What Is Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Progressive supranuclear palsy is a rare brain disorder that causes problems with movement, walking and balance, and eye movement. It results from damage to nerve cells in the brain that control thinking and body movement. The disorders long name indicates that the disease worsens and causes weakness by damaging certain parts of the brain above nerve cell clusters called nuclei that control eye movements.
PSP is different than Parkinsons diseaseanother movement disorderalthough they share some symptoms . Currently there is no effective treatment for PSP, but some symptoms can be managed with medication or other interventions.
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Epidemiology Of Depression In Ms
Many of the earlier studies into prevalence of depression in MS were subject to considerable ascertainment bias. Two recent, community based studies have addressed this problem to some extent. In the first study, subjects from a large community sample were evaluated using the Center for Epidemiological Studiesdepression scale , which is used to screen for depression in primary care. Forty one per cent of respondents had depression with a subgroup of 30% having moderate or severe depression . Depression was related to shorter duration of illness. Patten et al obtained data from the Canadian community health survey, which looked at health in 115 071 people. The prevalence of depression in MS in this study was 25%. Rates of depression are higher in nursing home settings and one study noted that younger people with MS were more likely to be depressed than their older counterparts with similar levels of physical disability.
Dementia With Lewy Bodies
- Dementia with Lewy bodies is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder in which abnormal deposits of a protein called alpha-synuclein;build up in multiple areas of the brain.
- DLB first causes progressive problems with memory and fluctuations in thinking, as well as hallucinations. These symptoms are joined later in the course of the disease by parkinsonism with slowness, stiffness and other symptoms similar to PD.
- While the same abnormal protein is found in the brains of those with PD, when individuals with PD develop memory and thinking problems it tends to occur later in the course of their disease.
- There are no specific treatments for DLB. Treatment focuses on symptoms.
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Parkinsons & Restless Leg Syndrome: Using Dopaminergic Medication
Because RLS is well-treated by medications that also treat PD, it is likely that some aspect of brain dopamine function is altered in RLS. However, unlike in PD, in which the deficit in substantia nigra dopamine-producing cells can be proven in many ways, no such abnormality has been shown in RLS. For example, studies show that DaTscan results are not abnormal in RLS.
Using dopaminergic medications to treat RLS however can be tricky. In some people they can lead to a phenomenon known as augmentation, in which long term use of dopaminergic medications can worsen the symptoms making them appear earlier in the day or migrating to the upper body in addition to the legs.
Diagnosis Of Depression In Parkinsons Disease
Diagnosing depression in PD can be particularly difficult because of the clinical overlap between the two syndromes.
Symptoms that are common to both depression and idiopathic Parkinsons disease include motor slowing, bradyphrenia, sleep and appetite disturbance, weight loss, loss of interest and concentration, and reduced libido. The body language of depression looks similar to that of PD at first glance. The patient often appears hunched with a lack of an obvious affective response and spontaneity .
Symptoms that may help in the diagnosis of depression in people with PD include;
pervasive low mood with diurnal variation
early morning wakening
pessimistic thoughts about the world, themselves, and the future
Table 1 lists the Diagnostic and statistical manual, 4th revision criteria for major depressive episode.
DSM-IV criteria for major depressive episode
Depression should be considered in any patient whose function deteriorates notably over a few days or weeks.
Differential diagnosis of depression in Parkinsons disease
A variety of mood disorders have been described in the setting of neurosurgery for PD. These include transient dysphoria during surgery . More chronic changes in mood have also been described following pallidotomy and deep brain stimulation although definitive studies have not been performed in this area.
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Is There A Link
Some people have MS and Parkinsonâs, but it could be a coincidence.
Research suggests that the damage that MS causes to your brain can lead some people to develop Parkinsonâs later on.
If you have MS, your immune system triggers ongoing inflammation. This can create lesions in your brain that cause Parkinsonâs disease. If lesions form in certain spots in your brain, they can affect how it makes dopamine.
Depression In Parkinsons Disease
Diagnosis and management of depression in Parkinsons disease is important for two main reasons: firstly, depression is common in PD , and secondly depression causes significant morbidity in terms of quality of life, disability , and carer stress. This effect is independent from the effect of motor disability.
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How Do You Diagnose These Diseases
Both diseases can be difficult to diagnose, and they require a neurology workup and medical history. You might have some brain imaging or blood tests to rule out other causes for your symptoms.
For MSA, doctors will test your autonomic functions, like how well you produce sweat and how well your body maintains a stable blood pressure when you stand up after sitting or lying down.5 Parkinsons doesnt have a specific test for diagnosis. Sometimes doctors will prescribe anti-Parkinsons medication and diagnose Parkinsons if it helps improve your symptoms.1
Incidence And Prevalence: Als Compared With Parkinsons
All neurodegenerative diseases are conditions where there is an impact on the brain and/or the central nervous system.
According to statistics, ALS currently affects around 30,000 people in the USA, with around 6,000 new cases being identified each year.
Parkinsons Disease affects around a million people in America and there are about 60,000 new cases annually.
Famous individuals affected by Parkinsons include Michael J Fox and Scottish comedian Billy Connelly. In terms of ALS, the late Professor Stephen Hawking was one prominent public figure who had been diagnosed with a form of ALS. The late legendary US baseball player Lou Gehrig was also diagnosed with ALS and subsequently the condition has been commonly referred to as Lou Gehrigs disease ever since.
Parkinsons is perhaps a much more well known condition, due to its increased prevalence throughout the world, however ALS has received a lot more attention and awareness since the Ice Bucket Challenge which went viral on social media during the summer of 2014.
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Months Of Reduced And Cancelled Care Having Devastating Impact On Abandoned Parkinsons And Ms Communities
People with two of the most prevalent neurodegenerative conditions in England are suffering the consequences of having their vital social care slashed during the Covid-19 lockdown.;
In a survey of more than 2000 people affected by Parkinsons, nearly half who received formal care from a local authority before the pandemic said they were now receiving a reduced amount of care. A separate survey of people living with multiple sclerosis during the peak of the pandemic, meanwhile, revealed that nearly 1 in 5 had their care and support reduced or cancelled.
Furthermore, more than two-thirds of families, friends and unpaid carers of people with Parkinsons said they have taken on more caring responsibilities since the Covid-19 restrictions started. Of those, 42% said the coronavirus restrictions were negatively affecting their mental health, while more than a third said at least one of their debilitating symptoms got worse.;
Claire Hovey and her husband Chris have moved in with Chriss mother, Denise, in Winchester for the duration of lock down.
Steve Ford, Chief Executive of Parkinsons UK, said: This pandemic has revealed an under-funded social care system, with staff trying to deliver care. However it has fallen short at a time when people need it most.
To ensure no one is forgotten, the Government needs to establish a post-lockdown recovery plan, as it has done for health services.
Peripheral Neuropathy And Parkinsons Disease
A number of studies have tried to determine if PN is more common among people with PD as opposed to people without PD. PN is a relatively common condition in the general population, which makes it difficult to ascertain whether or not it is even more common among people with PD.
The available studies have varying results and are difficult to compare with each other as they:
- Include different types of populations of people with PD
- Assess peripheral neuropathy differently
- Assess for causes of peripheral neuropathy differently
A recent review looked at all the available data and determined that large fiber neuropathy was present in 16% of patients with PD, about double the prevalence of this condition in the general population. Skin biopsy-proven small fiber neuropathy was present in over 50% of people with PD, although this result was based on a small sample of patients.
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Neuromyelitis Optica And Adem
In NMO, which was once considered a form of MS, the attack on myelin is contained to the spinal cord and optic nerve in the beginning stages. While almost all symptoms are identical to MS, cognitive functions are retained, while symptoms like vomiting and hiccups accompany NMO. The disease is also treated very differently. In ADEM , symptoms have a more rapid onset than in MS, due to a severe attack of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord. However, ADEM occurs more often in children and likely comes on after an infection, whether viral or bacterial.
Gait In People With Ms
Long double-support time, slow gait speed, and short swing time were significantly different daily life gait measures in MS from MS-Ctl. Indeed, gait speed double-support time and swing time as a percent of the gait cycle all discriminated gait in people with MS from gait in healthy control people over a week of daily life with a similar, excellent area under the curve . In contrast, in the laboratory, the toe-off angle was the only laboratory gait measure that discriminated our mild-moderate MS from MS-Ctl group during comfortable-pace gait after Bonferronis correction for 13 gait characteristics. This result is consistent with our previous report of a small toe-off angle in a separate group of people with MS during a 2-min walk in the laboratory . The toe-off angle is a surrogate for the push-off phase of gait produced by the power in the gastrocnemius-soleus complex, responsible for stride length and gait speed.
Pool Therapy For Parkinsons Patients
Like Alzheimers, Parkinsons disease tends to be progressive in nature. Disturbing the neurons in the brain, Parkinsons slowly robs patients of balance, muscle control and motor functions. As has been noted by the Parkinsons Center for Disease, there is a two to four percent increased risk for Parkinsons disease among people over the age of 60. Therefore, senior living facilities often have a large number of people in various stages of the disease.
Although no one is quite certain why Parkinsons occurs, genetic links are suspected. Other factors that can lead to the condition appear to be repeated head trauma, and long-term exposure to environmentally-hazardous materials like pesticides, heavy metals and cleaning solvents. If patients with Parkinsons live long enough, they may reach the point where they are bedridden or wheelchair-bound.
To combat the symptoms of Parkinsons without adding more pharmaceuticals to a patients treatment, numerous physical therapists and exercise experts are introducing seniors with the disease to water-based exercises and rehabilitation plans. In a HydroWorx pool with variable-depth floor, a patient who cannot safely move freely on land can enjoy some independence, security and control in the pool. Best of all, regular exercise provides improved balance, delayed progression and improved dopamine release/uptake.
What Is Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease , the most common form of dementia among older adults, is an irreversible degeneration of the brain that causes disruptions in memory, cognition, personality, and other functions that eventually lead to death from complete brain failure. Genetic and environmental factors including diet, activity, smoking, traumatic brain injury, diabetes, and other medical diseases contribute to the risk of developing this form of the disease. The hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease are the accumulation of beta-amyloid plaques between nerve cells in the brain and neurofibrillary tangles, which are twisted fibers found inside the brain’s cells). These tangles consist primarily of a protein called tau.
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Risk Factors For Depression In Ms
There appears to be a complex relation between disability, pain, fatigue, perception about prognosis, location of lesion, and depression in MS. Most of the magnetic resonance imaging studies have not located a depressogenic MS lesion except for a possible relation between severity of depression and right temporal lesions.
Parkinson’s Disease And Multiple Sclerosis: Conditions And Differences
Its important to note that, while both Parkinsons and multiple sclerosis are diseases of the CNS, they dont originate in the same way. MS is an autoimmune disease, brought on by the immune system attacking myelin, the protective coating over the nerves in the CNS that also speeds up signals. This affects mainly the brain and spinal cord, though it can also affect the optic nerve as well. In Parkinsons disease, the neurons in the brain die off without any known attack, with the lack of dopamine they produce leading to the onset of the disease. This doesnt affect nerves in the spinal cord.
Other notable differences include:
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Parkinsons Disease Vs Als Differences In Symptoms Causes And Treatment
Written byDevon AndrePublished onJuly 25, 2016
Parkinsons disease and ALS can cause difficulties in movement and are both known to be progressive neurological diseases.
ALS is part of a cluster of disorders known as motor neuron diseases that involve;gradual degeneration and death of motor neurons. In a healthy individual, messages from motor neurons in the brain are transmitted to the motor neurons in the spinal cord and sent to the particular muscles. In ALS, this communication degenerates and cells begin to die. As a result, the message that is transmitted is incomplete. Unable to function, the muscles begin to weaken and waste away over time. Eventually, communication from the brain to muscles is lost completely.
In its early stage, ALS also known as Lou Gehrigs disease may appear as Parkinsons disease, which is also a neurological disease similar to ALS. Here we will outline the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for both ALS and Parkinsons disease to help you understand the differences between the two.
Summary Ms Vs Parkinsons
Multiple Sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune, T-cell mediated inflammatory disease affecting the Central Nervous System. Parkinsons disease is a movement disorder characterized by a decline in the dopamine level of the brain. Multiple sclerosis, as stated in its definition, is an autoimmune disease but Parkinsons disease is not an autoimmune disease. This is the major difference between MS and Parkinsons.
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Comparing Multiple Sclerosis And Parkinsons Disease Causes
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the myelin, causing damage and thus exposing nerve fibers. Like many autoimmune diseases, the exact cause is unknown, but;environmental, immunologic, infectious,;and;genetic factors;have all been found to play a role in the onset of multiple sclerosis.
When certain nerve cells in the brain begin to die or break down that is what causes Parkinsons disease, but why this occurs is unclear. Some factors that contribute to nerve cell death include genetics as specific gene mutations have been identified to contribute to Parkinsons disease, environmental factors such as exposure to certain toxins, the presence of Lewy bodies in the brain as well as alpha-synuclein found in Lewy bodies.
Usask Researchers Offer Online Support Program For People With Ms Parkinsons And Spinal Cord Injury
During the COVID-19 pandemic, University of Saskatchewan researchers in physiotherapy, rehabilitation science, and neurology are combining their expertise to provide a free online, virtual program to people with neurological conditions.
USask Research Profile and Impact Apr 22, 2020
The program;NeuroSask: Active and Connected;will begin on April 23. It involves a twice-weekly videoconference consisting of a physiotherapist-guided movement class, followed by an interactive session with guest medical or wellness experts and local artists, or a social activity.;;;
Project co-leads USask physiotherapist Dr.;Sarah Donkers and physical medicine and rehabilitation expert Dr. Katherine Knox recognized the gap in physical activity options during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for people with existing mobility restrictions.;;
The ultimate goal is;to;provide;people;who have;Multiple Sclerosis , Parkinsons disease, and spinal cord injuries with access to support and health experts while their in-person;exercise and;support;programs;are closed, said Donkers.;;
The first 30 minutes of each workshop will feature;movements targeting;people;with mobility impairments, which;will;be done while seated, and;evidence-based;information on;the;importance of maintaining physical activity;for;people with;neurological;conditions.;;
This is a venue to hear peoples needs, and theres also a support;and community connection;aspect, helping people to;find and;help each other,;said Donkers.;
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Is There A Cure For Parkinsons
Theres currently no cure for Parkinsons, a disease that is chronic and worsens over time. More than 50,000 new cases are reported in the United States each year. But there may be even more, since Parkinsons is often misdiagnosed.
Its reported that Parkinsons complications was the
Complications from Parkinsons can greatly reduce quality of life and prognosis. For example, individuals with Parkinsons can experience dangerous falls, as well as blood clots in the lungs and legs. These complications can be fatal.
Proper treatment improves your prognosis, and it increases life expectancy.
It may not be possible to slow the progression of Parkinsons, but you can work to overcome the obstacles and complications to have a better quality of life for as long as possible.
Parkinsons disease is not fatal. However, Parkinsons-related complications can shorten the lifespan of people diagnosed with the disease.
Having Parkinsons increases a persons risk for potentially life threatening complications, like experiencing:
Parkinsons often causes problems with daily activities. But very simple exercises and stretches may help you move around and walk more safely.