Checking For Heart Valve Disease
In a separate study from Italy, researchers performed echocardiograms on Parkinson’s patients being treated with either ergot-derived or nonergot-derived dopamine-targeting drugs. An echocardiogram is an ultrasound of the heart which can provide information on the heart’s chambers and valves and how well blood is pumping through the heart.
Compared with an age-matched group without Parkinson’s disease, patients taking pergolide or cabergoline had significantly more evidence of heart valve disease.
Clinically important evidence of valve damage was seen in roughly 5% of the comparison group, compared with 23% of patients taking pergolide and 28% of patients taking cabergoline.
Garbe says it is clear from the two studies that patients taking either pergolide or cabergoline should be monitored closely for heart valve damage.
“We aren’t saying that these drugs should not be used,” she says. “I think if patients are appropriately followed they can be prescribed. But neurologists and other treating physicians have to be made aware of the risks.”
A spokesman for pergolide manufacturer Valeant Pharmaceuticals International tells WebMD that the company would have no direct comment on the two new studies. But a company statement reaffirmed the safety of the drug.
How Can We Reduce Mobility Constraints In People With Parkinsons Disease
Over the last few decades, neuroscience has been providing us with exciting new findings regarding the effects of physical exercise on neuroplasticity , neuroprotection and slowing of neural degeneration. In fact, it has been proven that physical exercise can improve brain function in people with neurological disorders.
Aerobic exercise, such as treadmill training and walking programs, have been tested on individuals with Parkinsons Disease and has been shown to improve gait and quality of life in general. However, the type of exercise chosen should take into account a specific program provided by a specialist. The exercise shouldnt, by any means, put the patients physical integrity at risk, especially if the patient is a senior. In order to address complex mobility issues in people with Parkinsons Disease, a therapist could incorporate tasks such as balance training into the patients rehabilitation. These are exercises that challenge sensorimotor control of dynamic balance and gait to improve mobility.
According to a study by Dr. Ergun Y. Uc, of the University of Iowa, the results suggest that
walking may provide a safe and easily accessible way of improving the symptoms of Parkinsons disease and quality of life.
What’s The Difference Between Memory Loss And Parkinson’s Dementia
Alzheimer’s dementia and Parkinson’s disease can both affect a person’s memory, but not in the same way.
Generally speaking, Parkinson’s dementia is not associated with the sort of memory loss that comes with Alzheimer’s, the most common form of dementia. Put differently: It doesn’t typically impact a person’s ability to absorb and store new memories or information the way Alzheimer’s does.;
“You can learn , but it’s difficult to retrieve the information that you have in your brain,”Irene Litvan, MD, director of the Movement Disorder Center at the University of California, San Diego, tells Health. “You may not know where the cassette is, but if somebody asks you, ‘Where were you when you lost it?’ You can say, ‘Oh, I was there.'”;
But that’s not to say Parkinson’s disease dementia doesn’t affect memory at all. On the contrary, some people with Parkinson’s dementia do indeed experience short- and long-term memory loss. They might also forget how to perform simple tasks, like how to run the dishwasher. And since Parkinson’s can affect people in different ways, there’s no way to tell whether someone with the disease will experience memory loss related to dementia.
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Hsn Deirmenci* Eftal Murat Bakirci And Hikmet Hamur
Cite this as
Parkinsons disease, which has symptoms and signs such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability, is the most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimers disease. In Parkinsons disease, pathological mechanisms such as abnormal accumulation of protein aggregates, disruption of protein clearance pathways, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial damage and genetic mutations lead to the formation of the clinic. Coronary artery disease, heart failure, cardiac autonomic dysfunction, heart failure, sudden death and hypertension can be seen in Parkinsons disease. Parkinsons disease leads to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. Dopaminergic drugs, non-dopaminergic drugs, growth factor support, stem cell therapy, gene therapy, exercise, diet and surgical treatment play an important role in the treatment of Parkinsons disease. This treatment helps to reduce cardiac effects.
Who Gets Parkinson’s Disease Dementia
No two cases of Parkinson’s are exactly alike, so it’s hard to say for sure who will develop Parkinson’s disease dementia and who will not. However, researchers have identified several factors that may increase a person’s risk for Parkinson’s disease dementia, including:
- Older age, especially at the time Parkinson’s symptoms began
- Being a man
- Advancing to late-stage Parkinson’s disease
- Experiencing visual hallucinations
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What Is Creatine Used For
When creatine was first discovered in 1832 by French philosopher and scientist, Michel Eugene Chevreul, it sparked many studies. One in particular found that more creatine was present in wild animals vs. domesticated, indicating that there was more creatine produced because wild animals exercised more.;
Subsequent tests in humans over the next several decades found that the use of creatine increased muscle mass. It was later concluded that the supplementation of creatine was helpful in treating medical conditions like muscular dystrophy and parkinsons. Athletes took notice, and began using it to increase muscle mass to better compete in their chosen sport. ;
Creatine role is to replenish the bodys reserves of ATP , the muscles ultimate energy source for short, explosive bursts of energy. And while recreational use of the supplement has increased over the years, creatine is more beneficial for high-performance athletes who are looking for a competitive edge.
Research Is Underway To Further Understand The Cardiac Effects Of Parkinsons
It is possible to image the sympathetic nervous system of the human heart by injecting a radioactive tracer, meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine, . Development of this technique, known as MIBG cardiac imaging, holds much promise as a test to confirm the diagnosis of PD , to identify those who are at risk of developing PD in the future, and to distinguish PD from related disorders. MIBG cardiac imaging is still considered an experimental procedure for detection of PD and is not yet in use as a clinical tool for this purpose.
A recent research study was conducted in monkeys in which the destruction of the sympathetic nerves of the heart was chemically induced to mimic the changes that are seen in PD. The cardiac system was then imaged using a number of new-generation radioactive tracers, which bind to markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. This model system may help to shed light on the molecular changes that accompany the loss of the sympathetic nerves of the heart and can also be used to track the response of the cardiac system to therapeutic agents.
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What Causes Parkinson’s Disease Dementia
Doctors don’t yet know the exact cause of Parkinson’s disease dementia, but they think it has to do with an accumulation of a protein called alpha-synuclein. When it builds up in the brain, it can create clumps called “Lewy bodies” in nerve cells, causing them to die.
The death of those cells usually results in the motor symptoms typically associated with Parkinson’s disease. As Parkinson’s disease progresses, those Lewy bodies may eventually damage the brain and cause problems with memory and thinking.
While many people with Parkinson’s disease experience cognitive changes, not all of them will go on to develop dementia. It’s estimated that between 50% and 80% of individuals with the disease eventually develop Parkinson’s disease dementia, usually in the later stages of the disease.
The Heart As A Hormonal Gland
In addition to its extensive neurological interactions, the heart also communicates with the brain and body biochemically by way of the hormones it produces. Although not typically thought of as an endocrine gland, the heart actually manufactures and secretes a number of hormones and neurotransmitters that have a wide-ranging impact on the body as a whole.
The heart was reclassified as part of the hormonal system in 1983, when a new hormone produced and secreted by the atria of the heart was discovered. This hormone has been called by several different names atrial natriuretic factor , atrial natriuretic peptide and atrial peptide. Nicknamed the balance hormone, it plays an important role in fluid and electrolyte balance and helps regulate the blood vessels, kidneys, adrenal glands and many regulatory centers in the brain. Increased atrial peptide inhibits the release of stress hormones, reduces sympathetic outflow and appears to interact with the immune system. Even more intriguing, experiments suggest atrial peptide can influence motivation and behavior.
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The Last Year Of Life In Parkinson’s Disease
The study also examined nearly 45,000 hospitalizations in people with terminal Parkinson’s, meaning their end-of-life period.
Of those with terminal PD, the most common reasons for being in the hospital were:
- Heart disease
- Lung disease that was not from an infection
Less common causes for hospitalization were problems related to the stomach or intestines, muscles, nervous system, or endocrine system .
It is not surprising that infection was the most common hospitalization before death, as people with Parkinson’s are vulnerable to developing a number of infections as a result of their disease. For example, bladder dysfunction in Parkinson’s increases a person’s risk of developing urinary tract infections, which can become life-threatening if not detected and treated promptly.
In addition, research suggests that aspiration pneumonia is 3.8 times more common in people with Parkinson’s as compared to the general population. It has also been consistently reported to be the main cause of death in people with Parkinson’s.
Aspiration;pneumonia;results from underlying swallowing difficulties, which leads to stomach contents being inhaled into the lungs. Immobilization and rigidity, which can impair phlegm removal, also contribute to the development of pneumonia in people with Parkinson’s.
The Effect Of Creatine On The Heart
There have been some concerns about the use of creatine with some believing there is a link to; increased heart rate and blood pressure. This is due to the fact that the supplement is used primarily to increase the intensity of workouts. However, researchers have found no direct link between creatine use and heart problems, but rather attribute it to athletes overtraining.;
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First What Is Creatine
Creatine is a combination of the three amino acids, glycine, arginine, and methionine, and is produced by our own bodies. This same process that occurs in our bodies to produce creatine also happens inside animals we eat, such as herring, salmon, tuna, and beef. This is where we get the supplement that is widely used by athletes today.
Heat Is Hard On The Heart; Simple Precautions Can Ease The Strain
- By Harvard Health Publishing Staff, Harvard Health
Heat waves are unpleasant for healthy folks. For people with cardiovascular trouble, hazy, hot, humid days can be downright dangerous.
Your body shouldnt get too hot . If your temperature rises too far, the proteins that build your body and run virtually all of its chemical processes can stop working. The human body sheds extra heat in two ways, both of which stress the heart:
Radiation.;Like water flowing downhill, heat naturally moves from warm areas to cooler ones. As long as the air around you is cooler than your body, you radiate heat to the air. But this transfer stops when the air temperature approaches body temperature.
Radiation requires rerouting blood flow so more of it goes to the skin. This makes the heart beat faster and pump harder. On a hot day, it may circulate two to four times as much blood each minute as it does on a cool day.
Evaporation.;Every molecule of sweat that evaporates from your skin whisks away heat. On a dry day, the evaporation of a teaspoon of sweat could cool your entire bloodstream by 2 degrees F. But as the humidity creeps above 75% or so, theres so much water vapor in the air that evaporation becomes increasingly difficult.
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How Does Stress Affect My Nervous System
Maybe you have too many deadlines piling up at work. Perhaps your relationship with a loved one is not in the best place. Or like a lot of us, theres a lot of uncertainty in your life right now. Sometimes we find ourselves getting caught up in the details, and this can stress us out. You may know that chronic stress is a big risk factor for heart disease, obesity, and depression. But how exactly does stress interact with our nervous system to enact changes in our body?
What Causes Wpw Syndrome
When the heart beats, its muscular walls contract to force blood out and around the body. They then relax, allowing the heart to fill with blood again. This is controlled by electrical signals.
In WPW syndrome, there’s an extra electrical connection in the heart, which;allows electrical signals to bypass the usual route and form a short circuit. This means the signals travel;round and round in a loop, causing episodes where the heart beats very fast.
The;extra electrical;connection is caused by a strand of heart muscle that grows while the unborn baby is developing in the womb.
It’s not clear exactly why this happens. It;just seems to occur randomly in some babies, although rare cases have been found to run in families.
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Cardiac Sympathetic Nervous System
The sympathetic nervous system is the component of the ANS that is responsible for controlling the human bodys reaction to situations of stress or emergency , while the parasympathetic nervous system is generally responsible for basal organ system function.
Cardiac sympathetic preganglionic nerves emerge from the upper thoracic segments of the spinal cord . After traveling a short distance, preganglionic fibers leave the spinal nerves through branches called white rami and enter sympathetic ganglia. The cardiac sympathetic neurons form the sympathetic chain ganglia located along the side of the viscera column . These ganglia comprise the sympatheric trunks with their connecting fibers. The postganglionic fibers, extend to the viscera, such as the heart. In general, sympathetic preganglionic neurons are shorter than sympathetic postganglionic neurons .
Sympathetic receptors: There are two types of adrenergic receptors: and . In the cardiovascular system there are 1, 2, 1, and 2 adrenergic receptors .
Multiple Sclerosis Has Close Association With Increased Risks Of Heart Failure And Stroke
A few of the research studies have revealed that multiple sclerosis has close association with increased risk related to admission of patients in hospital for heart attack, stroke and heart failure, which suggest that early diagnosis of various cardiovascular impairments is essential to come with the required preventative care in them.
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Changes In Heart Rate And Its Regulation By The Autonomic Nervous System Do Not Differ Between Forced And Voluntary Exercise In Mice
- 1Department of Exercise Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
- 2Division of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada
- 3Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada
NEW AND NOTEWORTHY
No previous mouse studies have compared the effects of forced and voluntary exercise on the heart function and its modulation by the autonomic nervous system .
Both voluntary free-wheel running and forced swimming induced similar improvements in ventricular contractile function, reductions in heart rate and enhancements of HR variability .
HR regulation in exercised mice was linked to increased parasympathetic nerve activity and reduced sympathetic nerve activity.
HRV was independent of HR and depended primarily on PNA in both exercised and sedentary mice.
Complete cardiac autonomic blockade eliminated differences in both HR and HRV between exercised and sedentary mice.
Characteristics Of The Population
This was an observational, cross-sectional, comparative pilot study carried-out in an ambulatory setting. Non-demented PD patients were consecutively recruited from our department. Patients with suspected atypical or secondary parkinsonism were excluded, as well as those with comorbidities known to influence HRV , or those patients taking drugs that are known to reduce HRV . Similar exclusion criteria were used for healthy controls , who were matched 1:1 for sex and age to PD patients. All the participants gave their informed consent to participate in the study. The study was approved by the local ethics committee and conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.
During the study period, 127 patients were evaluated. Overall, 104 patients were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria . Five of the final 23 patients invited, refused to participate in the study.
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Creatine And Its Effects On The Heart
In the mid 1990s creatine was introduced to the United States full throttle when an estimated 80 percent of Olympic athletes competing in the 1996 Games used it to enhance their performances. Since then, creatine has had both good and bad press. There are those who have sought to ban it as an illegal performance enhancing substance, while many have been proponents of it as a safe and natural product for athletes.
But, who is right? Is creatine safe or should athletes use caution? Moreover, for the purpose of this article, what is its effect on the heart, if any?;
What Is The Outlook For Persons With Parkinsons Disease
Although there is no cure or absolute evidence of ways to prevent Parkinsons disease, scientists are working hard to learn more about the disease and find innovative ways to better manage it, prevent it from progressing and ultimately curing it.
Currently, you and your healthcare teams efforts are focused on medical management of your symptoms along with general health and lifestyle improvement recommendations . By identifying individual symptoms and adjusting the course of action based on changes in symptoms, most people with Parkinsons disease can live fulfilling lives.
The future is hopeful. Some of the research underway includes:
- Using stem cells to produce new neurons, which would produce dopamine.
- Producing a dopamine-producing enzyme that is delivered to a gene in the brain that controls movement.
- Using a naturally occurring human protein glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, GDNF to protect dopamine-releasing nerve cells.
Many other investigations are underway too. Much has been learned, much progress has been made and additional discoveries are likely to come.
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