Alzheimers Ftd And Parkinsons Disease: Are They All Connected
Work by Alzheimer’s Society;funded fellow Raffaele Ferrari;has uncovered information about the potential overlap between three seemingly different conditions:;Alzheimer’s disease,;frontotemporal dementia;and;Parkinson’s disease.
Whilst Alzheimer’s disease is most commonly associated with changes to memory and thinking, frontotemporal dementia is more known for affecting a person’s behaviour and language. Parkinson’s disease is most famously associated with problems with movement, including shaking. However, some of the symptoms of these conditions can overlap.
Living With Parkinson Disease
These measures can help you live well with Parkinson disease:
- An exercise routine can help keep muscles flexible and mobile. Exercise also releases natural brain chemicals that can improve emotional well-being.
- High protein meals can benefit your brain chemistry
- Physical, occupational, and speech therapy can help your ability to care for yourself and communicate with others
- If you or your family has questions about Parkinson disease, want information about treatment, or need to find support, you can contact the American Parkinson Disease Association.
How Is Parkinsons Disease Dementia Diagnosed
No single test can diagnose Parkinsons disease dementia. Instead, doctors rely on a series or combination of tests and indicators.
Your neurologist will likely diagnose you with Parkinsons and then track your progression. They may monitor you for signs of dementia. As you get older, your risk for Parkinsons dementia increases.
Your doctor is more likely to conduct regular testing to monitor your cognitive functions, memory recall, and mental health.
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Not Everyone With Parkinsons Will Develop Dementia
Despite the fact that the pathology of Parkinsons disease can trigger the development of different types of dementia, not everyone with Parkinsons will develop dementia. About 30 percent of people with Parkinsons will actually not develop dementia at all, as stated by the National Parkinson Foundation.
However, the vast majority of people with Parkinsons may experience some form of cognitive impairment over time, the foundation says.
Data Collection And Pre
We searched arrayExpress and NCBI GEO databases using the keywords Parkinson AND substantia nigra to find mRNA expression studies of human post-mortem brain tissue from the SN related to PD. Studies were included if they: used clinically diagnosed idiopathic PD patients; used brain tissue samples and had cohorts with more than three samples in either disease or control conditions. If a patient had duplicate samples analysed using different platforms or multiple samples from within the SN, only one of them was used.
Data processing is shown in Fig.;. All work was done in the R programming language . The identified datasets were downloaded and raw CEL file data were loaded into R using the affy package available on bioconductor . Boxplots and density plots were used to identify any outlier samples that were subsequently removed. The datasets were then normalized using the Robust Multi-array Average approach in the affy R package. Probesets were first mapped to Entrez Gene IDs using manufacturer-supplied annotation files. Probesets that mapped to multiple genes were removed, and for any genes that mapped to multiple probesets only the probeset that had the largest absolute estimated effect size was kept .
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Ways To Decrease The Risk Of Parkinsons And Alzheimers
There is currently no cure for either disease. Parkinsons is considered a more treatable condition, however, especially in the early stages of the disease. Treatments include medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications such as dietary changes. Research continues to suggest that a brain-healthy lifestyle can help prevent both Alzheimers and Parkinson’s. Here are some basic guidelines:
Theres No Cure For The Diseases But Some Therapies May Help
Certain drugs, like cholinesterase inhibitors and antipsychotic medications, are prescribed as treatment for people with Parkinsons and dementia. And lifestyle changesfrom improved diet, sleep, exercise and socializinghave been shown to have beneficial effects on patients with these diseases.
Oguh noted she hopes that improved treatments that will help some of the emotional and behavioral problems in these patients will be on the horizon soon.
Im hoping that with the new advances in medication, well be able to control better, Oguh said. I believe there will be better medication to improve cognition in patients, and that that will be seen in the next five to 10 years.
Apda In Your Community
Dementia is an umbrella term that is defined by a decline in memory and cognitive, or thinking, skills to a level that interferes with normal function. It is normal for older people to have more problems remembering names and faces than they had before, but this does not interfere with normal activities in most cases. People with dementia will misplace things much more than they used to. They will forget appointments, get lost driving, even in relatively familiar places. They may wake up during the night and think they need to go to work even though they retired years ago. They may ask to go home even though they are at home, mistake their wife for their mother, and sometimes get agitated when they are certain there is something wrong and no one else takes this seriously. Patients with dementia often cause problems because they wake up at night and try to go outside, or they may try to cook something and then forget theyve left the burner or oven on. More commonly they ask the same question repeatedly, driving their family crazy.
What Happens In Pdd
People with PDD may have trouble focusing, remembering things or making sound judgments. They may develop depression, anxiety or irritability. They may also hallucinate and see people, objects or animals that are not there. Sleep disturbances are common in PDD and can include difficulties with sleep/wake cycle or REM behavior disorder, which involves acting out dreams.
PDD is a disease that changes with time. A person with PDD can live many years with the disease. Research suggests that a person with PDD may live an average of 57 years with the disease, although this can vary from person to person.
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Is The Dementia Caused By Parkinsons Or Something Else
Indications that dementia may be caused by something other than Parkinsons disease include agitation, delusions , and language difficulties. If the onset of cognitive symptoms is sudden, theyre more likely due to something other than Parkinsons diseaseeven reversible causes such as infection, a vitamin B12 deficiency, or an underactive thyroid gland.
Depression can mimic dementia by causing similar symptoms such as apathy, memory problems, and concentration difficulties. Since depression is very common in Parkinsons patients, its important to recognize the signs and symptoms of depression in older adults.
Parkinsons disease dementia vs. other dementias
Other types of dementia that can be commonly mistaken for Parkinsons disease dementia include:
Lewy Body Dementia is characterized by fluctuations in alertness and attention, recurrent visual hallucinations, and Parkinsonian motor symptoms like rigidity and the loss of spontaneous movement. In this disorder, cognitive problems such as hallucinations tend to occur much earlier in the course of the disease and often precede difficulties with walking and motor control.
Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease are both common in the elderly, especially in those over 85. Patients with Parkinsons who develop dementia may even develop Alzheimers dementia as well. Therefore, its important to be aware of the signs of Alzheimers Disease and how its treated.
What Is Lewy Body Dementia
Lewy body dementia is not a single disorder but rather a spectrum of closely-related disorders involving disturbances of cognition, behavior, sleep, movement and autonomic function.
In these progressive disorders, Lewy bodies build up in the brain. Lewy bodies in the brain stem cause a disruption in the production of chemical messengers called dopamine. Too little dopamine can cause parkinsonism, a clinical syndrome thats characterized by tremor, bradykinesia , rigidity and postural instability. Parkinsonism can be caused by Parkinsons disease itself as well as by other underlying neurological conditions such as LBD.; These Lewy bodies are also found throughout other areas of the brain, including the cerebral cortex. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is also depleted, causing disruption of perception, thinking and behavior.
A German neurologist, Friederich H. Lewy, first discovered the abnormal protein deposits in the early 1900s as he was conducting research on Parkinsons disease.
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Visions Of The Future
Alzheimers and Parkinsons cause sweeping changes to the landscape of the brain before there are any behavioral shifts blood vessels atrophy, neurons die prematurely and snarls of misfolded proteins disrupt communication between surviving neurons. Current techniques for detecting these shifts, including PET imaging at $3,000 to $6,000, can identify Parkinsons and Alzheimers pathology in the brain before symptoms begin, but theyre too invasive and costly for widespread use. But identifying parallel changes in the retina is a different story.
Maya Koronyo-Hamaoui, a neuroscientist and professor of neurosurgery, studies early Alzheimers intervention and treatment at Cedars-Sinai. She and her team have pioneered a technique to visualize the plaques associated with Alzheimers in the retinal neurons of live patients with mild cognitive impairments, at a cost of about $285 a scan. All it requires is modified ophthalmological equipment and a lot of curry flavoring.
If Koronyo-Hamaouis imaging system seems low-tech to neuroscientists accustomed to PETs radioactive tracers and million-dollar scanners, Ruogu Fangs technique for Parkinsons screening is downright stone age.
Initial results suggest that computer algorithms are able to use these fundus images to distinguish Parkinsons patients from healthy controls with an accuracy upward of 70 percent.
Parkinsons And Lewy Body Dementia
Parkinsons disease is often associated with another illness known as Lewy Body Dementia . If you look at brain tissue under a microscope, its difficult to distinguish the cellular changes caused by Parkinsons disease from those caused by LBD. Doctors typically diagnose LBD based on symptoms: An individual who never exhibits any motor symptoms but develops dementia early on most likely has LBD.
In some cases, people living with LBD will have mild Parkinsons disease motor symptoms, such as a shuffling gait. People with LBD also tend to hallucinate more, and have a harder time multitasking, compared to people with other neurological diseases, like Alzheimers disease.
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Things You Should Know About The Link Between Parkinsons And Dementia
Both Parkinsons disease and dementia were ravaging the brain and behavior of actor Robin Williams before his death, but at the time, he didnt realize he had the latter.
Despite the fact that the signs of this combination can be confusing, the double diagnosis of Parkinsons and dementia impacts a large number of people. Of the one million people who have Parkinsons in the U.S., 50 to 80 percent may have dementiaeither as a result of Parkinsons pathology, or separately.
Robin Williams widow, Susan, wrote an editorial published in Neurology that was addressed to neurologists after his death. In it, she shared what it was like seeing her husband experience both Parkinsons disease and Lewy body dementia firsthand.
My hope is that it will help you understand your patients along with their spouses and caregivers a little more, Susan wrote.
Williams was first diagnosed with Parkinsons disease, which at first seemed to provide some answers for his out-of-character symptoms.
But it wasnt until after his death that an autopsy revealed he had been in the later stages of Lewy body dementiaa common form of dementia characterized by deposits of Lewy body proteins in the brain, which can impact physical movement, mood, memory and behavior.
I will never know the true depth of his suffering, nor just how hard he was fighting, Susan wrote. But from where I stood, I saw the bravest man in the world playing the hardest role of his life.
Evidence Of The Link Between Alzheimers Parkinsons Disease And Sleep Disorders
Its no secret that there is a strong relationship between sleep and neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease.
One of the best indicators of the clear relationship between the two is seen in that more than 80% of people with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder go on to develop Parkinsons, multiple system atrophy or dementia with Lewy bodies.
People who have RBD actually act of out their dreams, with their bodies failing to engage in the normal paralysis of REM sleep. This active dreaming often means larger health problems are on the horizon.
RBD is not the only indicator of the relationship. Even excessive daytime sleepiness,insomnia and interrupted sleep can be early indicators of cognitive decline. Researchers have thought that the sleep issues were a result of changes in the brain, either directly or brought about by medication for these diseases, but now, many are wondering if the relationship is more complex.
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Memory And Thinking Problems
You may experience forgetfulness, slowed thinking and difficulty concentrating. You might find it harder to follow conversations, and remember some words and names. This can make communication difficult.
You may also find it increasingly difficult to make decisions, plan activities and solve problems. This can make everyday activities harder.
Clinical And Pathological Overlap May Suggest Common Genetic And Environmental Factors
The label neurodegenerative is often used as an umbrella term for the distinct pathological conditions of Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and motor neurone disease. However, there has been speculation that all three conditions represent different phenotypic expressions of a common aetiology.1 Calne and colleagues have argued that these diseases are examples of selective, premature decay of functionally related populations of neurones due to interactions between the environment and the aging process.2 Their two component hypothesis postulates that environmental insults, such as infection or neurotoxins, partially deplete selected neuronal populations, and that age related degeneration results in further neuronal loss beyond a threshold necessary for clinical disease. This model argues that age related cell death is a common contributory factor for all three diseases, although there may be specific environmental factors for each condition.
Parkinson’s Alzheimer’s And Motor Neurone Disease
How Is Parkinson Disease Treated
Parkinson disease can’t be cured. But there are different therapies that can help control symptoms. Many of the medicines used to treat Parkinson disease help to offset the loss of the chemical dopamine in the brain. Most of these medicines help manage symptoms quite successfully.
A procedure called deep brain stimulation may also be used to treat Parkinson disease. It sends electrical impulses into the brain to help control tremors and twitching movements. Some people may need surgery to manage Parkinson disease symptoms. Surgery may involve destroying small areas of brain tissue responsible for the symptoms. However, these surgeries are rarely done since deep brain stimulation is now available.
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What Causes Gaucher Disease And Parkinsons Disease
Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disease, where one of the key enzymes within the lysosomes, glucocerebrosidase, doesnt function properly. As a result, lipids, or large, fatty molecules, are not broken down into smaller chemicals. These lipids accumulate first in the lysosomes, then throughout the cells in the body.
Parkinsons disease is a neurological condition characterized by a steady decline in cognitive and motor function. If you have Parkinsons disease, cells within your brain, called neurons, stop functioning as well as they did before. Eventually, they degrade and die.
Many neurons use chemicals called neurotransmitters to communicate with each other and with other cells in the brain. In the early stages of Parkinsons disease, neurons releasing dopamine are affected, leading to insufficient amounts of dopamine in the brain. People begin to develop the symptoms of Parkinsons disease, such as slowed movements, shuffling or unsteady gait , and resting tremors.
In later stages, patients can develop dementia. This condition is associated with tangles of a protein called synuclein that disrupt neural pathways and affect higher brain functions including memory.
What Are The Symptoms Of Parkinson Disease
Parkinson disease symptoms usually start out mild, and then progressively get much worse. The first signs are often so subtle that many people don’t seek medical attention at first. These are common symptoms of Parkinson disease:
- Tremors that affect the face and jaw, legs, arms, and hands
- Slow, stiff walking
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Ethics Approval And Consent To Participate
The present study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Taipei Veterans General Hospital . Obtaining written consent from the study participants was unnecessary because the NHI data set comprises de-identified secondary data for research directions. The Institutional Review Board of Taipei Veterans General Hospital issued a formal written waiver for the demand for consent.