigid& people suffering from Parkinson, find it very difficult to do daily activities.

Moreover, its a very chronic disease that progresses & doesnt go away with time.

Well, its true that the disease doesnt go away with time, but still, there you can suppress it & has a healthy life.

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Parkinsons Disease Dementia Vs Lewy Body Dementia

Lewy body dementia is typically when:

  • Dementia symptoms appear within 1 year after movement symptoms
  • Both dementia symptoms and movement symptoms are present at the time of diagnosis
  • Movement symptoms develop within a year of a Lewy body dementia diagnosis

Many experts now believe that Parkinsons disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies are caused by the same problems with brain processing of a specific protein . But they still recommend diagnosing dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinsons dementia as separate diseases.

What Are The Treatments For Lewy Body Dementia

There is no cure for LBD, but treatments can help with the symptoms:

  • Medicines may help with some of the cognitive, movement, and psychiatric symptoms
  • Physical therapy can help with movement problems
  • Occupational therapy may help find ways to more easily do everyday activities
  • Speech therapy may help with swallowing difficulties and trouble speaking loudly and clearly
  • Mental health counseling can help people with LBD and their families learn how to manage difficult emotions and behaviors. It can also help them plan for the future.
  • Music or art therapy may reduce anxiety and improve well-being

Support groups can also be helpful for people with LBD and their caregivers. Support groups can give emotional and social support. They are also a place where people can share tips about how to deal with day-to-day challenges.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

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Diagnosis Of Parkinsons Disease

A number of disorders can cause symptoms similar to those of Parkinson’s disease. People with Parkinson’s-like symptoms that result from other causes are sometimes said to have parkinsonism. While these disorders initially may be misdiagnosed as Parkinson’s, certain medical tests, as well as response to drug treatment, may help to distinguish them from Parkinson’s. Since many other diseases have similar features but require different treatments, it is important to make an exact diagnosis as soon as possible.

There are currently no blood or laboratory tests to diagnose nongenetic cases of Parkinson’s disease. Diagnosis is based on a person’s medical history and a neurological examination. Improvement after initiating medication is another important hallmark of Parkinson’s disease.

Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease

Understanding Parkinsons Disease Anatomical Chart, 2nd ...

Parkinson’s disease has four main symptoms:

  • Tremor in hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head
  • Stiffness of the limbs and trunk
  • Slowness of movement
  • Impaired balance and coordination, sometimes leading to falls

Other symptoms may include depression and other emotional changes difficulty swallowing, chewing, and speaking urinary problems or constipation skin problems and sleep disruptions.

Symptoms of Parkinsons and the rate of progression differ among individuals. Sometimes people dismiss early symptoms of Parkinson’s as the effects of normal aging. In most cases, there are no medical tests to definitively detect the disease, so it can be difficult to diagnose accurately.

Early symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are subtle and occur gradually. For example, affected people may feel mild tremors or have difficulty getting out of a chair. They may notice that they speak too softly, or that their handwriting is slow and looks cramped or small. Friends or family members may be the first to notice changes in someone with early Parkinson’s. They may see that the person’s face lacks expression and animation, or that the person does not move an arm or leg normally.

People with Parkinson’s often develop a parkinsonian gait that includes a tendency to lean forward, small quick steps as if hurrying forward, and reduced swinging of the arms. They also may have trouble initiating or continuing movement.

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Stages Of Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, progressive, insidious, mainly characterized by two phases: a perisintomatica phase and asymptomatic phase. Although it is not yet clear when this phase begins, nor what percentage the loss of dopaminergic neurons is quantified. Parkinsons based on various research studies, some theories have been formulated. According to which five years would pass between the initial depletion of dopaminergic neurons and the appearance of the first symptoms.

Another current of thought argues that the loss of neurons may begin. As early as forty years before the onset of the disease. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to determine the exact first symptoms on the part of the individual since the onset is gradual and insidious. In fact, some symptoms are so mild that a clinical evaluation is not possible. While signs such as depression or seborrheic dermatitis, which are not motor symptoms, may appear long before motor dysfunction.

However, we can classify the symptomatic phase of Parkinsons disease into two parts: the early phase and the late phase. Which appears when approximately 70% of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra have been lost. The second phase, on the other hand, refers to the period in which the disease progresses.


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